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Technical Paper

Equations and Methods for Testing Hydrogen Fuel Consumption using Exhaust Emissions

2008-04-14
2008-01-1036
Although hydrogen ICE engines have existed in one sort or another for many years, the testing of fuel consumption by way of exhaust emissions is not yet a proven method. The current consumption method for gasoline- and diesel-fueled vehicles is called the Carbon-Balance method, and it works by testing the vehicle exhaust for all carbon-containing components. Through conservation of mass, the carbon that comes out as exhaust must have gone in as fuel. Just like the Carbon-Balance method for gas and diesel engines, the new Hydrogen-Balance equation works on the principle that what goes into the engine must come out as exhaust components. This allows for fuel consumption measurements without direct contact with the fuel. This means increased accuracy and simplicity. This new method requires some modifications to the testing procedures and CVS (Constant Volume Sampling) system.
Technical Paper

The Development of BMW Catalyst Concepts for LEV / ULEV and EU III / IV Legislations 6 Cylinder Engine with Close Coupled Main Catalyst

1998-02-23
980418
To meet LEV and EU Stage III emission requirements, it is necessary for new catalytic converters to be designed which exceed light-off temperature as quickly as possible. The technical solutions are secondary air injection, active heating systems such as the electrically heated catalytic converter, and the close coupled catalytic converter. Engine control functions are extensively used to heat the converter and will to play a significant role in the future. The concept of relocating the converter to a position close to the engine in an existing vehicle involves new conflicts. Examples include the space requirements, the thermal resistance of the catalytic coating and high temperature loads in the engine compartment.
Technical Paper

A New Method for the Investigation of Unburned Oil Emissions in the Raw Exhaust of SI Engines

1998-10-19
982438
The study of oil emission is of essential interest for the engine development of modern cars, as well as for the understanding of hydrocarbon emissions especially during cold start conditions. A laser mass spectrometer has been used to measure single aromatic hydrocarbons in unconditioned exhaust gas of a H2-fueled engine at stationary and transient motor operation. These compounds represent unburned oil constituents. The measurements were accompanied by FID and GC-FID measurements of hydrocarbons which represent the burned oil constituents. The total oil consumption has been determined by measuring the oil sampled by freezing and weighing. It has been concluded that only 10 % of the oil consumption via exhaust gas has burned in the cylinders. A correlation of the emission of single oil-based components at ppb level detected with the laser mass spectrometer to the total motor oil emission has been found.
Technical Paper

Artificial Intelligence for Combustion Engine Control

1996-02-01
960328
Existing electronic combustion engine control systems only guarantee a desired air-to-fuel-ratio λ in stationary operation. In order to achieve the desired λ also in in-stationary use of the engine, it is necessary to use new-technology-based control systems. Artificial Intelligence provides methods to cope with difficulties like wide operation range, unknown nonlinearities and time delay. We will propose a strategy for control of a Spark Ignition Engine to determine the mass of air inside the combustion chambers with the highest accuracy. Since Neural Networks are universal approximators for multidimensional nonlinear static functions they can be used effectively for identification and compensation purposes of unknown nonlinearities in closed control loops.
Technical Paper

Transient Air-Fuel Ratio Control Using Artificial Intelligence

1997-02-24
970618
In order to reduce emissions of spare ignition engines using a three way catalyst, a stoichiometric air-fuel ratio must be guaranteed in stationary and transient operation of the engine. This aim can be reached by using a specific feed-forward structure for the control of the paths of air and fuel based on identification abilities of Artificial Intelligence. As approximators for multidimensional nonlinear static functions we will use specific Neural Networks (NN) together with sophisticated stability-proven learning structures. The acquired knowledge within the NN determines our control action mainly through using feed-forward structures. Our investigations are based on the so-called mean-value-modelling approach of SI engines; it is our aim to present this strategy.
Technical Paper

Local Gaussian Process Regression in Order to Model Air Charge of Turbocharged Gasoline SI Engines

