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Journal Article

Experimental and Numerical Investigation of the Under Hood Flow with Heat Transfer for a Scaled Tractor-Trailer

Aerodynamic design and thermal management are some of the most important tasks when developing new concepts for the flow around tractor-trailers. Today, both experimental and numerical studies are an integral part of the aerodynamic and thermal design processes. A variety of studies have been conducted how the aerodynamic design reduces the drag coefficient for fuel efficiency as well as for the construction of radiators to provide cooling on tractor-trailers. However, only a few studies cover the combined effect of the aerodynamic and thermal design on the air temperature of the under hood flow [8, 13, 16, 17, 20]. The objective of this study is to analyze the heat transfer through forced convection for a scaled Cab-over-Engine (CoE) tractor-trailer model with under hood flow. Different design concepts are compared to provide low under hood air temperature and efficient cooling of the sub components.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Investigations for Analysis of Temperature Rise on the Traction Contact Surface of Toroidal Cvts

Temperature rise in traction contact areas is one important factor that influences traction coefficient. For examining the influence of temperature rise on the traction coefficient, it is necessary to first clarify temperature rise in the traction contact area. In this article, temperature rise in the traction contact areas is discussed in three major parts. First, measured temperature distributions on the traction contact surface under conditions of high rolling speed and minute amounts of sliding and spinning, such as those which are found in a toroidal CVT, using a twin-disc test machine and thin-film platinum sensors are shown. Second, the above experimental results are compared with results from a traction analysis program (REIB99). Characteristics of calculated results were qualitatively in good agreement with measured results.
Technical Paper

Equations and Methods for Testing Hydrogen Fuel Consumption using Exhaust Emissions

Although hydrogen ICE engines have existed in one sort or another for many years, the testing of fuel consumption by way of exhaust emissions is not yet a proven method. The current consumption method for gasoline- and diesel-fueled vehicles is called the Carbon-Balance method, and it works by testing the vehicle exhaust for all carbon-containing components. Through conservation of mass, the carbon that comes out as exhaust must have gone in as fuel. Just like the Carbon-Balance method for gas and diesel engines, the new Hydrogen-Balance equation works on the principle that what goes into the engine must come out as exhaust components. This allows for fuel consumption measurements without direct contact with the fuel. This means increased accuracy and simplicity. This new method requires some modifications to the testing procedures and CVS (Constant Volume Sampling) system.
Technical Paper

Experiments and Simulation of Hydraulic Cam Phasing Systems

In this work, the dynamics of hydraulic cam phasing systems are analyzed. First there will be introduced an experimental test rig, which is used to analyze the dynamical behavior of the cam phasers. The examined cam phaser, which operates like a slewing motor, is supplied with conditioned oil that matches real engine operation points. Secondly, a modular simulation approach for the cam phasing system and the whole valve train is presented. Additionally parameter studies are shown.
Technical Paper

The Development of BMW Catalyst Concepts for LEV / ULEV and EU III / IV Legislations 6 Cylinder Engine with Close Coupled Main Catalyst

To meet LEV and EU Stage III emission requirements, it is necessary for new catalytic converters to be designed which exceed light-off temperature as quickly as possible. The technical solutions are secondary air injection, active heating systems such as the electrically heated catalytic converter, and the close coupled catalytic converter. Engine control functions are extensively used to heat the converter and will to play a significant role in the future. The concept of relocating the converter to a position close to the engine in an existing vehicle involves new conflicts. Examples include the space requirements, the thermal resistance of the catalytic coating and high temperature loads in the engine compartment.
Technical Paper

On-Line Analysis of Formaldehyde and Acetaldehyde in Non-Stationary Engine Operation Using Laser Mass Spectrometry

Time-resolved concentrations of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in the exhaust gas have been investigated during transient motor operation, such as sudden change of speed and load, misfiring and switching off the fuel mixture control. To this purpose, a new laser mass spectrometer has been applied which is capable of measuring the concentrations of individual exhaust compounds with 1 ppm sensitivity at a sampling rate of 50 Hz corresponding to a sampling period of 20 ms. At sudden speed changes, high concentrations of aldehydes are observed, in particular during the phase of decreasing speed, i.e. after closing the throttle valve.
Technical Paper

A New Method for the Investigation of Unburned Oil Emissions in the Raw Exhaust of SI Engines

The study of oil emission is of essential interest for the engine development of modern cars, as well as for the understanding of hydrocarbon emissions especially during cold start conditions. A laser mass spectrometer has been used to measure single aromatic hydrocarbons in unconditioned exhaust gas of a H2-fueled engine at stationary and transient motor operation. These compounds represent unburned oil constituents. The measurements were accompanied by FID and GC-FID measurements of hydrocarbons which represent the burned oil constituents. The total oil consumption has been determined by measuring the oil sampled by freezing and weighing. It has been concluded that only 10 % of the oil consumption via exhaust gas has burned in the cylinders. A correlation of the emission of single oil-based components at ppb level detected with the laser mass spectrometer to the total motor oil emission has been found.
Technical Paper

