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Technical Paper

Analysis of Widespread Fatigue Damage in Lap Joints

This paper describes research to analyze widespread fatigue damage in lap joints. The particular objective is to determine when large numbers of small cracks could degrade the joint strength to an unacceptable level. A deterministic model is described to compute fatigue crack growth and residual strength of riveted panels that contain multiple cracks. Fatigue crack growth tests conducted to evaluate the predictive model are summarized, and indicate good agreement between experimental and numerical results. Monte Carlo simulations are then performed to determine the influence of statistical variability on various analysis parameters.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Nonlinear Elastomeric Mounts. Part 1: Dynamic Testing and Parameter Identification

A methodology for modeling elastomeric mounts as nonlinear lumped parameter models is discussed. A key feature of this methodology is that it integrates dynamic test results under different conditions into the model. The first step is to model the mount as a linear model that is simple but reproduces accurately results from dynamic tests under small excitations. Frequency Response Functions (FRF) enables systematic calculation of the parameters for the model. Under more realistic excitation, the mount exhibits non-linearity, which is investigated in the next step. For nonlinear structures, a simple and intuitive method is to use time-domain force-displacement (F-x) curves. Experiments to obtain the F-x curves involve controlling the displacement excitation and measuring the induced forces. From the F-x curves, stiffness and damping parameters are obtained with an optimization technique.
Technical Paper

A Parametric Simulation Model for Analyzing the Performance of a Steel-Tracked Feller Buncher

A parametric simulation model of a steel-tracked feller buncher was developed1. This model can be used to predict the lift capacity, side tipping angles, grade-ability, and joint forces during a cutting cycle. The feller buncher is defined parametrically, allowing the user to quickly analyze different machine configurations simply by changing the value of a variable. Several simulations were performed to illustrate the application of the model.
Technical Paper

The Caterpillar D9L Impact Ripper

Caterpillar has introduced a new concept that shatters previous ripping limitations. The D9L Impact Ripper has extended the ripping capacity and productivity of the standard ripper tractor in heavy construcion, mining, and quarry applications. This paper describes the design objectives, development program, component selection, and the demonstrated productivity of the D9L Impact Ripper.
Technical Paper

Challenger 65: A New Force in the Field

The Challenger 65 agricultural tractor combines the best features of current four wheel drive machines; speed, on-road mobility, and operator comfort with the well recognized advantages of track-type machines; tractive efficiency and reduced soil compaction.
Technical Paper

Implementation of a Second Generation Sound Power Test for Production Testing of Earthmoving Equipment

IMPLEMENTATION OF A SECOND GENERATION SOUND POWER TEST FOR PRODUCTION TESTING OF EARTHMOVING EQUIPMENT Caterpillar has developed an automated sound power measurement system that measures construction equipment sound levels before they leave the assembly plant. This paper describes the test system and gives the results of verification tests conducted at various manufacturing plants around the world. It was concluded that the new system allows Caterpillar to quickly and accurately acquire the data necessary to assure that their product meets its noise requirements.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Machine Tool Dynamics and Chatter Prediction

Dynamics of machine tool components play a critical role in the outcome of machining processes. This paper addresses several important issues on machine tool and machining dynamics. It illustrates the dynamic behavior of structural components under operating conditions and presents an improved technique for modeling structural non-linearity. It also describes spindle modeling capability that has been developed to predict dynamic and thermal characteristics of spindle systems. Finally, the paper discusses the impact of non-linear dynamics on machining stability.
Technical Paper

Physical Metallurgy Applications and Enhanced Machinability of Microalloyed V-Ti-N Forging Steels

Medium-carbon, microalloyed forging steels represent a cost effective replacement of quenched and tempered grades. Their strength properties are derived from precipitation during cooling from the forging temperature. Because of the relatively high carbon content, vanadium is the most suitable addition to achieve precipitation strengthening. The effectiveness of vanadium is enhanced by the presence of nitrogen. For components subjected to impact loading, improvement in toughness is achieved by refining austenitic grains, pinning their boundaries by means of dispersed titanium nitrides. Precipitation strengthened ferrite-pearlite steels exhibit superior machinability compared to that of quenched and tempered alloy steels. As a result, the total machining costs are substantially reduced compared to the costs of machining heat-treated steels. The frequency of tool breakage and tool changes decrease dramatically, virtually eliminating line scrap and unnecessary downtime.
Technical Paper

