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Technical Paper

Visualization techniques to identify and quantify sources and paths of exterior noise radiated from stationary and nonstationary vehicles

2000-06-12
2000-05-0326
In recent years, Nearfield Acoustical Holography (NAH) has been used to identify stationary vehicle exterior noise sources. However that application has usually been limited to individual components. Since powertrain noise sources are hidden within the engine compartment, it is difficult to use NAH to identify those sources and the associated partial field that combine to create the complete exterior noise field of a motor vehicle. Integrated Nearfield Acoustical Holography (INAH) has been developed to address these concerns: it is described here. The procedure entails sensing the sources inside the engine compartment by using an array of reference microphones, and then calculating the associated partial radiation fields by using NAH. In the second part of this paper, the use of farfield arrays is considered. Several array techniques have previously been applied to identify noise sources on moving vehicles.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Electric Turbo Compound Technology

2003-06-23
2003-01-2294
A cooperative program between the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technology and Caterpillar is aimed at demonstrating electric turbo compound technology on a Class 8 truck engine. The goal is to demonstrate the level of fuel efficiency improvement attainable with an electric turbocompound system. The system consists of a turbocharger with an electric motor/generator integrated into the turbo shaft. The generator extracts surplus power at the turbine, and the electricity it produces is used to run a motor mounted on the engine crankshaft, recovering otherwise wasted energy in the exhaust gases. The electric turbocompound system also provides more control flexibility in that the amount of power extracted can be varied. This allows for control of engine boost and thus air/fuel ratio. The paper presents the status of development of an electric turbocompound system for a Caterpillar heavy-duty on-highway truck engine.
Technical Paper

A Bench Test Procedure for Evaluating the Cylinder Liner Pitting Protection Performance of Engine Coolant Additives for Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Applications

1996-02-01
960879
Evaluations of the liner pitting protection performance provided by engine coolant corrosion inhibitors and supplemental coolant additives have presented many problems. Current practice involves the use of full scale engine tests to show that engine coolant inhibitors provide sufficient liner pitting protection. These are too time-consuming and expensive to use as the basis for industry-wide specifications. Ultrasonic vibratory test rigs have been used for screening purposes in individual labs, but these have suffered from poor reproducibility and insufficient additive differentiation. A new test procedure has been developed that reduces these problems. The new procedure compares candidate formulations against a good and bad reference fluid to reduce the concern for problems with calibration and equipment variability. Cast iron test coupons with well-defined microstructure and processing requirements significantly reduce test variability.
Technical Paper

Advanced Computational Methods for Predicting Flow Losses in Intake Regions of Diesel Engines

1997-02-24
970639
A computational methodology has been developed for loss prediction in intake regions of internal combustion engines. The methodology consists of a hierarchy of four major tasks: (1) proper computational modeling of flow physics; (2) exact geometry and high quality and generation; (3) discretization schemes for low numerical viscosity; and (4) higher order turbulence modeling. Only when these four tasks are dealt with properly will a computational simulation yield consistently accurate results. This methodology, which is has been successfully tested and validated against benchmark quality data for a wide variety of complex 2-D and 3-D laminar and turbulent flow situations, is applied here to a loss prediction problem from industry. Total pressure losses in the intake region (inlet duct, manifold, plenum, ports, valves, and cylinder) of a Caterpillar diesel engine are predicted computationally and compared to experimental data.
Technical Paper

Effects of Injection Pressure and Nozzle Geometry on Spray SMD and D.I. Emissions

1995-10-01
952360
A study was performed to correlate the Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD), NOx and particulate emissions of a direct injection diesel engine with various injection pressures and different nozzle geometry. The spray experiments and engine emission tests were conducted in parallel using the same fuel injection system and same operating conditions. With high speed photography and digital image analysis, a light extinction technique was used to obtain the spray characteristics which included spray tip penetration length, spray angle, and overall average SMD for the entire spray. The NOx and particulate emissions were acquired by running the tests on a fully instrumented Caterpillar 3406 heavy duty engine. Experimental results showed that for higher injection pressures, a smaller SMD was observed, i.e. a finer spray was obtained. For this case, a higher NOx and lower particulate resulted.
Technical Paper

