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Technical Paper

Aircraft Noise Source Identification Using a Microphone Array: Montreal-Trudeau Airport Test Campaign

2013-09-17
2013-01-2129
This paper summarizes the techniques used during a microphone array test campaign performed at Pierre-Elliott-Trudeau Airport in Montréal, Québec (Canada) during the summer of 2012. Emphasis is put on the actual measurement campaign as only a limited amount of analysis has been performed at this stage. An aircraft position tracking tool is presented along with the beamforming algorithms that were used. Over 500 aircraft were recorded during this test. A comparison of known tonal sources associated to a specific aircraft type is made between different airlines in order to evaluate the repeatability of the method.
Technical Paper

Considerations on the Use of Hydrophobic, Superhydrophobic or Icephobic Coatings as a Part of the Aircraft Ice Protection System

2013-09-17
2013-01-2108
Ice adhesion on critical aircraft surfaces is a serious potential hazard that runs the risk of causing accidents. For this reason aircraft are equipped with active ice protection systems (AIPS). AIPS increase fuel consumption and add complexity to the aircraft systems. Reducing energy consumption of the AIPS or replacing the AIPS by a Passive Ice Protection System (PIPS), could significantly reduce aircraft fuel consumption. New coatings with superhydrophobic properties have been developed to reduce water adherence to surfaces. Superhydrophobic coatings can also reduce ice adhesion on surfaces and are used as icephobic coatings. The question is whether superhydrophobic or icephobic coatings would be able to reduce the cost associated with AIPS.
Technical Paper

The State of PRM Accessibility in Single Aisle Commercial Aircraft

2013-09-17
2013-01-2309
The aging of the world population, and call for greater equality in access to public environments has led to an increase in design for persons with reduced mobility (PRM). There are numerous physical and operational constraints and parameters to overcome when designing a successful and marketable PRM environment. Each program evaluates what is to be considered reasonable based on these guidelines (cost, weight, manufacturability, airframe curvature, footprint required, regulations, and usability). However, there are other less tangible parameters to address. For example, what level of dignity or level of privacy does the PRM environment allow? Does the design require additional assistance to access, or can those who are able make independent use of the environment? Most aircraft manufacturers and design entities have recognized the need to improve accessibility aboard single aisle commercial aircraft (Airbus 320 family, Boeing 737, Embraer 190, Bombardier CSERIES).
Technical Paper

Design of a Human-Powered Aircraft Applying Multidisciplinary Optimization Method

2013-09-17
2013-01-2318
A particular field of aerospace engineering is dedicated to the study of aircraft that are so energetically efficient, that the power produced by a human being enables it to takeoff and maintain sustained flight without any external or stored energy. These aircraft are known as Human-Powered Aircraft (HPA). The objective of the present work is to design a single-seat HPA applying multidisciplinary optimization techniques with an objective function that minimizes both the power required and the stall speed, representing respectively, an easier and safer aircraft to fly. In the first stage, a parametric synthesis model is created to generate random aircraft and assess their aerodynamic(utilizing a 3D vortex lattice method code and a component drag buildup method for the drag polar), stability and control(utilizing static stability criteria), weight (estimated using historical data) and performance (using the thus calculated data) characteristics.
Technical Paper

A Methodology for Systems Integration in Aircraft Conceptual Design - Estimation of Required Space

2013-09-17
2013-01-2235
This paper presents a methodology for conceptual aircraft design to evaluate the space available for systems (top-down approach) and to estimate the space required for critical components impacting the aircraft configuration (bottom-up approach). The presented top-down approach introduces the concept of “equivalent design volume”, including the space required for systems and the associated empty space to access, maintain and ventilate them. This approach enables an early feasibility check for aircraft configuration exploration regarding the integration and installation of systems, without having to detail the system architecture. In complement, the bottom-up approach introduces the estimation of the required dimensions for critical components. Here, the example of the flight control actuators integration in the wing tip is presented.
Technical Paper