Energy Consumption of Electro-Hydraulic Steering Systems

The reduction of fuel consumption in vehicles remains an important target in vehicle development to meet the carbon dioxide emission reduction target. One of the significant consumers of energy in a vehicle is the hydraulic power-assisted steering system (HPS) powered by the engine belt drive. To reduce the energy consumption an electric motor can be used to drive the pump (electro-hydraulic power steering or EHPS). In this work a simulation model was developed and validated to model the energy consumption of the whole steering system. This includes an advanced friction model for the steering rack, a physically modeled steering valve, the hydraulic pump and the electric motor with the control unit. The model is used to investigate the influence of various parameters on the energy consumption for different road situations. The results identified the important parameters influencing the power consumption and showed the potential to reduce the power consumption of the system.
Technical Paper

Artificial Intelligence for Combustion Engine Control

Existing electronic combustion engine control systems only guarantee a desired air-to-fuel-ratio λ in stationary operation. In order to achieve the desired λ also in in-stationary use of the engine, it is necessary to use new-technology-based control systems. Artificial Intelligence provides methods to cope with difficulties like wide operation range, unknown nonlinearities and time delay. We will propose a strategy for control of a Spark Ignition Engine to determine the mass of air inside the combustion chambers with the highest accuracy. Since Neural Networks are universal approximators for multidimensional nonlinear static functions they can be used effectively for identification and compensation purposes of unknown nonlinearities in closed control loops.
Technical Paper

Transient Air-Fuel Ratio Control Using Artificial Intelligence

In order to reduce emissions of spare ignition engines using a three way catalyst, a stoichiometric air-fuel ratio must be guaranteed in stationary and transient operation of the engine. This aim can be reached by using a specific feed-forward structure for the control of the paths of air and fuel based on identification abilities of Artificial Intelligence. As approximators for multidimensional nonlinear static functions we will use specific Neural Networks (NN) together with sophisticated stability-proven learning structures. The acquired knowledge within the NN determines our control action mainly through using feed-forward structures. Our investigations are based on the so-called mean-value-modelling approach of SI engines; it is our aim to present this strategy.
Technical Paper

Local Gaussian Process Regression in Order to Model Air Charge of Turbocharged Gasoline SI Engines

A local Gaussian process regression approach is presented, which allows to model nonlinearities of internal combustion engines more accurate than global Gaussian process regression. By building smaller models, the prediction of local system behavior improves significantly. In order to predict a value, the algorithm chooses the nearest training points. The number of chosen training points depends on the intensity of estimated nonlinearity. After determining the training points, a model is built, the prediction performed and the model discarded. The approach is demonstrated with a benchmark system and air charge test bed measurements. The measurements are taken from a turbocharged SI gasoline engine with both variable inlet valve lift and variable inlet and exhaust valve opening angle. The results show how local Gaussian process regression outmatches global Gaussian process regression concerning model quality and nonlinearities in particular.
Technical Paper

Identification of Aging Effects in Common Rail Diesel Injectors Using Geometric Classifiers and Neural Networks

Aging effects such as coking or cavitation in the nozzle of common rail (CR) diesel injectors deteriorate combustion performance. This is of particular relevance when it comes to complying with emission legislation and demonstrates the need for detecting and compensating aging effects during operation. The first objective of this paper is to analyze the influence of worn nozzles on the injection rate. Therefore, measurements of commercial solenoid common rail diesel injectors with different nozzles are carried out using an injection rate analyzer of the Bosch type. Furthermore, a fault model for typical aging effects in the nozzle of the injector is presented together with two methods to detect and identify these effects. Both methods are based on a multi-domain simulation model of the injector. The needle lift, the control piston lift and the pressure in the lower feed line are used for the fault diagnosis.
Technical Paper

Extensive Investigation of a Common Rail Diesel Injector Regarding Injection Characteristics and the Resulting Influences on the Dual Fuel Pilot Injection Combustion Process

Natural gas and especially biogas combustion can be seen as one of the key technologies towards climate-neutral energy supply. With its extensive availability, biogas is amongst the most important renewable energy sources in the present energy mix. Today, the use of gaseous fuels is widely established, for example in cogeneration units for combined heat and power generation. In contrast to conventional spark plug ignition, the combustion can also be initialized by a pilot injection. In order to further increase engine efficiency, this article describes the process for a targeted optimization of the pilot fuel injection. One of the crucial points for a more efficient dual fuel combustion process, is to optimize the amount of pilot injection in order to increase overall engine efficiency, and therefore decrease fuel consumption. In this connection, the injection system plays a key role.
Technical Paper

An Efficient Test Methodology for Combustion Engine Testing: Methods for Increasing Measurement Quality and Validity at the Engine Test Bench

