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Technical Paper

Effects of Ethanol on Performance and Exhaust Emissions from a DI Spark Ignition Engine with Throttled and Unthrottled Operations

2014-04-01
2014-01-1393
In recent years, in order to develop more efficient and cleaner gasoline engines, a number of new engine operating strategies have been proposed and many have been studied on different engines but there is a lack of comparison between various operating strategies and alternative fuels at different SI modes. In this research, a single cylinder direct injection gasoline engine equipped with an electro-hydraulic valve train system has been commissioned and used to study and compare different engine operation modes. In this work, the fuel consumption, gaseous and particulate emissions of gasoline and its mixture with ethanol (E15 and E85) were measured and analysed when the engine was operated at the same load but with different load control methods by an intake throttle, reduced intake valve duration, and positive overlap.
Technical Paper

Lubricant Induced Pre-Ignition in an Optical SI Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1222
This work was concerned with study of lubricant introduced directly into the combustion chamber and its effect on pre-ignition and combustion in an optically accessed single-cylinder spark ignition engine. The research engine had been designed to incorporate full bore overhead optical access capable of withstanding peak in-cylinder pressures of up to 150bar. An experiment was designed where a fully formulated synthetic lubricant was deliberately introduced through a specially modified direct fuel injector to target the exhaust area of the bore. Optical imaging was performed via natural light emission, with the events recorded at 6000 frames per second. Two port injected fuels were evaluated including a baseline commercial grade gasoline and low octane gasoline/n-heptane blend. The images revealed the location of deflagration sites consistently initiating from the lubricant itself.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Cylinder Deactivation and Variable Valve Actuation on Gasoline Engine Performance

2014-04-01
2014-01-1170
Increasingly stringent regulations on gasoline engine fuel consumption and exhaust emissions require additional technology integration such as Cylinder Deactivation (CDA) and Variable valve actuation (VVA) to improve part load engine efficiency. At part load, CDA is achieved by closing the inlet and exhaust valves and shutting off the fuel supply to a selected number of cylinders. Variable valve actuation (VVA) enables the cylinder gas exchange process to be optimised for different engine speeds by changing valve opening and closing times as well as maximum valve lift. The focus of this study was the investigation of effect of the integration of the above two technologies on the performance of a gasoline engine operating at part load conditions. In this study, a 1.6 Litre in-line 4-cylinder gasoline engine is modelled on engine simulation software and simulated data is analysed to show improvements in fuel consumption, CO2 emissions, pumping losses and effects on CO and NOx emissions.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics of CAI Combustion with Alcohol Fuels

2010-04-12
2010-01-0843
Due to its potential for simultaneous improvement in fuel consumption and exhaust emissions, controlled autoignition (CAI) combustion has been subject to continuous research in the last several years. At the same time, there has been a lot of interest in the use of alternative fuels in order to reduce reliance on conventional fossil fuels. Therefore, this experimental study has been carried out to investigate the effect of alcohol fuels on the CAI combustion process and on the resulting engine performance. The experimental work was conducted on an optical single cylinder engine with an air-assisted injector. To achieve controlled autoignition, residual gas was trapped in the cylinder by using negative valve overlap and an intake air heater was used to ensure stable CAI combustion in the optical engine. Methanol, ethanol and blended fuels were tested and compared with the results of gasoline.
Journal Article

The Performance Characteristics of an Production Oriented Air Hybrid Powertrain

2010-04-12
2010-01-0821
In a previous paper [ 1 ], the authors have proposed a cost effective air hybrid concept based on a proprietary intake system and cam profile switching (CPS) system [ 2 ]. It was shown through engine simulations that the pneumatic hybrid operation could be achieved with about 15% regenerative efficiency. The proposed air hybrid operation can be achieved with proven technologies and engine components and hence it represents a cost-effective, reliable and quick deployable solution for low carbon vehicles. In this work, a four-cylinder 2 litre diesel engine has been modelled to operate on refined air hybrid engine configurations and the braking and motoring performance of each configuration have been studied. Both air hybrid systems can be constructed with production technologies and incur minimum changes to the existing engine design.
Technical Paper