An Electrical Load Estimation Tool for Aircraft Conceptual Design

2013-09-17
2013-01-2206
During the development of an aircraft, a comprehensive understanding of the electrical load profile is essential to properly estimate the required electrical power to be generated and distributed by the electrical system, also known as EPGDS - Electrical Power Generation and Distribution System. By sizing the EPGDS early in the development process, system parameters like weight and volume can be estimated and applied to the multidisciplinary design optimization process, in search for optimized design solutions at the conceptual aircraft level when developing integrated aircraft systems. With this in mind, a methodology was developed to estimate the amount of electrical power required by the aircraft systems during a typical mission flight cycle.
Technical Paper

Structural Health Monitoring in Civil Aviation: Applications and Integration

2013-09-17
2013-01-2220
In civil aviation the main driver for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) is to provide maintenance and ownership benefits. The maintenance benefits are defined in terms of improving maintenance planning, increasing inspection intervals and reducing inspection cost. The ownership benefits can be measured in residual value and life extension. In this paper different aspects of SHM implementation are discussed for fatigue monitoring and fatigue damage sensing with a consideration of minimizing challenges for SHM implementation. First, the current Fatigue Monitoring implementation scenarios for the most representative agile military aircraft are reviewed. In the following some aircraft utilization results obtained from analyzing different airlines are presented. The obtained results show a better possibility of categorizing fleet of an airline in comparison with agile military aircraft.
Technical Paper

Flying Qualities Evaluation of a Commuter Aircraft with an Ice Contaminated Tailplane

2000-05-09
2000-01-1676
During the NASA/FAA Tailplane Icing Program, pilot evaluations of aircraft flying qualities were conducted with various ice shapes attached to the horizontal tailplane of the NASA Twin Otter Icing Research Aircraft. Initially, only NASA pilots conducted these evaluations, assessing the differences in longitudinal flight characteristics between the baseline or clean aircraft, and the aircraft configured with an Ice Contaminated Tailplane (ICT). Longitudinal tests included Constant Airspeed Flap Transitions, Constant Airspeed Thrust Transitions, zero-G Pushovers, Repeat Elevator Doublets, and, Simulated Approach and Go-Around tasks. Later in the program, guest pilots from government and industry were invited to fly the NASAT win Otter configured with a single full-span artificial ice shape attached to the leading edge of the horizontal tailplane.
Technical Paper

The Bombardier Flight Test Center - Meeting the Challenge

2000-10-10
2000-01-5502
In 1991, shortly after acquiring Learjet, Bombardier consolidated all flight testing of new aircraft at the Wichita, Kansas facility. Since then, nine new aircraft were certified, and the Flight Test Center grew from 20 dedicated flight test personnel, to nearly 500 dedicated flight test personnel. The Canadian based company in conjunction with several international risk sharing partners, has created a highly dynamic flight test environment, tasking the Flight Test Center with the challenge of bringing a new product to market each year. This rapid growth was centered on supporting three aircraft product lines; Learjet, Canadair, and DeHavilland. New hangars, telemetry, and ground support facilities were built to accommodate the increased flight test demands. The Bombardier Flight Test Center, otherwise known as BFTC, conducts flight test operations on a seven day per week schedule, and in 1999, flew over 5000 flight test hours in development and certification testing.
Technical Paper

Maintenance Action Based on the Time Dependent Failure Rate for Safety–Critical Components

2003-09-08
2003-01-2984
The aircraft components' lifetime is a key decision–making metric for the performance of safety–critical items. The piece–part degradation and age–related changes are critical from the perspective of design and continued airworthiness. The most obvious issue during design development is to establish the need for planned replacement for components that are known to have a limited life. During investigation of an airworthiness issue, it is necessary to determine if the anomaly is time–dependent. If it is, then the anticipated failure probability as a function of time must be estimated such that a decision regarding corrective action can be made. For both cases, an analysis must be performed to determine if and when planned replacement is necessary. Because unanticipated retrofits are costly and difficult, credible and accurate lifetime prediction is essential.
Technical Paper

