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BMW i3 - A Battery Electric Vehicle...Right from the Beginning

2012-03-29
What are the requirements of customers in an urban environment? What will sustainable mobility look like in the future? This presentation gives an overview of the integrated approach used by BMW to develop the BMW i3 - a purpose-built battery electric vehicle. Very low driving resistances for such a vehicle concept enable the delivery of both impressive range and driving excitement. A small optional auxiliary power unit offers range security for unexpected situations and opens up BEVs to customers who are willing to buy a BEV but are still hesitant due to range anxiety. Additional electric vehicles sold to the formerly range anxious will create additional electric miles. Presenter Franz Storkenmaier, BMW Group
Technical Paper

A Generic Testbody for Low-Frequency Aeroacoustic Buffeting

2020-09-30
2020-01-1515
Raising demands towards lightweight design paired with a loss of originally predominant engine noise pose significant challenges for NVH engineers in the automotive industry. From an aeroacoustic point of view, low frequency buffeting ranks among the most frequently encountered issues. The phenomenon typically arises due to structural transmission of aerodynamic wall pressure fluctuations and/or, as indicated in this work, through rear vent excitation. A possible workflow to simulate structure-excited buffeting contains a strongly coupled vibro-acoustic model for structure and interior cavity excited by a spatial pressure distribution obtained from a CFD simulation. In the case of rear vent buffeting no validated workflow has been published yet. While approaches have been made to simulate the problem for a real-car geometry such attempts suffer from tremendous computation costs, meshing effort and lack of flexibility.
Technical Paper

Simulation Process for the Acoustical Excitation of DC-Link Film Capacitors in Highly Integrated Electrical Drivetrains

2020-09-30
2020-01-1500
The advancing electrification of the powertrain is leading towards new challenges in the field of acoustics. Film capacitors used in power electronics are a potential source of high-frequency interfering noise since they are exposed to voltage harmonics. These voltage harmonics are caused by semiconductor switching operations that are necessary to convert the DC voltage of the battery into three-phase alternating current for the electrical machine. In order to predict the acoustic characteristics of the DC-link capacitor at an early stage of development, a multiphysical chain of effects has to be addressed to consider electrical and mechanical influences. In this paper, a new method to evaluate the excitation amplitude of film capacitor windings is presented. The corresponding amplitudes are calculated via an analytical force based on electromechanical couplings of the dielectric within film capacitors.
Technical Paper

Inverse Characterization of Vibro-Acoustic Subsystems for Impedance-Based Substructuring Approaches

2020-09-30
2020-01-1582
Substructuring approaches are helpful methods to solve and understand vibro-acoustic problem involving systems as complex as a vehicle. In that case, the whole system is split into smaller, simpler to solve, subsystems. Substructuring approaches allow mixing different modelling “solvers” (closed form solutions, numerical simulations or experiments). This permits to reach higher frequencies or to solve bigger systems. Finally, one of the most interesting features of substructuring approaches is the possibility to combine numerical and experimental descriptions of subsystems. The latter point is particularly interesting when dealing with subdomains that remain difficult to model with numerical tools (assembly, trim, sandwich panels, porous materials, etc.). The Patch Transfer Functions (PTF) method is one of these substructuring approaches. It condenses information (impedance matrix) of subsystems on their coupling surfaces.
Technical Paper

Efficient Modeling and Simulation of the Transverse Isotropic Stiffness and Damping Properties of Laminate Structures using the Finite Element Method

2020-09-30
2020-01-1573
The Noise Vibration and Harshness (NVH) characteristics and requirements of vehicles are changing as the automotive manufacturers turn their focus from developing and producing cars propelled by internal combustion engines (ICE) to electrified vehicles. This new strategic orientation enables them to offer products that are more efficient and environmentally friendly. Although electric powertrains have many advantages compared to their established predecessors they also produce new challenges that make it more difficult to match the new requirements especially regarding NVH. Electric motors are one of the most important sources of vibrations in electric vehicles. In order to address the new challenges in developing powertrains that match the acoustic comfort requirements of the customers and also shape the development process as efficiently as possible, car manufacturers use numerical simulation methods to identify NVH problems as early in the design process as possible.
Technical Paper