Performance of Organic Acid Based Coolants in Heavy Duty Applications

1996-02-01
960644
Coolant formulations based on organic acid corrosion inhibitor technology have been tested in over 180 heavy duty engines for a total of more than 50 million kilometers. This testing has been used to document long life coolant performance in various engine types from four major engine manufacturers. Inspections of engines using organic acid based coolant (with no supplemental coolant additive) for up to 610,000 kilometers showed excellent protection of metal engine components. Improved protection was observed against cylinder liner, water pump, and aluminum spacer deck corrosion. In addition, data accumulated from this testing were used to develop depletion rate curves for long life coolant corrosion inhibitors, including tolyltriazole and nitrite. Nitrite was observed to deplete less rapidly in long life coolants than in conventional formulations.
Technical Paper

Development of Plasma Spray Coated Cylinder Liners

1996-02-01
960048
Improved fuel economy and reduction of emissions can be achieved by insulation of the combustion chamber components to reduce heat rejection. However, such insulation will also increase the operating temperature of the piston ring/cylinder liner interface from approximately 150°C to over 300°C. Since existing ring/liner materials cannot withstand these higher operating temperatures alternatives are needed for this critical tribological interface. This paper describes the development of a cost effective ID grinding technique for machining the bores of plasma sprayed diesel engine cylinder liners.
Technical Paper

Meeting the Customer's Needs - Defining the Next Generation Electronically Controlled Unit Injector Concept for Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

1996-04-01
961285
Diesel engine manufacturers have been asking for new, innovative, flexible fuel injection systems in order to meet future diesel engine emission requirements throughout the world and improve engine performance. Engineers at Caterpillar have listened to these requests and developed a fuel system concept to meet their needs. This new fuel system is called the Next Generation Electronic Unit Injector (NGEUI). The new concept is adaptable to mechanically actuated electronic unit injector, hydraulic electronic unit injector, electronic unit pump, and pump/line/nozzle systems. Features of the new fuel system are listed below: 1. Fully controllable injection pressure independent of engine speed and load 2. Injection pressure capability to 207 MPa (30,000 psi) 3. Reduced drive train torsional excitation and improved hydraulic efficiency 4.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Time-Averaged Piston Temperatures and Surface Heat Flux Between a Direct-Fuel Injected and Carbureted Two-Stroke Engine

1998-02-23
980763
Time-averaged temperatures at critical locations on the piston of a direct-fuel injected, two-stroke, 388 cm3, research engine were measured using an infrared telemetry device. The piston temperatures were compared to data [7] of a carbureted version of the two-stroke engine, that was operated at comparable conditions. All temperatures were obtained at wide open throttle, and varying engine speeds (2000-4500 rpm, at 500 rpm intervals). The temperatures were measured in a configuration that allowed for axial heat flux to be determined through the piston. The heat flux was compared to carbureted data [8] obtained using measured piston temperatures as boundary conditions for a computer model, and solving for the heat flux. The direct-fuel-injected piston temperatures and heat fluxes were significantly higher than the carbureted piston. On the exhaust side of the piston, the direct-fuel injected piston temperatures ranged from 33-73 °C higher than the conventional carbureted piston.
Technical Paper

Development of a Fiber Reinforced Aluminum Piston for Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

