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Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Catalysts - A Novel Approach to Reduce Hydrocarbon Emissions from Spark-Ignition Engines

1995-10-01
952419
A novel approach was proposed and investigated to reduce unburned hydrocarbon emissions from spark-ignition engines using in-cylinder catalysts. The unburned hydrocarbons in spark-ignition engines arise primarily from sources near the combustion chamber walls, such as flame quenching at the entrance of crevice volumes and at the combustion chamber wall, and the absorption and desorption of fuel vapour into oil layers on the cylinder wall. The proximity of these sources of unburned hydrocarbons to the wall means that they can be reduced significantly by simply using in-cylinder catalysts on the combustion chamber walls, in particular on the surfaces of the crevice volumes. A platinum-rhodium coating was deposited on the top and side surfaces of the piston crown, and its effects on the engine combustion and emission characteristics were examined in this experimental investigation.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Mixture Excursions in a Port-Injected Engine During Fast Throttle Opening

1994-03-01
940382
Fast throttle opening in port-injected gasoline engines often results in a lean air-fuel ratio excursion lasting several engine cycles. Even when the engine is equipped with a three-way catalyst this lean excursion can lead to high tailpipe emissions. This paper will describe an in-cylinder method of measuring these air-fuel ratio excursions, using a fast flame ionisation detector. Examples will be given of air-fuel ratio excursions obtained on a four-valve-per-cylinder sequentially-injected gasoline engine equipped with a lambda sensor. The air-fuel ratio excursions together with measurements of the engine air flow are used to estimate me build up of the fuel film on the inlet manifold walls. Whilst air-fuel ratio excursions have been recorded previously by other investigators, their results were obtained from exhaust gas analysis using fast oxygen sensors.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Soot Formation in a High-Speed Direct-injection Diesel Engine

1996-02-01
960841
A number of tests were conducted on a 2.5 litre, high-speed, direct-injection diesel engine running at various loads and speeds. The aim of the tests was to gain understanding which would lead to more effective use of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) for controlling exhaust NOx whilst minimising the penalties of increased smoke emission and fuel consumption. In addition to exhaust emission measurements, in-cylinder sampling of combustion gases was carried out using a fast-acting, snatch-sampling valve. The results showed that the effectiveness of EGR was enhanced considerably by cooling the EGR. In addition to more effective NOx control, this measure also improved volumetric efficiency which assisted in the control of smoke emission and fuel consumption. This second of two papers on the use of EGR in diesel engines deals with the effects of EGR on soot emission and on the engine fuel economy.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Combustion and NOx Emissions in a High-Speed Direct-injection Diesel Engine

1996-02-01
960840
A number of tests were conducted on a 2.5 litre, high-speed, direct-injection diesel engine running at various loads and speeds. The aim of the tests was to gain understanding which would lead to more effective use of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) for controlling exhaust NOx. In addition to exhaust emission measurements, extensive in-cylinder sampling of combustion gases was carried out using a fast-acting, snatch-sampling valve. The results showed that the effectiveness of EGR in suppressing NOx was enhanced considerably by intercooling the inlet charge and by cooling the EGR. A companion paper (SAE 960841) deals with the effects of EGR on soot formation and emission [1].
Technical Paper

Non-Linear Instabilities of Combustion Processes and Cycle-to-Cycle Variations in Spark-Ignition Engines

1996-05-01
961197
A numerical study was performed to elucidate the link between cyclic combustion variations in spark-ignition engines and instabilities in the non-linear processes occurring during the combustion. The instabilities in combustion were investigated by examining the response of a two-zone phenomenological combustion models to small deviations of mixture and flow conditions in the cylinder, such as the turbulence intensity at ignition, the overall equivalent ratio and the local equivalent ratio around the ignition site. The predicted combustion characteristics were validated and in good agreement with experimental data obtained from a single-cylinder research engine. The study suggested that the main deficiency of combustion in spark-ignition engines is the point-source ignition: it gives rise to slow development of initial flame; variations of the intermittent combustion process can occur when initial conditions at the ignition site are not repeatable from cycle to cycle.
Technical Paper