Cylinder-to-Cylinder Variation of Losses in Intake Regions of IC Engines

Very large scale, 3D, viscous, turbulent flow simulations, involving 840,000 finite volume cells and the complete form of the time-averaged Navier-Stokes equations, were conducted to study the mechanisms responsible for total pressure losses in the entire intake system (inlet duct, plenum, ports, valves, and cylinder) of a straight-six diesel engine. A unique feature of this paper is the inclusion of physical mechanisms responsible for cylinder-to-cylinder variation of flows between different cylinders, namely, the end-cylinder (#1) and the middle cylinder (#3) that is in-line with the inlet duct. Present results are compared with cylinder #2 simulations documented in a recent paper by the Clemson group, Taylor, et al. (1997). A validated comprehensive computational methodology was used to generate grid independent and fully convergent results.
Technical Paper

Concurrent Product and Process Design for Caterpillar Inboard Axles

Caterpillar's inboard brake and final drive axle responds to customers needs for a lifetime service brake removed from the often hostile environment encountered by exposed shoe-drum or caliper-disc brakes. A multi-disciplined team was assembled to select the single most appropriate axle configuration. That team was composed of members of the three worldwide facilities which would manufacture the axles. After selection of the configuration, the team approach was continued from development thru production. Concurrent product and process design was felt to be the most efficient way to provide the customer with an enclosed brake and to modernize our plants manufacturing operations. This paper will identify the methods used to develop a cost effective manufacturable axle. Working the product design and manufacturing process together provided for a more manufacturable axle, in a shorter time frame, with less start-up problems compared to the traditional approach.
Technical Paper

Multi-Material Topology Optimization for Crashworthiness Using Hybrid Cellular Automata

Structures with multiple materials have now become one of the perceived necessities for automotive industry to address vehicle design requirements such as light-weight, safety, and cost. The objective of this study is to develop a design methodology for multi-material structures accountable for vehicle crash durability. The heuristic topology synthesis approach of Hybrid Cellular Automaton (HCA) framework is implemented to generate multi-material structures with the constraint on the volume fraction of the final design. The HCA framework is integrated with ordered-SIMP (solid isotropic material with penalization) interpolation, artificial material library, as well as statistical analysis of material distribution data to ensure a smooth transition between multiple practical materials during the topology synthesis.
Technical Paper

Design for Crashworthiness of Vehicle Structures Using an Extended Hybrid Cellular Automaton Method

This paper introduces a design methodology to tailor the acceleration and displacement responses of a vehicle structure subjected to a dynamic crushing load. The proposed approach is an extension of the hybrid cellular automaton (HCA) method, through which the internal energy density is uniformly distributed within the structure. The proposed approach, referred here to as an extended HCA (xHCA) method, receives the suitable combinations of volume fraction and a finite element meta-parameter for which the algorithm synthesizes the load paths that allow the desired crash response. Lower meta-parameter values lead designs obtained by traditional optimizers, while larger values lead to designs obtained by the HCA method. Simultaneous implementation of multiple values of meta-parameters is presented here as a further development of xHCA method.
Technical Paper

Structural Optimization of Thin-Walled Tubular Structures for Progressive Collapse Using Hybrid Cellular Automaton with a Prescribed Response Field

The design optimization of thin-walled tubular structures is of relevance in the automotive industry due to their low cost, ease of manufacturing and installation, and high-energy absorption efficiency. This study presents a methodology to design thin-walled tubular structures for crashworthiness applications. During an impact, thin-walled tubular structures may exhibit progressive collapse/buckling, global collapse/buckling, or mixed collapse/buckling. From a crashworthiness standpoint, the most desirable collapse mode is progressive collapse due to its high-energy absorption efficiency, stable deformation, and low peak crush force (PCF). In the automotive industry, thin-walled components have complex structural geometries. These complexities and the several loading conditions present in a crash reduce the possibility of progressive collapse. The Hybrid Cellular Automata (HCA) method has shown to be an efficient continuum-based approach in crashworthiness design.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Near-Field Acoustical Holography Methods Applied to Noise Source Identification

Near-Field Acoustical Holography (NAH) is an inverse process in which sound pressure measurements made in the near-field of an unknown sound source are used to reconstruct the sound field so that source distributions can be clearly identified. NAH was originally based on performing spatial transforms of arrays of measured pressures and then processing the data in the wavenumber domain, a procedure that entailed the use of very large microphone arrays to avoid spatial truncation effects. Over the last twenty years, a number of different NAH methods have been proposed that can reduce or avoid spatial truncation issues: for example, Statistically Optimized Near-Field Acoustical Holography (SONAH), various Equivalent Source Methods (ESM), etc.
Technical Paper

Design of a Hybrid Honeycomb Unit Cell with Enhanced In-Plane Mechanical Properties