Test Center for Aging Analysis and Characterization of Lithium-Ion Batteries for Automotive Applications

2011-04-12
2011-01-1374
A test center for aging analysis and characterization of Lithium-Ion batteries for automotive applications is optimized by means of a dedicated cell tester. The new power tester offers high current magnitude with fast rise time in order to generate arbitrary charge and discharge waveforms, which are identical to real power net signals in vehicles. Upcoming hybrid and electrical cars show fast current transients due to the implemented power electronics like inverter or DC/DC converter. The various test procedures consider single and coupled effects from current profile, state of charge and temperature. They are simultaneously applied on several cells in order to derive statistical significance. Comprehensive safely functions on both the hardware and the software level ensure proper operation of the complex system.
Technical Paper

System Level Design Simulation to Predict Passive Safety Performance for CFRP Automotive Structures

2013-04-08
2013-01-0663
Despite increasingly stringent crash requirements, the body structures of future mainstream production cars need to get lighter. Carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites with a density 1/5th of steel and very high specific energy absorption represent a material technology where substantial mass can be saved when compared to traditional steel applications. BMW have addressed the demanding challenges of producing several hundred composite Body-in-White (BIW) assemblies a day and are committed to significant adoption of composites in future vehicle platforms, as demonstrated in the upcoming i3 and i8 models. A next step to further integrate composites into passenger cars is for primary structural members, which also perform critical roles in passive safety by absorbing large amounts of energy during a crash event.
Journal Article

The Development of Exhaust Surface Temperature Models for 3D CFD Vehicle Thermal Management Simulations Part 1 - General Exhaust Configurations

2013-04-08
2013-01-0879
The thermal prediction of a vehicle under-body environment is of high importance in the design, optimization and management of vehicle power systems. Within the pre-development phase of a vehicle's production process, it is important to understand and determine regions of high thermally induced stress within critical under-body components. Therefore allowing engineers to modify the design or alter component material characteristics before the manufacture of hardware. As the exhaust system is one of the primary heat sources in a vehicle's under-body environment, it is vital to predict the thermal fluctuation of surface temperatures along corresponding exhaust components in order to achieve the correct thermal representation of the overall under-body heat transfer. This paper explores a new method for achieving higher accuracy exhaust surface temperature predictions.
Journal Article

An Innovative Approach to Race Track Simulations for Vehicle Thermal Management

2013-11-20
2013-01-9121
Within the pre-development phase of a vehicle validation process, the role of computational simulation is becoming increasingly prominent in efforts to ensure thermal safety. This gain in popularity has resulted from the cost and time advantages that simulation has compared to experimental testing. Additionally many of these early concepts cannot be validated through experimental means due to the lack of hardware, and must be evaluated via numerical methods. The Race Track Simulation (RTS) can be considered as the final frontier for vehicle thermal management techniques, and to date no coherent method has been published which provides an efficient means of numerically modeling the temperature behavior of components without the dependency on statistical experimental data.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Unsteady Vehicle Aerodynamics under Time-Dependent Flow Conditions - Part2

2011-04-12
2011-01-0164
Unsteady aerodynamic flow phenomena are investigated in a wind tunnel by oscillating a realistic 50% scale model around the vertical axis. Thus the model is exposed to time-dependent flow conditions at realistic Reynolds and Strouhal numbers. Using this setup unsteady aerodynamic loads are observed to differ significantly from quasi steady loads. In particular, the unsteady yaw moment exceeds the quasi steady approximation significantly. On the other hand, side force and roll moment are over predicted by quasi steady approximation but exhibit a significant time delay. Part 2 of this study proves that a delayed and enhanced response of the surface pressures at the rear side of the vehicle is responsible for the differences between unsteady and quasi steady loads. The pressure changes at the vehicle front, however, are shown to have similar amplitudes and almost no phase shift compared to quasi steady flow conditions.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Unsteady Vehicle Aerodynamics under Time-Dependent Flow Conditions - Part 1