A Mathematical Model for In-Cylinder Catalytic Oxidation of Hydrocarbons in Spark-Ignition Engines

1996-05-01
961196
Our earlier experimental study has shown that exhaust unburnt hydrocarbon emissions from spark-ignition engines can be reduced effectively by using in-cylinder catalysts on the surface of the piston top-land crevice. In order to improve the understanding of the process and mechanism by means of which unburnt hydrocarbon emissions are reduced, a phenomenological mathematical model was developed for catalytic oxidation processes in the piston-ring-pack crevice. This paper describes in details the modelling of the processes of the gas flow, mass diffusion and reaction kinetics in the crevices. The flow in the crevices is assumed to be isothermal and at the temperature of the piston crown surface. The overall rate of reaction is calculated using expressions for mass diffusion for laminar flows in channels and a first-order Arrhenius-type expression for catalytic reaction kinetics of hydrocarbon oxidation over platinum.
Technical Paper

Time-Resolved Measurements and Analysis of In-Cylinder Gases and Particulates in Compression-Ignition Engines

1996-05-01
961168
The extraction of small quantities of gas and particulates from diesel engine cylinders allows time-resolved gas and particulate analysis to be performed outside the engine during a short window of a few degrees crank angle at any stage of the engine cycle. The paper describes the design features and operation of a high-speed, intermittent sampling valve for extracting in-cylinder gases and particulates from diesel engines at any selected instant of the combustion process. Various sampling valve configurations are outlined. Detailed analysis of gas flow through the valve and the performance of the electromagnetic actuator and plunger are given in order to facilitate the design of the sampling valve. Finally, examples of the uses of the sampling valve in a direct-injection diesel engine are provided. These demonstrate how gaseous emissions such as NOx, uHC, CO2, and particulate emissions can be sampled at any part of the combustion process and analysed.
Technical Paper

A Guide to Measurement of Flame Temperature and Soot Concentration in Diesel Engines Using the Two-Colour Method Part I: Principles

1994-10-01
941956
The two-colour method is based on optical pyrometry and can readily be implemented at a modest cost for the measurement of the instantaneous flame temperature and soot concentration in the cylinders of diesel engines. With appropriate modification, this method can be applied to other continuous and intermittent combustion systems, such as those for gas turbine and boiler burners. This paper outlines the theoretical basis of the method, with particular attention being paid to the assumptions relating to the evaluation of the flame temperature and soot concentration. A companion paper deals with the practical problems involved in constructing a working system, including suitable calibration techniques, and assessment of the method accuracy.
Technical Paper

A Guide to Measurement of Flame Temperature and Soot Concentration in Diesel Engines Using the Two-Colour Method Part 2: Implementation

1994-10-01
941957
The measurement of the instantaneous flame temperature and soot concentration in the combustion chamber of a running diesel engine can provide useful information relating to the formation of two important exhaust pollutants, NOx and particulates. The two-colour method is based on optical pyrometry and it can provide estimates of the instantaneous flame temperature and soot concentration. The theoretical basis of the method is outlined in a companion paper. This paper deals with the practical problems involved in the construction of a working system, including suitable calibration techniques. The accuracy of the measurements of flame temperature and soot concentration is also discussed using results from a various sources.
Technical Paper

The Effect on Engine Performance and NO Emissions of a Two-Stage Expansion Cycle in a Spark Ignition Engine

1997-10-01
972991
This paper presents the development of an engine simulation program for SI engines and its application to a two-stage expansion cycle. The two-stage expansion analysis is performed using the engine simulation, where a sudden expansion much faster than the normal expansion takes place during the expansion stroke. The changes in NO emissions and knock tolerance of the resulting new engine cycle are investigated for the same compression ratio. The changes in NO emissions and specific fuel consumption through increasing the compression ratio in order to return to the same amount of work done within the cycle are also studied.
Technical Paper