1994-03-01
940584
This paper discusses a joint customer-supplier program intended to further develop the ability to design and apply aluminum alloy pistons selectively reinforced with ceramic fibers for heavy duty diesel engines. The approach begins with a comprehensive mechanical properties evaluation of base and reinforced material. The results demonstrated significant fatigue strength improvement due to fiber reinforcement, specially at temperatures greater than 300°C. A simplified numerical analysis is performed to predict the temperature and fatigue factor values at the combustion bowl area for conventional and reinforced aluminum piston designs for a 6.6 liter engine. It concludes that reinforced piston have a life expectation longer than conventional aluminum piston. Structural engine tests under severe conditions of specific power and peak cylinder pressure were used to confirm the results of the cyclic properties evaluation and numerical analysis.
Technical Paper

ELECTRONIC SYSTEM INTEGRATION FOR MARINE ENGINE APPLICATIONS

1994-09-01
941709
An open architecture of electronic controls and monitors has been conceived and developed to meet marine application requirements and provide vessel control features. Integration of this system reduces the number of components, improves reliability, and eases installation and troubleshooting. The architecture provides the plan for system integration, while allowing flexibility for customer component selection, system technology upgrades, and expansion with additional features. Serial links are used to provide the data channels within the modular style architecture and the communication ports to share information with the operators.
Technical Paper

The Development of a Production Qualified Catalytic Converter

1993-03-01
930133
Catalytic converters have become a viable aftertreatment system for reducing emissions from on-highway diesel engines. This paper addresses the development and production qualification of a catalytic converter. The testing programs that were utilized to qualify the converter system for production included emissions performance, emissions durability, physical durability, and field test programs. This paper reports on the specific tests that were utilized for the emissions performance and emissions durability testing programs. An explanation on the development of an accelerated durability test program is also included. The physical durability section of the paper discusses the development and execution of laboratory bench tests to insure the catalytic converter/muffler maintains acceptable physical integrity.
Technical Paper

HEUI - A New Direction for Diesel Engine Fuel Systems

1993-03-01
930270
Caterpillar Inc. has developed a new diesel engine fuel system, powered by hydraulics and controlled electronically. This Hydraulic Electronic Unit Injector, (HEUI), requires no mechanical actuating or mechanical control devices, and offers many advantages over conventional fuel injection systems. Inherent features of the HEUI Fuel System include injection pressure control independent of engine load or speed, totally flexible injection timing, and full electronic control of injection parameters. Packaging the HEUI Fuel System on an engine is simple, as the injector is compact and available in a variety of configurations. The hydraulic actuating circuit is straightforward, using lubricating oil from the engine sump. Hydraulic lines may be internal to the engine or external. This paper describes the Caterpillar HEUI Fuel System, its operating features, performance advantages, and application to diesel engines.
Technical Paper

Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Diesel Engine Cylinder Head Gasket Joints

1993-09-01
932456
A nonlinear, three-dimensional finite element analysis of the cylinder head gasket joint has been developed to allow accurate prediction of global and local joint behavior during engine operation. Nonlinear material properties and load cases that simulate full cycle engine operation are the analysis foundation. The three-dimensional, nonlinear, full-cycle simulation accurately predicts cylinder head gasket joint response to assembly, thermal, and cylinder pressure loading. Predictions correlate well with measured engine test data. Analysis results include local pressure distribution and global load splits. Insight into joint loading and an improved understanding of overall joint behavior provide the basis for informed design and development decisions.
Technical Paper

The Application of Boundary Element Analysis to Engine Component Design

1987-02-01
870578
Boundary element analysis (BEA) is an effective computer simulation program for certain applications in design engineering. The BEA technique has been used extensively at Caterpillar for structural analysis of engine and vehicle components. The time savings and modeling ease of BEA are illustrated with specific examples of engine component models. These examples represent a variety of modeling techniques, and include comparisons with measured test data.
Technical Paper

Potentials of Electrical Assist and Variable Geometry Turbocharging System for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Downsizing

