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Technical Paper

A Combined Computational-Experimental Approach for Modelling of Coupled Vibro-Acoustic Problems

Over the past 30 years, the computer-aided engineering (CAE) tools have been applied extensively in the automotive industry. In order to accelerate time-to-market while coping with legal limits that have become increasingly restrictive over the last decades, CAE has become an indispensable tool covering all major fields in a modern automotive product design process. However, when tackling complex real-life engineering problems, the computational models might become rather involved and thus less efficient. Therefore, the overall trend in the automotive industry is currently heading towards combined approaches, which allow the best of the both worlds, namely the experimental measurement and numerical simulation, to be merged into one integrated scheme. In this paper, the so-called patch transfer function (PTF) approach is adopted to solve coupled vibro-acoustic problems. In the PTF scheme, the interfaces between fluid and structure are discretised in terms of patches.
Technical Paper

Robustness and Reliability Enhancement on Retractor Noise Testing, from Development Considerations to Round Robin

Sensing and acting elements to guarantee the locking functions of seat belt retractors can emit noise when the retractor is subjected to externally applied vibrations. For these elements to function correctly, stiffness, inertia and friction needs to be in tune, leading to a complex motion resistance behavior, which makes it delicate to test for vibration induced noise. Requirements for a noise test are simplicity, robustness, repeatability, and independence of laboratory and test equipment. This paper reports on joint development activities for an alternative test procedure, involving three test laboratories with different equipment. In vehicle observation on parcel shelf mounted retractors, commercially available test equipment, and recent results from multi-axial component tests [1], set the frame for this work. Robustness and reliability of test results is being analyzed by means of sensitivity studies on several test parameters.
Technical Paper

Seat Belt Retractor Noise Test Correlation to 2DOF Shaker Test and Real Vehicle Comfort

Seatbelt retractors as important part of modern safety systems are mounted in any automotive vehicle. Their internal locking mechanism is based on mechanically sensing elements. When the vehicle is run over rough road tracks, the retractor oscillates by spatial mode shapes and its interior components are subjected to vibrations in all 6 degrees of freedoms (DOF). Functional backlash of sensing elements cause impacts with neighbouring parts and leads to weak, but persistent rattle sound, being often rated acoustically annoying in the vehicle. Current acoustic retractor bench tests use exclusively uni-directional excitations. Therefore, a silent 2 DOF test bench is developed to investigate the effect of multi-dimensional excitation on retractor acoustics, combining two slip-tables, each driven independently by a shaker. Tests on this prototype test bench show, that cross coupling between the two perpendicular directions is less than 1%, allowing to control both directions independently.
Technical Paper

The Patch-Transfer-Function (PTF) Method Applied to Numerical Models of Trim Materials Including Poro-Elastic Layers

In automotive industry, acoustic trim materials are widely used in order to reach passenger comfort targets. The dynamic behavior of the poro-elastic materials is typically modelled by the Biot theory, which however leads to expensive numerical finite element calculations. One way to deal with it is to use the Patch-Transfer-Function (PTF) sub-structuring method, which couples subdomains at their interfaces through impedance relations. This was done already for systems including locally reacting poro-elastic materials. In this paper, a methodology is presented allowing to numerically assess the PTF impedance matrices of non-locally reacting trim materials using the Biot based poro-elastic model solved by the finite element method (FEM). Simplifications of the trim impedance matrices are introduced resulting in considerable calculation cost reductions. The associated prediction errors are discussed by means of a numerical case study.
Technical Paper

Patch Transfer Function Approach for Analysis of Coupled Vibro-Acoustic Problems Involving Porous Materials

In many application fields, such as automotive and aerospace, the full FE Biot model has been widely applied to vibro-acoustics problems involving poro-elastic materials in order to predict their structural and acoustic performance. The main drawback of this approach is however the large computational burden and the uncertainty of the input data (Biot parameters) that may lead to less accurate prediction. In order to overcome these disadvantages industry is asking for more efficient techniques. The vibro-acoustic behaviour of structures coupled with poroelastic trims and fluid cavities can be predicted by means of the Patch Transfer Function (PTF) approach. The PTF is a sub-structuring procedure that allows for coupling different sub-systems via impedance relations determined at their common interfaces. The coupling surfaces are discretised into elementary areas called patches.