Assessment and Optimisation of the Instrumentation Used for Cetane Tests on Diesel Fuels

1992-10-01
922269
This paper is concerned with the performance of the sensors and associated instrumentation used for the standard cetane tests for diesel fuels according to the ASTM D-613 procedure. The two primary sensors are replaced by modern units, and the analogue monitoring system is replaced by a digital one; the changes in the performance of the instrumentation system are then assessed. It is shown that the main source of inaccuracy in the measurement of ignition delay (on which the cetane test is based) is cyclic instability in the start of combustion, and that the current instrumentation and monitoring methods do not cope well with this instability. Although some of the cyclic variation can be ascribed to the instrumentation system, a large part is contributed by variability in the fuel ignition and injection processes. Improvements to the instrumentation and monitoring systems are presented and assessed.
Technical Paper

Design and Analysis of a Roller Follower Variable Valve Timing System

1993-03-01
930824
A Variable Valve Timing system has been designed and rig tested for application on a high speed marine diesel engine. It has been demonstrated that inlet valve phasing is an appropriate way of reducing the flow of exhaust gas residuals, particularly at light loads, into the inlet manifold during valve overlap. The system described controls the position of the roller follower by means of an eccentric to allow the inlet valve events to be retarded by up to 40° crank angle. A kinematic model has been constructed to examine the tappet motion, and comparisons are made with measured values. Modelling of the lubrication regime at the roller, cam and tappet contact points is presented, to examine the system wear characteristics. Roller follower speed is measured to examine the prevailing lubrication regime. Rig results show that the VVT system is reliable and that the desired phasing of the valve events is obtained.
Technical Paper

Modelling and Measurements from a Natural Gas Fuelled Engine

1993-03-01
930927
A programme of work is being undertaken to improve the performance of a spark-ignited natural gas engine, that has been converted from a diesel engine. The aim of this work is to reduce the fuel consumption and NOx emissions. All experimental data and predictions refer to full throttle operation at 1500 rpm. The work to be reported here will include baseline tests that have been used to calibrate a two-zone combustion model. Particularly important are the predictions of the NOx emissions. The simulation has then been used to predict the effects of using: a higher compression ratio, and a faster burn combustion system. The design philosophy of the resulting fast burn combustion system is discussed, and some preliminary results are presented. There will be a discussion of the ignition parameters that affect the lean burn operation, and the effect of the spark plug gap position is discussed in the context of results from a phenomenological model of turbulent combustion.
Technical Paper

Review of Induction System Design and a Comparison Between Prediction and Results from a Single Cylinder Diesel Engine

1992-09-01
921727
Induction tuning is now used on a wide range of spark ignition and diesel engines. It has also been the subject of research and publications over many years. The literature on induction tuning is reviewed here, and contradictions are identified and clarified. The use of resonator volume systems are also discussed and the various ways of modelling these systems are compared. In order to reconcile the differing theories, and to attempt to clarify the means by which induction tuning occurs, experiments have been undertaken with a single cylinder diesel engine. This was chosen as a single cylinder engine represents the simplest system, and a diesel engine does not have fuel in the induction system (which would otherwise modify the thermodynamic properties. The experimental measurements include the instantaneous air mass flow rate entering the induction system, and the pressure at the inlet port.
Technical Paper

Combustion Analysis of Sunflower Oil in a Diesel Engine and its Impact on Lubricant Quality

1992-09-01
921631
Comparisons have been made between the ignition delay and combustion performance of sunflower oil and diesel fuel. The experimental results have been obtained in a naturally aspirated direct injection diesel engine, and particular attention has been given to the heat release analysis, ignition delay, combustion noise and lubricant degradation. The anomalous behaviour of sunflower oil is explained by reference to its physical properties and ignition quality, as reported in the literature from bomb tests. It is concluded that the power output and brake efficiency are largely unaffected by the use of the sunflower oil, and that lubricant degradation is not likely to be significant. However, the build up of combustion deposits already widely reported in the literature was observed. Suggestions are made as to how this might be ameliorated through modifications to the injection system.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Swirl in Unsteady Flow and its Effect on Diesel Combustion

