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Technical Paper

The Effect of Operating Conditions at Idle in the S.I. Engine

1997-10-01
972990
A gasoline engine with an electronically controlled fuel injection system has substantially better fuel economy and lower emissions than a carburetted engine. In general, the stability of engine operation is improved with fuel injector, but the stability of engine operation at idle is not improved compared with a carburetted gasoline engine. In addition, the increase in time that an engine is at idle due to traffic congestion has an effect on the engine stability and vehicle reliability. Therefore, in this research, we will study the influence of fuel injection timing, spark timing, dwell angle, and air-fuel ratio on engine stability at idle.
Technical Paper

Flame Shape Determination Using an Optical-Fiber Spark Plug and a Head-Gasket Ionization Probe

1994-10-01
941987
A method for determining the flame contour based on the flame arrival time at the fiber optic (FO) spark plug and at the head gasket ionization probe (IP) locations has been developed. The experimental data were generated in a single-cylinder Ricardo Hydra spark-ignition engine. The head gasket IP, constructed from a double-sided copper-clad circuit board, detects the flame arrival time at eight equally spaced locations at the top of the cylinder liner. Three other IP's were also installed in the cylinder head to provide additional intermediate data on flame location and arrival time. The FO spark plug consists of a standard spark plug with eight symmetrically spaced optical fibers located in the ground casing of the plug. The cylinder pressure was recorded simultaneously with the eleven IP signals and the eight optical signals using a high-speed PC-based data acquisition system.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Smoke Emission Dependent upon Engine Operating Conditions

1997-05-01
971658
Smoke is emitted in diesel engines because fuel injected into the combustion chamber burns with insufficient oxygen. The emission smoke from diesel engines is a very important air pollution problem. Smoke emission, which is believed to be largely related to the diffusion combustion in diesel engines, results from pyrolysis of fuel not mixed with air. Therefore, the smoke emission is dependent on diffusion combustion phenomena, which are controlled by engine parameters. This paper presents an analysis of combustion by relating the smoke emission with heat release in diesel engines. An analysis is made of the diffusion combustion quantity, the smoke emission, and the fraction of diffusion combustion as related to the engine parameters which are air-fuel ratio, injection timing, and engine speed.
Technical Paper

Performance and NOx Emissions Modeling of a Jet Ignition Prechamber Stratified Charge Engine

1976-02-01
760161
The development of a cycle simulation model for the jet ignition prechamber stratified charge engine is described. Given the engine geometry, load, speed, air-fuel ratios and pressures and temperatures in the two intakes, flow ratio and a suitable combustion model, the cycle simulation predicts engine indicated efficiency and NO emissions. The relative importance of the parameters required to define the combustion model are then determined, and values for ignition delay and burn angle are obtained by matching predicted and measured pressure-time curves. The variation in combustion parameters with engine operating variables is then examined. Predicted and measured NO emissions are compared, and found to be in reasonable agreement over a wide range of engine operation. The relative contribution of the prechamber NO to total exhaust NO is then examined, and in the absence of EGR, found to be the major source of NO for overall air-fuel ratios leaner than 22:1.
Technical Paper

A New Approach to Ethanol Utilization: High Efficiency and Low NOx in an Engine Operating on Simulated Reformed Ethanol

2008-10-06
2008-01-2415
The use of hydrogen as a fuel supplement for lean-burn engines at higher compression ratios has been studied extensively in recent years, with good promise of performance and efficiency gains. With the advances in reformer technology, the use of a gaseous fuel stock, comprising of substantially higher fractions of hydrogen and other flammable reformate species, could provide additional improvements. This paper presents the performance and emission characteristics of a gas mixture of equal volumes of hydrogen, CO, and methane. It has recently been reported that this gas mixture can be produced by reforming of ethanol at comparatively low temperature, around 300C. Experiments were performed on a 1.8-liter passenger-car Nissan engine modified for single-cylinder operation. Special pistons were made so that compression ratios ranging from CR= 9.5 to 17 could be used. The lean limit was extended beyond twice stoichiometric (up to lambda=2.2).
Technical Paper

The Effect of Combustion Knock on the Instantaneous Heat Flux in Spark Ignition Engines

2016-04-05
2016-01-0700
Knocking combustion places a major limit on the performance and efficiency of spark ignition engines. Spontaneous ignition of the unburned air-fuel mixture ahead of the flame front leads to a rapid release of energy, which produces pressure waves that cause the engine structure to vibrate at its natural frequencies and produce an audible ‘pinging’ sound. In extreme cases of knock, increased temperatures and pressures in the cylinder can cause severe engine damage. Damage is thought to be caused by thermal strain effects that are directly related to the heat flux. Since it will be the maximum values that are potentially the most damaging, then the heat flux needs to be measured on a cycle-by-cycle basis. Previous work has correlated heat flux with the pressure fluctuations on an average basis, but the work here shows a correlation on a cycle-by-cycle basis. The in-cylinder pressure and surface temperature were measured using a pressure transducer and eroding-type thermocouple.
Technical Paper

Air-Fuel Ratio Measurement Diagnostics During Cranking and Startup in a Port-Fuel-Injected Spark-Ignition Engine

2004-06-08
2004-01-1915
Cranking and startup fuel control has become increasingly important due to ever tightening emission requirements. Additionally, engine-off strategies during idle will require substantially more engine startup events with the associated need for very clean starts. Thus, knowledge of an engine's Air-Fuel Ratio (AFR) during its early cycles is necessary in order to optimize cranking and startup fueling. This paper examines and compares two methods of measuring an engine's AFR during engine startup (approximately the first second of operation); an in-cylinder technique using a Fast Flame Ionization Detector (FFID) and the conventional exhaust based Universal Exhaust Gas Oxygen (UEGO) sensor method. Engine starts using a Ford Zetec engine were performed at three different temperatures (0, 20 and 90 C) as well as different initial engine starting positions.
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