Improving fuel efficiency while meeting relevant emission limits set by emissions legislation is among the main objectives of engine development. Simultaneously the development costs and development time have to be steadily reduced. For these reasons, the high demands in terms of quality and validity of measurements at the engine test bench are continuously rising. This paper will present a new methodology for efficient testing of an industrial combustion engine in order to improve the process of decision making for combustion-relevant component setups. The methodology includes various modules for increasing measurement quality and validity. Modules like stationary point detection to determine steady state engine behavior, signal quality checks to monitor the signal quality of chosen measurement signals and plausibility checks to evaluate physical relations between several measurement signals ensure a high measurement quality over all measurements.
Technical Paper

Common Rail Diesel Injectors with Nozzle Wear: Modeling and State Estimation

This study discusses model-based injection rate estimation in common rail diesel injectors exhibiting aging phenomena. Since they result in unexpected injection behavior, aging effects like coking or cavitation may impair combustion performance, which justifies the need for new modeling and estimation approaches. To predict injection characteristics, a simulation model for the bottom section of the injector is introduced, with a main focus on modeling the hydraulic components. Using rail pressure and control piston lift as inputs, a reduced model is then derived in state-space representation, which may be used for the application of an observer in hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) environments. Both models are compared and validated with experimental data, with which they show good agreement. Aging effects and nozzle wear, which result in model uncertainties, are considered using a fault model in combination with an extended Kalman filter (EKF) observer scheme.
Technical Paper

FlexRay - The Communication System for Advanced Automotive Control Systems

BMW, DaimlerChrysler, Motorola and Philips present their joint development activity related to the FlexRay communication system that is intended for distributed applications in vehicles. The designated applications for powertrain and chassis control place requirements in terms of availability, reliability and data bandwidth that cannot be met by any product currently available on the market under the testing conditions encountered in an automobile. A short look back on events so far is followed by a description of the protocol and its first implementation as an integrated circuit, as well as its incorporation into a complete tool environment.
Technical Paper

ECU Integrated DSP Based Measurement System for Combustion Analysis

For development of new engines a ‘general purpose ECU’ for spark ignition engines with up to 12 cylinders has been developed. As part of this ECU a DSP (Digital Signal Processor)-based measurement unit for high frequency combustion analysis has been integrated. In this paper, details about this signal processing platform are given. The DSP-unit has 24 analog input channels. 12 channels are used for cylinder pressure measurement; the other 12 channels are general purpose ones. For example, they can be used for ionic current analysis. Additional digital inputs allow measurement of crank speed and crank speed variations. This is an important topic for misfire detection as part of the OBD regulations.
Technical Paper

2D Mapping and Quantification of the In-Cylinder Air/Fuel-Ratio in a GDI Engine by Means of LIF and Comparison to Simultaneous Results from 1D Raman Measurements

The optimization of the vaporization and mixture formation process is of great importance for the development of modern gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines, because it influences the subsequent processes of the ignition, combustion and pollutant formation significantly. In consequence, the subject of this work was the development of a measurement technique based on the laser induced exciplex fluorescence (LIF), which allows the two dimensional visualization and quantification of the in-cylinder air/fuel ratio. A tracer concept consisting of benzene and triethylamine dissolved in a non-fluorescent base fuel has been used. The calibration of the equivalence ratio proportional LIF-signal was performed directly inside the engine, at a well known mixture composition, immediately before the direct injection measurements were started.
Technical Paper

On-Line Analysis of Individual Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Automotive Exhaust:Dealkylation of the Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Catalytic Converter

The real-time concentrations of benzene, toluene, xylene, trimethyl-benzene and naphthalene in vehicle exhaust have been monitored during the FTP-cycle with a time-resolution of 20 ms and a sensitivity of 50 ppb. Using a laser mass spectrometer, the aromatic hydrocarbons in unconditioned exhaust gas at sampling positions behind the exhaust valve, before and behind the catalytic converter have been analyzed. The comparison of the emissions sampled before and behind the catalytic converter reveals the effect of dealkylation of the aromatic hydrocarbons in the catalytic converter. Whereas most of the aromatic hydrocarbons are burned in the hot catalytic converter, however, bursts of aromatic hydrocarbons are released at transient motor operation. In these moments, which can be attributed to phases of closed throttle valve and very low engine load at gear changes, a significant part of the C1-, C2- and C3- benzenes has been converted into benzene.
Technical Paper

Testing Automotive Systems Modeled by Finite State Machines

The use of micro controllers in automotive systems renders the coordination of about 150 actors (70 electric motors, 15 magnetic valves and 50 relays). The resulting complexity of those systems as well as the requested zero defects demands time consuming testing. This work describes a method of performing test-scenarios, starting from a zero defect running specification, modeled by finite state machines. The test-scenarios are intended to determine whether a given system meets all specification requirements. First, a kind of structured modelling reactive automotive systems is deduced. Next, some important test selection methods, developed for the case the specification is given in the form of a finite state machine, are considered. Finally, a procedure and method for performing minimized complete test-scenarios for automotive systems are presented.