2016-04-05
2016-01-0624
A local Gaussian process regression approach is presented, which allows to model nonlinearities of internal combustion engines more accurate than global Gaussian process regression. By building smaller models, the prediction of local system behavior improves significantly. In order to predict a value, the algorithm chooses the nearest training points. The number of chosen training points depends on the intensity of estimated nonlinearity. After determining the training points, a model is built, the prediction performed and the model discarded. The approach is demonstrated with a benchmark system and air charge test bed measurements. The measurements are taken from a turbocharged SI gasoline engine with both variable inlet valve lift and variable inlet and exhaust valve opening angle. The results show how local Gaussian process regression outmatches global Gaussian process regression concerning model quality and nonlinearities in particular.
Technical Paper

Identification of Aging Effects in Common Rail Diesel Injectors Using Geometric Classifiers and Neural Networks

2016-04-05
2016-01-0813
Aging effects such as coking or cavitation in the nozzle of common rail (CR) diesel injectors deteriorate combustion performance. This is of particular relevance when it comes to complying with emission legislation and demonstrates the need for detecting and compensating aging effects during operation. The first objective of this paper is to analyze the influence of worn nozzles on the injection rate. Therefore, measurements of commercial solenoid common rail diesel injectors with different nozzles are carried out using an injection rate analyzer of the Bosch type. Furthermore, a fault model for typical aging effects in the nozzle of the injector is presented together with two methods to detect and identify these effects. Both methods are based on a multi-domain simulation model of the injector. The needle lift, the control piston lift and the pressure in the lower feed line are used for the fault diagnosis.
Technical Paper

Extensive Investigation of a Common Rail Diesel Injector Regarding Injection Characteristics and the Resulting Influences on the Dual Fuel Pilot Injection Combustion Process

2016-04-05
2016-01-0780
Natural gas and especially biogas combustion can be seen as one of the key technologies towards climate-neutral energy supply. With its extensive availability, biogas is amongst the most important renewable energy sources in the present energy mix. Today, the use of gaseous fuels is widely established, for example in cogeneration units for combined heat and power generation. In contrast to conventional spark plug ignition, the combustion can also be initialized by a pilot injection. In order to further increase engine efficiency, this article describes the process for a targeted optimization of the pilot fuel injection. One of the crucial points for a more efficient dual fuel combustion process, is to optimize the amount of pilot injection in order to increase overall engine efficiency, and therefore decrease fuel consumption. In this connection, the injection system plays a key role.
Technical Paper

An Efficient Test Methodology for Combustion Engine Testing: Methods for Increasing Measurement Quality and Validity at the Engine Test Bench

2017-03-28
2017-01-0604
Improving fuel efficiency while meeting relevant emission limits set by emissions legislation is among the main objectives of engine development. Simultaneously the development costs and development time have to be steadily reduced. For these reasons, the high demands in terms of quality and validity of measurements at the engine test bench are continuously rising. This paper will present a new methodology for efficient testing of an industrial combustion engine in order to improve the process of decision making for combustion-relevant component setups. The methodology includes various modules for increasing measurement quality and validity. Modules like stationary point detection to determine steady state engine behavior, signal quality checks to monitor the signal quality of chosen measurement signals and plausibility checks to evaluate physical relations between several measurement signals ensure a high measurement quality over all measurements.
Technical Paper

Common Rail Diesel Injectors with Nozzle Wear: Modeling and State Estimation

2017-03-28
2017-01-0543
This study discusses model-based injection rate estimation in common rail diesel injectors exhibiting aging phenomena. Since they result in unexpected injection behavior, aging effects like coking or cavitation may impair combustion performance, which justifies the need for new modeling and estimation approaches. To predict injection characteristics, a simulation model for the bottom section of the injector is introduced, with a main focus on modeling the hydraulic components. Using rail pressure and control piston lift as inputs, a reduced model is then derived in state-space representation, which may be used for the application of an observer in hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) environments. Both models are compared and validated with experimental data, with which they show good agreement. Aging effects and nozzle wear, which result in model uncertainties, are considered using a fault model in combination with an extended Kalman filter (EKF) observer scheme.
Technical Paper

