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Technical Paper

Fuel Effects on HCCI Operation in a Spark Assisted Direct Injection Gasoline Engine

2011-08-30
2011-01-1763
The fuel effects on HCCI operation in a spark assisted direct injection gasoline engine are assessed. The low load limit has been extended with a pilot fuel injection during the negative valve overlap (NVO) period. The fuel matrix consists of hydrocarbon fuels and various ethanol blends and a butanol blend, plus fuels with added ignition improvers. The hydrocarbon fuels and the butanol blend do not significantly alter the high or the low limits of operation. The HCCI operation appears to be controlled more by the thermal environment than by the fuel properties. For E85, the engine behavior depends on the extent that the heat release from the pilot injected fuel in the NVO period compensates for the evaporative cooling of the fuel.
Technical Paper

Impact of Lubricant Composition on Low-speed Pre-Ignition

2014-04-01
2014-01-1213
One of the limits on the maximum fuel efficiency benefit to be gained from turbocharged, downsized gasoline engines is the occurrence of pre-ignitions at low engine speed. These pre-ignitions may lead to high pressures and extreme knock (megaknock or superknock) which can cause severe engine damage. Though the mechanism leading to megaknock is not completely resolved, pre-ignitions are thought to arise from local autoignition of areas in the cylinder which are rich in low ignition delay “contaminants” such as engine oil and/or heavy ends of gasoline. These contaminants are introduced to the combustion chamber at various points in the engine cycle (e.g. entering from the top land crevice during blow-down or washed from the cylinder walls during DI wall impingement).
Technical Paper

Lubricant Induced Pre-Ignition in an Optical SI Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1222
This work was concerned with study of lubricant introduced directly into the combustion chamber and its effect on pre-ignition and combustion in an optically accessed single-cylinder spark ignition engine. The research engine had been designed to incorporate full bore overhead optical access capable of withstanding peak in-cylinder pressures of up to 150bar. An experiment was designed where a fully formulated synthetic lubricant was deliberately introduced through a specially modified direct fuel injector to target the exhaust area of the bore. Optical imaging was performed via natural light emission, with the events recorded at 6000 frames per second. Two port injected fuels were evaluated including a baseline commercial grade gasoline and low octane gasoline/n-heptane blend. The images revealed the location of deflagration sites consistently initiating from the lubricant itself.
Technical Paper

Influence of Different Oil Properties on Low-Speed Pre-Ignition in Turbocharged Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engines

2016-04-05
2016-01-0718
In recent years concern has arisen over a new combustion anomaly, which was not commonly associated with naturally aspirated engines. This phenomenon referred to as Low-Speed Pre-Ignition (LSPI), which often leads to potentially damaging peak cylinder pressures, is the most important factor limiting further downsizing and the potential CO2 benefits that it could bring. Previous studies have identified several potential triggers for pre-ignition where engine oil seems to have an important influence. Many studies [1], [2] have reported that detached oil droplets from the piston crevice volume lead to auto-ignition prior to spark ignition. Furthermore, wall wetting and subsequently oil dilution [3] and changes in the oil properties by impinging fuel on the cylinder wall seem to have a significant influence in terms of accumulation and detachment of oil-fuel droplets in the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Combustion Knock on the Instantaneous Heat Flux in Spark Ignition Engines

2016-04-05
2016-01-0700
Knocking combustion places a major limit on the performance and efficiency of spark ignition engines. Spontaneous ignition of the unburned air-fuel mixture ahead of the flame front leads to a rapid release of energy, which produces pressure waves that cause the engine structure to vibrate at its natural frequencies and produce an audible ‘pinging’ sound. In extreme cases of knock, increased temperatures and pressures in the cylinder can cause severe engine damage. Damage is thought to be caused by thermal strain effects that are directly related to the heat flux. Since it will be the maximum values that are potentially the most damaging, then the heat flux needs to be measured on a cycle-by-cycle basis. Previous work has correlated heat flux with the pressure fluctuations on an average basis, but the work here shows a correlation on a cycle-by-cycle basis. The in-cylinder pressure and surface temperature were measured using a pressure transducer and eroding-type thermocouple.
Technical Paper

CO2 Emission Reduction Synergies of Advanced Engine Design and Fuel Octane Number

2014-10-13
2014-01-2610
Engine downsizing is a key approach employed by many vehicle manufacturers to help meet fleet average CO2 emissions targets. With gasoline engines in particular reducing engine swept volume while increasing specific output via technologies such as turbocharging, direct injection (DI) and variable valve timing can significantly reduce frictional and pumping losses in engine operating areas commonly encountered in legislative drive cycles. These engines have increased susceptibility to abnormal combustion phenomena such as knock due to the high brake mean effective pressures which they generate. This ultimately limits fuel efficiency benefits by demanding use of a lower geometric compression ratio and sub-optimal late combustion phasing at the higher specific loads experienced by these engines.
Technical Paper

Effect of Octane Number on the Performance of Euro 5 and Euro 6 Gasoline Passenger Cars

2017-03-28
2017-01-0811
Research Octane Number (RON) and Motor Octane Number (MON) are used to describe gasoline combustion which describe antiknock performance under different conditions. Recent literature suggests that MON is less important than RON in modern cars and a relaxation in the MON specification could improve vehicle performance. At the same time, for the same octane number change, increasing RON appears to provide more benefit to engine power and acceleration than reducing MON. Some workers have advocated the use of an octane index (OI) which incorporates both parameters instead of either RON or MON to give an indication of gasoline knock resistance. Previous Concawe work investigated the effect of RON and MON on the power and acceleration performance of two Euro 4 gasoline passenger cars during an especially-designed acceleration test cycle.
Journal Article

Influence of Different Fuel Properties and Gasoline - Ethanol Blends on Low-Speed Pre-Ignition in Turbocharged Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engines

2016-04-05
2016-01-0719
In recent years a new combustion phenomenon called Low-Speed Pre-Ignition (LSPI) occurred, which is the most important limiting factor to exploit further downsizing potential due to the associated peak pressures and thus the huge damage potential. In the past there were already several triggers for pre-ignitions identified, whereat engine oil seems to have an important influence. Other studies have reported that detached oil droplets from the piston crevice volume lead to auto-ignition prior to spark ignition. However, wall wetting and subsequently oil dilution and changes in the oil properties by impinging fuel on the cylinder wall seem to have a significant influence in terms of accumulation and detachment of oil-fuel droplets in the combustion chamber. For this reason, the influence of test fuels with different volatility were investigated in order to verify their influence on wall wetting, detachment and pre-ignition tendency.
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