A Model of Droplet Thermodynamic and Dynamic Behaviour in the Port of a Port-Injected Engine

1996-02-01
960467
A mathematical model has been developed which describes the evaporation and trajectories of fuel droplets during their flight in the inlet manifold of port-injected gasoline engines. Based on the model, a computer simulation program was developed, and sample results of this program are given in this paper. Extensive results obtained using the simulation program are described in a companion paper. The simulation program can be used as a tool to improve understanding of mixture preparation in port injected engines. Such effects as: engine load and speed, air and fuel temperature, fuel type, fuel injection velocity, injection timing, and spray droplet size can be investigated.
Technical Paper

On the Causes of In-Cylinder Air-Fuel Ratio Excursions During Load and Fuelling Transients in Port-Injected Spark-Ignition Engines

1996-02-01
960466
A novel experimental technique was used to investigate the in-cylinder air-fuel ratio excursions of a port-injected spark-ignition engine during load and fuel transients. This involved sampling directly from the engine cylinder using a fast flame ionisation detector (FID) system throughout an engine transient test. All tests were conducted with the coolant at the normal operating temperature of 90°C. The research engine used was a 1.6ltr four-cylinder multi-point fuel injection spark-ignition (SI) engine with four-valves-per-cylinder, with sequential injection and an electronic management system. The engine transient involved a rapid throttle opening within about 15msec. Various load steps were investigated at 2000rev/min along with the effect of altering the type of fuel injector.
Technical Paper

Performance and Analysis of a 4-Stroke Multi-Cylinder Gasoline Engine with CAI Combustion

2002-03-04
2002-01-0420
Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) combustion was realised in a production type 4-stroke 4-cylinder gasoline engine without intake charge heating or increasing compression ratio. The CAI engine operation was achieved using substantially standard components modified only in camshafts to restrict the gas exchange process The engine could be operated with CAI combustion within a range of load (0.5 to 4 bar BMEP) and speed (1000 to 3500 rpm). Significant reductions in both specific fuel consumption and CO emissions were found. The reduction in NOx emission was more than 93% across the whole CAI range. Though unburned hydrocarbons were higher under the CAI engine operation. In order to evaluate the potential of the CAI combustion technology, the European NEDC driving cycle vehicle simulation was carried out for two identical vehicles powered by a SI engine and a CAI/SI hybrid engine, respectively.
Technical Paper

Dilution Effects on the Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) Combustion of Hydrocarbon and Alcohol Fuels

2001-09-24
2001-01-3606
This paper presents results from an experimental programme researching the in-cylinder conditions necessary to obtain homogenous CAI (or HCCI) combustion in a 4-stroke engine. The fuels under investigation include three blends of Unleaded Gasoline, a 95 RON Primary Reference Fuel, Methanol, and Ethanol. This work concentrates on establishing the CAI operating range with regard to Air/Fuel ratio and Exhaust Gas Re-circulation and their effect on the ignition timing, combustion rate and variability, Indicated thermal efficiency, and engine-out emissions such as NOx. Detailed maps are presented, defining how each of the measured variables changes over the entire CAI region. Results indicate that the alcohols have significantly higher tolerance to dilution than the hydrocarbon fuels tested. Also, variations in Gasoline blend have little effect on any of the combustion parameters measured.
Technical Paper

Research and Development of Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) Combustion in a 4-Stroke Multi-Cylinder Gasoline Engine

2001-09-24
2001-01-3608
Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) combustion has been achieved in a production type 4-stroke multi-cylinder gasoline engine. The engine was based on a Ford 1.7L Zetec-SE 16V engine with a compression ratio of 10.3, using substantially standard components modified only in design dimensions to control the gas exchange process in order to significantly increase the trapped residuals. The engine was also equipped with Variable Cam Timing (VCT) on both the intake and exhaust camshafts. It was found that the largely increased trapped residuals alone were sufficient to achieve CAI in this engine and with VCT, a range of loads between 0.5 and 4 bar BMEP and engine speeds between 1000 and 3500 rpm were mapped for CAI fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. The measured CAI results were compared with those of Spark Ignition (SI) combustion in the same engine but with standard camshafts at the same speeds and loads.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Tumble and Swirl Motions in a Four-Valve SI Engine