Drag Prediction Using the Euler/Navier-Stokes Code FANSC

2003-09-08
2003-01-3022
Aerodynamic drag predictions using the block-structured Euler/Navier-Stokes flow solver FANSC, developed at Bombardier Aerospace for the analysis of the flow around complete aircraft configurations, are presented in this paper. To this end, the traditional far-field method, complemented with semi-empirical relations, is used for evaluating induced, form and viscous drag on a complete aircraft configuration from Euler/boundary-layer flow solutions. Recent advances in Navier-Stokes CFD methods technology are also used to yield near-field integration of the aerodynamic forces. Theoretical developments are briefly discussed on the numerical methods: the basic flow solver (discretization, time-integration, etc…), Euler/boundary-layer coupling methods (direct, semi-inverse and quasi-simultaneous) and Navier-Stokes method. The far-field and near-field drag prediction methods are discussed with emphasis on the relationship they carry with the CFD flow solution.
Technical Paper

Contending with Airframe Icing

2002-04-16
2002-01-1518
Pilots need to be aware, under certain icing conditions, of the limitations of ice protection on their particular aircraft. FAA certification for flight into known icing does not ensure complete safety of flight in all icing encounters regardless of skills or aircraft capability. Too many accidents where icing was a contributing factor attest to these facts. Most of the time flight crews will not encounter an extremely severe condition. However, icing conditions are so widely variable that by chance they will encounter a condition in which they are unprepared. Many years of flight research in icing by the authors have provided the opportunity to experience and measure a wide range of icing conditions in which the performance losses and flying qualities of the aircraft were determined. These results are described in this paper.
Technical Paper

Multi-level Modeling Methodology for Aircraft Thermal Architecture Design

2018-10-30
2018-01-1910
This paper proposes a new methodology to conduct thermal analysis in the conceptual phase of the aircraft development process. Traditionally, thermal analysis is conducted after the system architecture has already been defined. The aircraft system thermal environment evaluation may lead to late design changes that can have a significant impact on the development process. To reduce the risk of late design changes, thermal requirements need to be defined and validated in the conceptual design phase. This research paper introduces a novel multi-level modeling strategy based on a bottom-up approach. It proposes an automatic geometrical simplification procedure for Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis, a methodology for the generation of analytical correlations based on highly detailed methods, and a thermal risk assessment approach based on dimensionless numbers.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Systems Engineering Methodology for Implementing Networked Aircraft Control System on Integrated Modular Avionics – Environmental Control System Case Study

2018-10-30
2018-01-1943
Integrated modular avionics (IMA) architectures host multiple federated avionics applications on a single platform and provide benefits in terms of size, weight, and power, which, however, leads to increased complexity, especially during the development process. To cope efficiently with the high level of complexity, a novel, structured development methodology is required. This paper presents a model-based systems engineering (MBSE) development approach for the so-called “distributed integrated modular architecture” (DIMA). The proposed methodology adapts the open-source Capella tool, based on the Architecture Analysis & Design Integrated Approach (ARCADIA) methodology, to implement a complete design cycle, starting with requirements captured from the aircraft level to streamline the development, culminating in the integration of an avionics application into an ARINC 653 platform.
Technical Paper

More About Lightning Induced Effects on Systems in a Composite Aircraft

2013-09-17
2013-01-2156
In order to guarantee systems immunity, lightning induced electromagnetic energy has to be lower than the system's susceptibility threshold. This can be achieved, if the aircraft structure provides a good protection against lightning current as well as against its electromagnetic induced field. Moreover such a structure is also required to constitute a ground plane that guarantees very low common mode impedance between all grounded systems in order to keep them at the same electrical potential. The interaction of lightning with aircraft structure, and the coupling of induced energy with harnesses and systems inside the airframe, is a complex phenomenon, mainly for composite aircraft. Composite structures are either not conductive at all (e.g., fiberglass) or are significantly less conductive than metals (e.g., carbon fiber).
Technical Paper