2017-03-28
2017-01-1035
Diesel engine downsizing aimed at reducing fuel consumption while meeting stringent exhaust emissions regulations is currently in high demand. The boost system architecture plays an essential role in providing adequate air flow rate for diesel fuel combustion while avoiding impaired transient response of the downsized engine. Electric Turbocharger Assist (ETA) technology integrates an electric motor/generator with the turbocharger to provide electrical power to assist compressor work or to electrically recover excess turbine power. Additionally, a variable geometry turbine (VGT) is able to bring an extra degree of freedom for the boost system optimization. The electrically-assisted turbocharger, coupled with VGT, provides an illuminating opportunity to increase the diesel engine power density and enhance the downsized engine transient response. This paper assesses the potential benefits of the electrically-assisted turbocharger with VGT to enable heavy-duty diesel engine downsizing.
Technical Paper

A New Validation of Spray Penetration Models for Modern Heavy Duty Diesel Fuel Injectors

2017-03-28
2017-01-0826
The performance of five positive k-factor injector tips has been assessed in this work by analyzing a comprehensive set of injected mass, momentum, and spray measurements. Using high speed shadowgraphs of the injected diesel plumes, the sensitivities of measured vapor penetration and dispersion to injection pressure (100-250MPa) and ambient density (20-52 kg/m3) have been compared with the Naber-Siebers empirical spray model to gain understanding of second order effects of orifice diameter. Varying in size from 137 to 353μm, the orifice diameters and corresponding injector tips are appropriate for a relatively wide range of engine cylinder sizes (from 0.5 to 5L). In this regime, decreasing the orifice exit diameter was found to reduce spray penetration sensitivity to differential injection pressure. The cone angle and k-factored orifice exit diameter were found to be uncorrelated.
Technical Paper

A Feasible CFD Methodology for Gasoline Intake Flow Optimization in a HEV Application - Part 2: Prediction and Optimization

2010-10-25
2010-01-2238
Today's engine and combustion process development is closely related to the intake port layout. Combustion, performance and emissions are coupled to the intensity of turbulence, the quality of mixture formation and the distribution of residual gas, all of which depend on the in-cylinder charge motion, which is mainly determined by the intake port and cylinder head design. Additionally, an increasing level of volumetric efficiency is demanded for a high power output. Most optimization efforts on typical homogeneous charge spark ignition (HCSI) engines have been at low loads because that is all that is required for a vehicle to make it through the FTP cycle. However, due to pumping losses, this is where such engines are least efficient, so it would be good to find strategies to allow the engine to operate at higher loads.
Technical Paper

Identifying Optimal Operating Points in Terms of Engineering Constraints and Regulated Emissions in Modern Diesel Engines

2011-04-12
2011-01-1388
In recent decades, “physics-based” gas-dynamics simulation tools have been employed to reduce development timescales of IC engines by enabling engineers to carry out parametric examinations and optimisation of alternative engine geometry and operating strategy configurations using desktop PCs. However to date, these models have proved inadequate for optimisation of in-cylinder combustion and emissions characteristics thus extending development timescales through additional experimental development efforts. This research paper describes how a Stochastic Reactor Model (SRM) with reduced chemistry can be employed to successfully determine in-cylinder pressure, heat release and emissions trends from a diesel fuelled engine operated in compression ignition direct injection mode using computations which are completed in 147 seconds per cycle.
Technical Paper

Modeling Techniques to Support Fuel Path Control in Medium Duty Diesel Engines

2010-04-12
2010-01-0332
In modern production diesel engine control systems, fuel path control is still largely conducted through a system of tables that set mode, timing and injection quantity and with common rail systems, rail pressure. In the hands of an experienced team, such systems have proved so far able to meet emissions standards, but they lack the analytical underpinning that lead to systematic solutions. In high degree of freedom systems typified by modern fuel injection, there is substantial scope to deploy optimising closed loop strategies during calibration and potentially in the delivered product. In an optimising controller, a digital algorithm will explicitly trade-off conflicting objectives and follow trajectories during transients that continue to meet a defined set of criteria. Such an optimising controller must be based on a model of the system behaviour which is used in real time to investigate the consequences of proposed control actions.
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