1992-09-01
921643
The paper first describes three linked computational models which allow the estimation of: swirl generated during the induction process; the modification of swirl with bowl-in-piston combustion chambers during compression as the piston approaches top dead centre; the interaction of the fuel sprays with swirl including relative crosswind velocities between the air and the fuel sprays and spray impingement velocities. The paper then presents experimental results from a single-cylinder direct injection diesel engine, during which both the fuel spray and swirl parameters were changed systematically. Finally, the predicted spray impingement and crosswind velocities for this engine are correlated with the engine performance obtained experimentally, in particular, with fuel economy and smoke emission.
Technical Paper

Continuous Load Adjustment Strategy of a Gasoline HCCI-SI Engine Fully Controlled by Exhaust Gas

2011-04-12
2011-01-1408
Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) technology is promising to reduce engine exhaust emissions and fuel consumption. However, it is still confronted with the problem of its narrow operation range that covers only the light and medium loads. Therefore, to expand the operation range of HCCI, mode switching between HCCI combustion and transition SI combustion is necessary, which may bring additional problems to be resolved, including load fluctuation and increasing the complexity of control strategy, etc. In this paper, a continuously adjustable load strategy is proposed for gasoline engines. With the application of the strategy, engine load can be adjusted continuously by the in-cylinder residual gas fraction in the whole operation range. In this research, hybrid combustion is employed to bridge the gaps between HCCI and traditional SI and thus realize smooth transition between different load points.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics of CAI Combustion with Alcohol Fuels

2010-04-12
2010-01-0843
Due to its potential for simultaneous improvement in fuel consumption and exhaust emissions, controlled autoignition (CAI) combustion has been subject to continuous research in the last several years. At the same time, there has been a lot of interest in the use of alternative fuels in order to reduce reliance on conventional fossil fuels. Therefore, this experimental study has been carried out to investigate the effect of alcohol fuels on the CAI combustion process and on the resulting engine performance. The experimental work was conducted on an optical single cylinder engine with an air-assisted injector. To achieve controlled autoignition, residual gas was trapped in the cylinder by using negative valve overlap and an intake air heater was used to ensure stable CAI combustion in the optical engine. Methanol, ethanol and blended fuels were tested and compared with the results of gasoline.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Split Injection in a Single Cylinder Optical Diesel Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0605
Over the last decade, the diesel engine has made dramatic progress in its performance and market penetration. However, in order to meet future emissions legislations, Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) and particulate matters' (PM) emissions will need to be reduced simultaneously. Nowadays researchers are focused on different combustion modes which can have a great potential for both low soot and low NOx. In order to achieve this, different injection strategies have been investigated. This study investigates the effects of split injection strategies with high levels of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on combustion performance and emissions in a single-cylinder direct injection optical diesel engine. The investigation is focused on the effects of injection timing of split injection strategies. A Ricardo Hydra single-cylinder optical engine was used in which conventional experimental methods like cylinder pressure data, heat release analysis and exhaust emissions analysis were applied.
Technical Paper

Effects of Active Species in Residual Gas on Auto-Ignition in a HCCI Gasoline Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-1115
Chemical reaction kinetics plays an important role in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion. In order to control the combustion process, the underlying mechanism of auto-ignition must be explored, especially for the HCCI combustion using negative valve overlap (NVO) strategy, in which the residual gas affects the auto-ignition of next cycle remarkably. In this research, experimental research was carried out in a single cylinder gasoline engine equipped with an in-cylinder sampling system which mainly consists of a special spark plug, a sampling tube and a high-speed electromagnetic valve. In-cylinder charge was sampled at compression stroke and analyzed by FTIR with two types of fuel injection strategy, such as port fuel injection (PFI) solely and port fuel injection combined with injection during negative valve overlap (PFI & NVO-Injection).
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