2001-09-24
2001-01-3555
Tumble and swirl motions in the cylinder of a four-valve SI engine with production type cylinder head were investigated using a cross-correlation digital Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Tumble motion was measured on the vertical symmetric plane of the combustion chamber. Swirl motion was measured on a plane parallel to the piston crown with one of intake ports blocked. Large-scale flow behaviours and their cyclic variations were analysed from the measured two-dimensional velocity data. Results show that swirl motion is generated at the end of the intake stroke and persists to the end of the compression stroke. Tumble vortex is produced in the early stage of the compression stroke and distorted in the late stage of the stroke. The cyclic variation of swirl motion is noticeable. The cyclic variation in tumble dominated flow field is much greater.
Technical Paper

Modelling and Measurements from a Natural Gas Fuelled Engine

1993-03-01
930927
A programme of work is being undertaken to improve the performance of a spark-ignited natural gas engine, that has been converted from a diesel engine. The aim of this work is to reduce the fuel consumption and NOx emissions. All experimental data and predictions refer to full throttle operation at 1500 rpm. The work to be reported here will include baseline tests that have been used to calibrate a two-zone combustion model. Particularly important are the predictions of the NOx emissions. The simulation has then been used to predict the effects of using: a higher compression ratio, and a faster burn combustion system. The design philosophy of the resulting fast burn combustion system is discussed, and some preliminary results are presented. There will be a discussion of the ignition parameters that affect the lean burn operation, and the effect of the spark plug gap position is discussed in the context of results from a phenomenological model of turbulent combustion.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Swirl in Unsteady Flow and its Effect on Diesel Combustion

1992-09-01
921643
The paper first describes three linked computational models which allow the estimation of: swirl generated during the induction process; the modification of swirl with bowl-in-piston combustion chambers during compression as the piston approaches top dead centre; the interaction of the fuel sprays with swirl including relative crosswind velocities between the air and the fuel sprays and spray impingement velocities. The paper then presents experimental results from a single-cylinder direct injection diesel engine, during which both the fuel spray and swirl parameters were changed systematically. Finally, the predicted spray impingement and crosswind velocities for this engine are correlated with the engine performance obtained experimentally, in particular, with fuel economy and smoke emission.
Technical Paper

The Measurement and Analysis of Swirl in Steady Flow

1992-09-01
921642
The influence of swirl on combustion in diesel and spark ignition engines is reviewed briefly, and this leads to a resumé of the swirl measuring techniques. The numerous ways of analysing swirl data are summarised and the relations between the different swirl parameters are presented. Experimental results are presented from a diesel engine in which the flow has been measured by a hot wire anemometer, a paddle wheel and a swirl torquemeter. The performance of the different measurement techniques is compared. Further results are presented (from a spark ignition engine) which illustrate the influence of the inlet port, manifold and entry conditions on the swirl measurements. Integration techniques are reviewed for producing a single swirl parameter to characterise the combined performance of the inlet port, valve and camshaft. Finally, the difficulty in standardising measurements of barrel swirl are discussed.
Technical Paper

A Mathematical Model for In-Cylinder Catalytic Oxidation of Hydrocarbons in Spark-Ignition Engines

1996-05-01
961196
Our earlier experimental study has shown that exhaust unburnt hydrocarbon emissions from spark-ignition engines can be reduced effectively by using in-cylinder catalysts on the surface of the piston top-land crevice. In order to improve the understanding of the process and mechanism by means of which unburnt hydrocarbon emissions are reduced, a phenomenological mathematical model was developed for catalytic oxidation processes in the piston-ring-pack crevice. This paper describes in details the modelling of the processes of the gas flow, mass diffusion and reaction kinetics in the crevices. The flow in the crevices is assumed to be isothermal and at the temperature of the piston crown surface. The overall rate of reaction is calculated using expressions for mass diffusion for laminar flows in channels and a first-order Arrhenius-type expression for catalytic reaction kinetics of hydrocarbon oxidation over platinum.
Technical Paper