ECU Integrated DSP Based Measurement System for Combustion Analysis

2000-03-06
2000-01-0547
For development of new engines a ‘general purpose ECU’ for spark ignition engines with up to 12 cylinders has been developed. As part of this ECU a DSP (Digital Signal Processor)-based measurement unit for high frequency combustion analysis has been integrated. In this paper, details about this signal processing platform are given. The DSP-unit has 24 analog input channels. 12 channels are used for cylinder pressure measurement; the other 12 channels are general purpose ones. For example, they can be used for ionic current analysis. Additional digital inputs allow measurement of crank speed and crank speed variations. This is an important topic for misfire detection as part of the OBD regulations.
Technical Paper

2D Mapping and Quantification of the In-Cylinder Air/Fuel-Ratio in a GDI Engine by Means of LIF and Comparison to Simultaneous Results from 1D Raman Measurements

2001-05-07
2001-01-1977
The optimization of the vaporization and mixture formation process is of great importance for the development of modern gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines, because it influences the subsequent processes of the ignition, combustion and pollutant formation significantly. In consequence, the subject of this work was the development of a measurement technique based on the laser induced exciplex fluorescence (LIF), which allows the two dimensional visualization and quantification of the in-cylinder air/fuel ratio. A tracer concept consisting of benzene and triethylamine dissolved in a non-fluorescent base fuel has been used. The calibration of the equivalence ratio proportional LIF-signal was performed directly inside the engine, at a well known mixture composition, immediately before the direct injection measurements were started.
Technical Paper

Investigation of an Innovative Combustion Process for High-Performance Engines and Its Impact on Emissions

2019-01-15
2019-01-0039
Over the past years, the question as to what may be the powertrain of the future has become ever more apparent. Aiming to improve upon a given technology, the internal combustion engine still offers a number of development paths in order to maintain its position in public and private mobility. In this study, an innovative combustion process is investigated with the goal to further approximate the ideal Otto cycle. Thus far, similar approaches such as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) shared the same objective yet were unable to be operated under high load conditions. Highly increased control efforts and excessive mechanical stress on the components are but a few examples of the drawbacks associated with HCCI. The approach employed in this work is the so-called Spark Assisted Compression Ignition (SACI) in combination with a pre-chamber spark plug, enabling short combustion durations even at high dilution levels.
Technical Paper

A Physical-Based Approach for Modeling the Influence of Different Operating Parameters on the Dependency of External EGR Rate and Indicated Efficiency

2018-09-10
2018-01-1736
External Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) provides an opportunity to increase the efficiency of turbocharged spark-ignition engines. Of the competing technologies and configurations, Low-Pressure EGR (LP-EGR) is the most challenging in terms of its dynamic behavior. Only some of the stationary feasible potential can be used during dynamic engine operation. To guarantee fuel consumption-optimized engine operation with no instabilities, a load point-dependent limitation of the EGR rate or alternatively an adaptation of the operating point to the actual EGR rate is crucial. For this purpose, a precise knowledge of efficiency and combustion variance is necessary. Since the operating state includes the actual EGR rate, it has an additional dimension, which usually results in an immense measuring effort.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Orifice Design Effects on a Methane Fuelled Prechamber Gas Engine for Automotive Applications

2017-09-04
2017-24-0096
Due to its molecular structure, methane provides several advantages as fuel for internal combustion engines. To cope with nitrogen oxide emissions high levels of excess air are beneficial, which on the other hand deteriorates the flammability and combustion duration of the mixture. One approach to meet these challenges and ensure a stable combustion process are fuelled prechambers. The flow and combustion processes within these prechambers are highly influenced by the position, orientation, number and overall cross-sectional area of the orifices connecting the prechamber and the main combustion chamber. In the present study, a water-cooled single cylinder test engine with a displacement volume of 0.5 l is equipped with a methane-fuelled prechamber. To evaluate influences of the aforementioned orifices several prechambers with variations of the orientation and number of nozzles are used under different operating conditions of engine speed and load.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Simulative Approaches for the Determination of Discharge Coefficients for Inlet and Exhaust Valves and Ports in Internal Combustion Engines