2011-04-12
2011-01-0177
Unsteady aerodynamic flow phenomena are investigated in the wind tunnel by oscillating a realistic 50% scale model around its vertical axis. Thus the model is exposed to time-dependent flow conditions at realistic Reynolds and Strouhal numbers. Using this setup unsteady aerodynamic loads are observed to differ significantly from quasi-steady loads. In particular, the unsteady yaw moment exceeds the quasi-steady approximation by 80%. On the other hand, side force and roll moment are over predicted by quasi-steady approximation but exhibit a significant time delay. Using hotwire anemometry, a delayed reaction of the wake flow of Δt/T = 0.15 is observed, which is thought to be the principal cause for the differences between unsteady and quasi-steady aerodynamic loads. A schematic mechanism explaining these differences due to the delayed reaction of the wake flow is proposed.
Journal Article

Issues Exporting a Multibody Dynamics System Model into a Finite Element Analysis Model

2010-04-12
2010-01-0947
Nowadays there is an increasing need to streamline CAE processes. One such process consists of translating a Multibody Dynamics System (MBS) model into an equivalent Finite Element Analysis (FEA) model. Typically, users start with the creation of a MBS model which is set at a desired operating point by means of running simulations in the MBS domain (e.g. dynamics, statics.) The MBS model is then further translated into an equivalent FEA model which is used to perform simulations in the FEA domain (e.g. passive safety/crash, noise vibration harshness/NVH.) Currently, the translation of the MBS model into a FEA model is done either manually or by means of using a user-written script. This paper shows that a user-written script that translates a MBS model into a FEA model can not provide a high fidelity translation. In general, it is found that eigenvalues computed by the FEA code would not match eigenvalues computed by the MBS code.
Technical Paper

Measuring Near Zero Automotive Exhaust Emissions - Zero Is a Very Small Precise Number

2010-04-12
2010-01-1301
In the environmentally conscious world we live in, auto manufacturers are under extreme pressure to reduce tailpipe emissions from cars and trucks. The manufacturers have responded by creating clean-burning engines and exhaust treatments that mainly produce CO2 and water vapor along with trace emissions of pollutants such as CO, THC, NOx, and CH4. The trace emissions are regulated by law, and testing must be performed to show that they are below a certain level for the vehicle to be classified as road legal. Modern engine and pollution control technology has moved so quickly toward zero pollutant emissions that the testing technology is no longer able to accurately measure the trace levels of pollutants. Negative emission values are often measured for some pollutants, as shown by results from eight laboratories independently testing the same SULEV automobile.
Journal Article

A New Approach to Analyzing Cooling and Interference Drag

2010-04-12
2010-01-0286
This paper presents a new approach to analyzing and developing low-drag cooling systems. A relation is derived which describes cooling drag by a number of contributions. Interference drag clearly can be identified as one of them. Cooling system parameters can be assigned to different terms of the relation, so that differences due to parameter variations of the individual drag contributions can be estimated. In order to predict the interference-drag dependency on the outlet location and the local outlet mass flow, an extensive study on a standard BMW sedan has been carried out, both experimentally and by CFD. The results show the importance of providing consistent outflow conditions which take into account the outlet location and flow direction, in order to minimize cooling drag.
Journal Article

Simulation of Underbody Contribution of Wind Noise in a Passenger Automobile

2013-05-13
2013-01-1932
Wind noise is a significant source of interior noise in automobiles at cruising conditions, potentially creating dissatisfaction with vehicle quality. While wind noise contributions at higher frequencies usually originate with transmission through greenhouse panels and sealing, the contribution coming from the underbody area often dominates the interior noise spectrum at lower frequencies. Continued pressure to reduce fuel consumption in new designs is causing more emphasis on aerodynamic performance, to reduce drag by careful management of underbody airflow at cruise. Simulation of this airflow by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tools allows early optimization of underbody shapes before expensive hardware prototypes are feasible. By combining unsteady CFD-predicted loads on the underbody panels with a structural acoustic model of the vehicle, underbody wind noise transmission could be considered in the early design phases.
Technical Paper