Time-Resolved Measurements and Analysis of In-Cylinder Gases and Particulates in Compression-Ignition Engines

1996-05-01
961168
The extraction of small quantities of gas and particulates from diesel engine cylinders allows time-resolved gas and particulate analysis to be performed outside the engine during a short window of a few degrees crank angle at any stage of the engine cycle. The paper describes the design features and operation of a high-speed, intermittent sampling valve for extracting in-cylinder gases and particulates from diesel engines at any selected instant of the combustion process. Various sampling valve configurations are outlined. Detailed analysis of gas flow through the valve and the performance of the electromagnetic actuator and plunger are given in order to facilitate the design of the sampling valve. Finally, examples of the uses of the sampling valve in a direct-injection diesel engine are provided. These demonstrate how gaseous emissions such as NOx, uHC, CO2, and particulate emissions can be sampled at any part of the combustion process and analysed.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Mixture Excursions in a Port-Injected Engine During Fast Throttle Opening

1994-03-01
940382
Fast throttle opening in port-injected gasoline engines often results in a lean air-fuel ratio excursion lasting several engine cycles. Even when the engine is equipped with a three-way catalyst this lean excursion can lead to high tailpipe emissions. This paper will describe an in-cylinder method of measuring these air-fuel ratio excursions, using a fast flame ionisation detector. Examples will be given of air-fuel ratio excursions obtained on a four-valve-per-cylinder sequentially-injected gasoline engine equipped with a lambda sensor. The air-fuel ratio excursions together with measurements of the engine air flow are used to estimate me build up of the fuel film on the inlet manifold walls. Whilst air-fuel ratio excursions have been recorded previously by other investigators, their results were obtained from exhaust gas analysis using fast oxygen sensors.
Technical Paper

A Guide to Measurement of Flame Temperature and Soot Concentration in Diesel Engines Using the Two-Colour Method Part 2: Implementation

1994-10-01
941957
The measurement of the instantaneous flame temperature and soot concentration in the combustion chamber of a running diesel engine can provide useful information relating to the formation of two important exhaust pollutants, NOx and particulates. The two-colour method is based on optical pyrometry and it can provide estimates of the instantaneous flame temperature and soot concentration. The theoretical basis of the method is outlined in a companion paper. This paper deals with the practical problems involved in the construction of a working system, including suitable calibration techniques. The accuracy of the measurements of flame temperature and soot concentration is also discussed using results from a various sources.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Catalysts - A Novel Approach to Reduce Hydrocarbon Emissions from Spark-Ignition Engines

1995-10-01
952419
A novel approach was proposed and investigated to reduce unburned hydrocarbon emissions from spark-ignition engines using in-cylinder catalysts. The unburned hydrocarbons in spark-ignition engines arise primarily from sources near the combustion chamber walls, such as flame quenching at the entrance of crevice volumes and at the combustion chamber wall, and the absorption and desorption of fuel vapour into oil layers on the cylinder wall. The proximity of these sources of unburned hydrocarbons to the wall means that they can be reduced significantly by simply using in-cylinder catalysts on the combustion chamber walls, in particular on the surfaces of the crevice volumes. A platinum-rhodium coating was deposited on the top and side surfaces of the piston crown, and its effects on the engine combustion and emission characteristics were examined in this experimental investigation.
Book

Engine Combustion Instrumentation and Diagnostics

2001-01-30
This book provides a complete description of instrumentation and in-cylinder measurement techniques for internal combustion engines. Written primarily for researchers and engineers involved in advanced research and development of internal combustion engines, the book provides an introduction to the instrumentation and experimental techniques, with particular emphasis on diagnostic techniques for in-cylinder measurements.
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