2017-11-27
2017-01-5022
In order to fulfill future exhaust emission regulations, the variety of subsystems of internal combustion engines is progressively investigated and optimized in detail. The present article mainly focuses on studies of the flow field and the resulting discharge coefficients of the intake and exhaust valves and ports. In particular, the valves and ports influence the required work for the gas exchange process, as well as the cylinder charge and consequently highly impact the engine’s performance. For the evaluation of discharge coefficients of a modern combustion engine, a stationary flow test bench has been set up at the Chair of Internal Combustion Engines (LVK) of the Technical University of Munich (TUM). The setup is connected to the test bench’s charge air system, allowing the adjustment and control of the system pressure, as well as the pressure difference across the particular gas exchange valve.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the High-Pressure-Dual-Fuel (HPDF) combustion process of natural gas on a fully optically accessible research engine

2019-12-19
2019-01-2172
In the “high-pressure-dual-fuel” (HPDF) combustion process, natural gas is directly injected into the combustion chamber with high pressure at the end of the compression stroke, and burned in a diffusion flame similar to conventional diesel combustion. As natural gas does not self-ignite when injected into hot air, a small amount of diesel fuel is injected directly before the gas injection to provide an ignition source for the gas jets. The HPDF combustion process has the potential to substantially reduce methane slip compared to today’s state of the art premixed lean burn gas engines, and furthermore, phenomena like knocking or misfire can be avoided completely. In this paper, the influences of in-cylinder air density and swirl motion on HPDF combustion is studied via high-speed recordings in a fully optically accessible 4.8 Liter single-cylinder research engine.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on the Influence of Brake Mean Effective Pressures up to 30 bar on the Behavior of a Large Bore Otto Gas Engine

2019-12-19
2019-01-2224
For large bore Otto gas engines a high specific power output and therefore high engine load promises a rise in engine efficiency on one hand and on the other hand a reduction of the performance-related investment. However, this can negatively affect the emissions performance, operating limits especially in regards to knocking, and component life. For this reason at the Chair of Internal Combustion Engines (LVK) of the Technical University of Munich (TUM) experiments with a 4.77 l single-cylinder research engine were carried out to investigate the boundary conditions, potentials and downsides of combustion processes with a brake mean effective pressure beyond current series engines and higher than 30 bar. The objective in this investigations was to achieve BMEP > 30 bar with an engine configuration that widely represents the current series-production status. Hence, an unscavenged prechamber spark plug, a series Piston and Valve timing were used.
Technical Paper

A New Approach to Model the Fan in Vehicle Thermal Management Simulations

2019-02-25
2019-01-5016
Vehicle thermal management (VTM) simulations constitute an important step in the early development phase of a vehicle. They help in predicting the temperature profiles of critical components over a drive cycle and identify components which are exceeding temperature design limits. Parts with the highest temperatures in a vehicle with an internal combustion engine are concentrated in the engine bay area. As packaging constraints grow tighter, the components in the engine bay are packed closer together. This makes the thermal protection in the engine bay even more crucial. The fan influences the airflow into the engine bay and plays an important role in deciding flow distribution in this region. This makes modelling of the fan an important aspect of VTM simulations. The challenge associated with modelling the fan is the accurate simulation of the rotation imparted by the fan to the incoming flow. Currently, two modelling approaches are prevalent in the industry.
Technical Paper

Real-Time Measurement of the Piston Ring Gap Positions and Their Effect on Exhaust Engine Oil Emission

2018-05-05
2018-01-5006
Measurement techniques for piston ring rotation, engine oil emission and blow by have been implemented on a single-cylinder petrol engine. A novel method of analysis allows continuous and fast real-time identification of the piston ring rotation of the two compression rings, while the mass-spectrometric analysis of the exhaust gas delivers the cylinder oil emission instantly and with a high temporal resolution. Only minor modifications to the piston rings were made for the insertion of the γ-emitters, the rings rotate freely around the circumference of the piston. The idea of this setup is that through online observation at the test bench, instant feedback of the measured variables is available, making it possible to purposefully select and compare measurement points. The high time resolution of the measurement methods enables the analysis of dynamic effects. In this article, the measurement setup and evaluation method is described.
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