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Technical Paper

A Study of the Relative Benefits of On-Board Diagnostics and Inspection and Maintenance in California

California is considering adopting an enhanced Inspection and Maintenance (I&M) program (commonly referred to as Smog Check II) beginning with the 1996 calendar year. This program will utilize a targeting scheme to identify vehicles likely to be high emitters and send these vehicles to centralized testing facilities. The remaining fleet of vehicles will be sent to decentralized testing facilities. At these facilities, vehicles will be subjected to steady state loaded mode dynamometer based tests. Simultaneously, all 1996 and later model year passenger cars, light- and medium-duty trucks sold in California will be equipped with an On-Board Diagnostic (OBDII) system. This system is designed to monitor critical emission related components and activate a Malfunction Indicator Light (MIL) when a failure or a drift in calibration is likely to cause emissions to exceed 1.5 times the vehicle certification standards.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck Engine Smoke Opacities at High Altitude and at Sea Level

A study was conducted by the California Air Resources Board to investigate the effects that altitude has on in-use heavy-duty diesel truck smoke opacities. The understanding of these effects may allow for the establishment of a high altitude opacity standard for diesel trucks operating at or above altitudes of 5800 feet. During a three-week study, 170 heavy-duty diesel trucks were tested at an altitude of 5,820 feet using a test procedure consisting of rolling acceleration and snap idle tests. Eighty-four (84) of these trucks were recaptured and retested at an altitude of 125 feet. Results from a regression analysis indicates that, on average, truck smoke opacities increased by 23 opacity points when tested at altitudes near 6000 feet. Possible high altitude cutpoints and failure rates are also discussed.
Technical Paper

Laboratory Testing of a Continuous Emissions Monitor for Trace Level Sulfur Dioxide

The measurement of SO2 levels in vehicle exhaust can provide important information in understanding the relative contribution of sulfur and sulfate from fuel vs. oil source to PM. For this study, a differential optical absorption spectrometer (DOAS) that can measure SO2 down to 20 ppbV in real-time was built and evaluated. The DOAS consisted of an extractive sampling train, a cylindrical sampling cell with a single-path design to minimize cell volume, a spectrometer, and a deuterium lamp light source with a UVC range of ∼200-230 nanometer (nm). Laboratory tests showed detection limits were approximately in the range of 12 to 15 ppbV and showed good linearity over SO2 concentration ranges of 20 to 953 ppbV. Interference tests showed some interference by NO and by NH3, at levels of 300 ppmV and 16.6 ppmV, respectively.
Technical Paper

Transient Ultrafine Particle Emission Measurements with a New Fast Particle Aerosol Sizer for a Trap Equipped Diesel Truck

The California Air Resources Board (CARB) has tested the utility of the Model 3090 Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer (EEPS™) by TSI in measuring pre- and post-trap particulate matter (PM) emissions from a medium-duty truck. Pre- and post-trap measurements are used to evaluate the effect of engine operation on PM emissions and trap effectiveness. Because of mounting evidence that ultrafine (UF) particles are harmful, regulatory agencies are investigating new and promising instrumentation for improved characterization of such particles in emissions. This is especially true for fast-response instruments that can be used to size-resolve real-time UF emissions from prominent sources such as diesel engines. The EEPS uses diffusion charging, electrical mobility segregation, and electrometers. It is designed for the number measurement of transient aerosols in the size range of 5.6 to 560 nm. It collects 10 measurements per second at a flow rate of 10 lpm.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Ultrafine Particle Number Measurements from a Clean Diesel Truck Using the European PMP Protocol

The sampling protocol proposed by the international PMP program for determination of particle emissions from clean light-duty vehicles was applied to the emissions from a California heavy-duty trap-equipped diesel truck. CARB is interested in developing opinions about the potential of this new European approach for emission determination and in exploring its utility for use in California. In this exercise, the use of various commercially available instruments for counting and sizing particles in the context of the PMP recommendations are explored. A single vehicle on a chassis dynamometer was exercised over steady-state and transient cycles. Multiple measurements of gaseous, mass, and particle emissions were collected in order to determine statistical significance. The PMP approach yielded particle emission measurements with higher precision and accuracy than the reference mass-based emission measurement.
Technical Paper

Speciation of Organic Compounds from the Exhaust of Trucks and Buses: Effect of Fuel and After-Treatment on Vehicle Emission Profiles

A study was performed in the spring of 2001 to chemically characterize exhaust emissions from trucks and buses fueled by various test fuels and operated with and without diesel particle filters. This study was part of a multi-year technology validation program designed to evaluate the emissions impact of ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels and passive diesel particle filters (DPF) in several different heavy-duty vehicle fleets operating in Southern California. The overall study of exhaust chemical composition included organic compounds, inorganic ions, individual elements, and particulate matter in various size-cuts. Detailed descriptions of the overall technology validation program and chemical speciation methodology have been provided in previous SAE publications (2002-01-0432 and 2002-01-0433).
Technical Paper

Interlaboratory Cross-Check of Heavy-Duty Vehicle Chassis Dynamometers

Six laboratories capable of chassis-testing heavy-duty vehicles participated in a crosscheck program designed to compare emissions results from a Ford L-9000. The single-axle vehicle was shipped to each laboratory and tested through a series of UDDS and steady-state cycles. The resulting data were compared statistically using reproducibility and repeatability analyses. Although one lab produced some results that significantly differed from the other five, the remaining labs produced comparable results. TPM, CO and THC were the most variable while NOX and CO2 were most stable. Lab differences included atmospheric and environmental conditions, road-load curve application and drivers. Comparison of steady state and transient tests suggest that driver variability is not a major factor.