Sandwich structures with honeycomb core are widely used in the lightweight design and impact energy absorption applications in automotive, sporting, and aerospace industries. Recently, the auxetic honeycombs with negative Poisson's ratio attract substantial attention for different engineering products. In this study, we implement Additive Manufacturing technology, experimental testing, and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) to design and investigate the mechanical behavior of a novel unit cell for sandwich structure core. The new core model contains the conventional and auxetic honeycomb cells beside each other to create a Hybrid Honeycomb (HHC) for the sandwich structure. The different designs of unit cells with the same volume fraction of 15% are 3D-printed using Fused Deposition Modeling technique, and the comparative study on the mechanical behavior of conventional honeycomb, auxetic honeycomb, and HHC structures is conducted.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Optimization of the Control Strategy for the Hydraulic System of an Articulated Boom Lift

This paper describes the numerical modeling of the hydraulic circuit of a self-moving boom lift. Boom lifts consist of several hydraulic actuators, each of them performs a specific movement. Hydraulic systems for lifting applications must ensure consistent performance no matter what the load and how many users are in operation at the same time. Common solutions comprise a fixed or a variable displacement pump with load-sensing control strategy. Instead, the hydraulic circuit studied in this paper includes a fixed displacement pump and an innovative (patented) proportional valve assembly. Each proportional valve (one for each user) permits a flow regulation for all typical load conditions and movement simultaneously. The study of the hydraulic system required a detailed modeling of some components such as: the overcenter valves, for the control of the assistive loads; the proportional valve, which keeps a constant flow independently of pressure drop across itself.
Journal Article

Effects of Controlled Modulation on Surface Textures in Deep-Hole Drilling

Deep-hole drilling is among the most critical precision machining processes for production of high-performance discrete components. The effects of drilling with superimposed, controlled low-frequency modulation - Modulation-Assisted Machining (MAM) - on the surface textures created in deep-hole drilling (ie, gun-drilling) are discussed. In MAM, the oscillation of the drill tool creates unique surface textures by altering the burnishing action typical in conventional drilling. The effects of modulation frequency and amplitude are investigated using a modulation device for single-flute gun-drilling on a computer-controlled lathe. The experimental results for the gun-drilling of titanium alloy with modulation are compared and contrasted with conventional gun-drilling. The chip morphology and surface textures are characterized over a range of modulation conditions, and a model for predicting the surface texture is presented. Implications for production gun-drilling are discussed.
Journal Article

A Novel Pressure-Feedback Based Adaptive Control Method to Damp Instabilities in Hydraulic Machines

Excessive vibration and poor controllability occur in many mobile fluid power applications, with negative consequences as concerns operators' health and comfort as well as machine safety and productivity. This paper addresses the problem of reducing oscillations in fluid power machines presenting a novel control technique of general applicability. Strong nonlinearities of hydraulic systems and the unpredictable operating conditions of the specific application (e.g. uneven ground, varying loads, etc.) are the main challenges to the development of satisfactory general vibration damping methods. The state of the art methods are typically designed as a function of the specific application, and in many cases they introduce energy dissipation and/or system slowdown. This paper contributes to this research by introducing an energy efficient active damping method based on feedback signals from pressure sensors mounted on the flow control valve block.
Technical Paper

Development of a SIL, HIL and Vehicle Test-Bench for Model-Based Design and Validation of Hybrid Powertrain Control Strategies

Hybrid powertrains with multiple sources of power have generated new control challenges in the automotive industry. Purdue University's participation in EcoCAR 2, an Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition managed by the Argonne National Laboratories and sponsored by GM and DOE, has provided an exciting opportunity to create a comprehensive test-bench for the development and validation of advanced hybrid powertrain control strategies. As one of 15 competing university teams, the Purdue EcoMakers are re-engineering a donated 2013 Chevrolet Malibu into a plug-in parallel- through-the-road hybrid-electric vehicle, to reduce its environmental impact without compromising performance, safety or consumer acceptability. This paper describes the Purdue team's control development process for the EcoCAR 2 competition.
Technical Paper

NASA Specialized Center of Research and Training in Advance Life Support (ALS/NSCORT) Education and Outreach Program

The ALS/NSCORT Education and Outreach provides an avenue to engage and educate higher education students and K-12 educators/students in the center's investigations of the synergistic concepts and principles required for regenerative life-support in extended-duration space exploration. The following K-12 Education programs will be addressed: 1) Key Learning Community Project provides exposure, mentoring and research opportunities for 9-12th grade students at Key Learning Community This program was expanded in 2004 to include an “Explore Mars” 3-day camp experience for 150 Key students. The overall goal of the collaborative project is to motivate students to pursue careers in science, technology, and engineering; 2) Mission to Mars Program introduces 5th-8th grade students to the complex issues involved with living on Mars, stressing the interdisciplinary fundamentals of science, technology and engineering that underlie Advanced Life Support research.