A Co-Simulation Based Approach for the Validation of Integrated Safety Systems

2013-04-08
2013-01-0201
With the huge improvements made during the last years in the area of integrated safety systems, they are one of the main contributors to the massively rising complexity within automotive systems. However, this enormous complexity stimulates the demand for methodologies supporting the efficient development of such systems, both in terms of cost and development time. Within this work, we propose a co-simulation-based approach for the validation of integrated safety systems. Based on data measurements gained from a test bed, models for the sensors and the distributed safety system are established. They are integrated into a co-simulation environment containing models of the ambience, driving dynamics, and the crash-behavior of the vehicle. Hence, the complete heterogeneous system including all relevant effects and dependencies is modeled within the co-simulation.
Journal Article

Psychoacoustic Requirements for Warning Sounds of Quiet Cars

2012-06-13
2012-01-1522
According to upcoming legislative regulations in certain countries, electric and hybrid-electric vehicles (EVs and HEVs) will have to be equipped with devices to compensate for the lack of engine noise needed to warn pedestrians against the vehicles. This leads to the question of appropriate sound design which has to meet specific psychoacoustic requirements. The present paper focuses on auditory features of warning sounds to enhance pedestrians' safety with a major focus on the detectability of the exterior noise of the vehicle in an ambient noise. For the evaluation of detectability, the psychoacoustic model developed by Kerber and Fastl will be introduced allowing for the prediction of masked thresholds of the approaching vehicle. The instrumental assessment yields estimates of the distance of an approaching vehicle at the point it becomes audible to the pedestrians.
Technical Paper

Injury Risk to Specific Body Regions of Pedestrians in Frontal Vehicle Crashes Modeled by Empirical, In-Depth Accident Data

2010-11-03
2010-22-0006
Evaluation of safety benefits is an essential task during design and development of pedestrian protection systems. Comparative evaluation of different safety concepts is facilitated by a common metric taking into account the expected human benefits. Translation of physical characteristics of a collision, such as impact speed, into human benefits requires reliable and preferably evidence-based injury models. To this end, the dependence of injury severity of body regions on explanatory factors is quantified here using the US Pedestrian Crash Data Study (PCDS) for pedestrians in frontal vehicle collisions. The explanatory and causal factors include vehicle component characteristics, physiological and biomechanical variables, and crash parameters. Severe to serious injuries most often involve the head, thorax and lower extremities.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Performance Assessment of BMW Validation Models using Computational Fluid Dynamics

2012-04-16
2012-01-0297
Aerodynamic performance assessment of automotive shapes is typically performed in wind tunnels. However, with the rapid progress in computer hardware technology and the maturity and accuracy of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software packages, evaluation of the production-level automotive shapes using a digital process has become a reality. As the time to market shrinks, automakers are adopting a digital design process for vehicle development. This has elevated the accuracy requirements on the flow simulation software, so that it can be used effectively in the production environment. Evaluation of aerodynamic performance covers prediction of the aerodynamic coefficients such as drag, lift, side force and also lift balance between the front and rear axle. Drag prediction accuracy is important for meeting fuel efficiency targets, prediction of front and rear lifts as well as side force and yawing moment are crucial for high speed handling.
Technical Paper

Cycle Life Investigations on Different Li-Ion Cell Chemistries for PHEV Applications Based on Real Life Conditions

2012-04-16
2012-01-0656
Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) are becoming increasingly important as an intermediate step on the roadmap to Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV). Li-Ion is the most important battery technology for future hybrid and electrical vehicles. Cycle life of batteries for automotive applications is a major concern of design and development on vehicles with electrified powertrain. Cell manufacturers present various cell chemistries based on Li-Ion technology. For choosing cells with the best cycle life performance appropriate test methods and criteria must be obtained. Cells must be stressed with accelerated aging methods, which correlate with real life conditions. There is always a conflict between high accelerating factors for fast results on the one hand and best accordance with reality on the other hand. Investigations are done on three different Li-Ion cell types which are applicable in the use of PHEVs.
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