Efficient 3D Artificial Ice Shapes Simulations with 2D Ice Accretion Codes using a 3-Level Correction

2013-09-17
2013-01-2136
3D ice accretion codes have been available for a few decades but, depending on the specific application, their use may be cumbersome, time consuming and requiring a great deal of expertise in using the code. In particular, simulations of large 3D glaze ice accretions using multiple layers of ice is a very challenging and time consuming task. There are several reasons why 2D icing simulations tools are still widely used in the aircraft industry to produce realistic glaze ice shapes. 2D codes are very fast and robust, with a very short turn-around time. They produce adequate results in areas of the aircraft where 3D effects on airflow or droplets concentration can be neglected. Their use can be extended to other areas of the aircraft if relevant 3D effects can be taken into account. This paper proposes a simulation methodology that includes three levels of corrections to extend the use of 2D icing codes to most of the aircraft surfaces.
Technical Paper

An Anecdote - Order of Magnitude Cost and Time Reduction in Delivering an Aircraft Manufacturing Solution

2013-09-17
2013-01-2335
From purchase order to production womb-to-tomb in 5 months to the day, Bombardier's Fuselage Assembly line was upgraded and made into a fuselage automated assembly pulse line. This was accomplished with a factory move of the assembly line while maintaining production of this legacy line without missing one aircraft. Early in 2012, a bold decision was made to change the plan from a manual process to an automated process and implemented on schedule. This was applying automation to a legacy aircraft assembly line. It worked. Both technology and recurring cost savings will be addressed in this paper.
Technical Paper

Aircraft Safety Monitoring and Assessment Practices

2001-09-11
2001-01-2639
Aircraft systems are designed with reliability, safety and cost effectiveness in mind. The certification of the aircraft is based on tests and results of theoretical analyses that show the compliance with the FAR/JAR requirements. Monitoring for safety for in-service aircraft is an important, critical and extremely complex process. The ultimate objective is to assure that the safety level is equal to the original estimate or better. The manufacturer of the aircraft is particularly responsible for overall monitoring and assessment of all safety related events and corrective actions. Many different philosophies were adopted for this purpose. The safety monitoring and audit strategy is generally based on experience, engineering judgment, event analysis and numerical quantification by using probability theory and statistical tools. The aircraft sequential entry in the service and the aging of their components lead to the non-homogeneity of the fleet.
Journal Article

Processing CSeries Aircraft Panels

2013-09-17
2013-01-2149
Bombardier faced new manufacturing process challenges drilling and fastening CSeries* aircraft panels with multi-material stacks of composite (CFRP), titanium and aluminum in which Gemcor responded with a unique, flexible CNC Drivmatic® automatic fastening system, now in production at Bombardier. This joint technical paper is presented by Bombardier, expounding on manufacturing process challenges with the C Series aircraft design requirements and Gemcor presenting a unique solution to automatically fasten CFRP aft fuselage panels and aluminum lithium (Al Li) cockpit panels with the same CNC Drivmatic® system. After installation and preliminary acceptance at Bombardier, the CNC system was further enhanced to automatically fasten the carbon fiber pressure bulkhead dome assembly.
Journal Article

Electromagnetic Protection Hazards on Composite versus Metallic Aircraft

2013-09-17
2013-01-2157
The lightning represents a fundamental threat to the proper operation of aircraft systems. For aircraft protection, Electromagnetic Compatibility requires conductive structure that will provide among all, electromagnetic shielding and protection from HIRF and atmospheric electricity threat. The interaction of lightning with aircraft structure, and the coupling of induced energy with harnesses and systems inside the airframe, is a complex subject mainly for composite aircraft. The immunity of systems is governed by their susceptibility to radiated or conducted electromagnetic energy. The driving mechanism of such susceptibility to lightning energy is the exposure to the changing magnetic field inside the aircraft and IR voltage produced by the flow of current through the structural resistance of the aircraft. The amplitude of such magnetic field and IR voltage is related to the shielding effectiveness of the aircraft skin (wiremesh, composite conductivity).
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