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Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Numerical Study of Diesel Fuel Spray Formation with OpenFOAM

2011-04-12
2011-01-0842
The accuracy and robustness of spray models and their implementation in current commercial CFD codes vary substantially. However, common features are that the resulting spray penetration and levels of spray-generated turbulence - two factors that strongly influence the rate of heat released during combustion - are to a great extent grid size-dependent. In the work presented here a new kind of spray model has been implemented and thoroughly tested, under various ambient conditions, in the open source code OpenFOAM. In addition, since the turbulence model applied in simulations is known to strongly affect spray penetration rates, results obtained using both the standard k-ε and RNG k-ε models have been compared. In the new spray model, designated VSB2, the traditional Lagrangian parcel has been replaced by a so-called stochastic blob containing droplets with a distribution of sizes, rather than a number of uniform-sized droplets.
Technical Paper

Selecting an Expansion Machine for Vehicle Waste-Heat Recovery Systems Based on the Rankine Cycle

2013-04-08
2013-01-0552
An important objective in combustion engine research is to develop strategies for recovering waste heat and thereby increasing the efficiency of the propulsion system. Waste-heat recovery systems based on the Rankine cycle are the most efficient tools for recovering energy from the exhaust gas and the Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) system. The properties of the working fluid and the expansion machine have significant effects on Rankine cycle efficiency. The expansion machine is particularly important because it is the interface at which recovered heat energy is ultimately converted into power. Parameters such as the pressure, temperature and mass-flow conditions in the cycle can be derived for a given waste-heat source and expressed as dimensionless numbers that can be used to determine whether displacement expanders or turbo expanders would be preferable under the circumstances considered.
Journal Article

Investigation of Wheel Ventilation-Drag using a Modular Wheel Design Concept

2013-04-08
2013-01-0953
Passenger car fuel consumption is a constant concern for automotive companies and the contribution to fuel consumption from aerodynamics is well known. Several studies have been published on the aerodynamics of wheels. One area of wheel aerodynamics discussed in some of these earlier works is the so-called ventilation resistance. This study investigates ventilation resistance on a number of 17 inch rims, in the Volvo Cars Aerodynamic Wind Tunnel. The ventilation resistance was measured using a custom-built suspension with a tractive force measurement system installed in the Wheel Drive Units (WDUs). The study aims at identifying wheel design factors that have significant effect on the ventilation resistance for the investigated wheel size. The results show that it was possible to measure similar power requirements to rotate the wheels as was found in previous works.
Technical Paper

CFD Method and Simulations on a Section of a Detailed Multi-Louvered Fin Where the Incoming Air is Directed at 90° and 30° Relative to the Compact Heat-Exchanger

2013-09-24
2013-01-2417
This paper presents results and a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method for simulation of a detailed louvered fin for a multi-louvered compact heat-exchanger. The airflow was angled at 90°, +30° and −30° relative to the heat-exchanger to evaluate changes in static pressure drop and airflow characteristics. The investigation was based on three heat-exchangers with thicknesses of 52mm and two of 19mm. One period of a detailed louvered fin was simulated for two airflows for each heat-exchanger. The pressure drop data was thereafter compared to experimental data from a full-size heat-exchanger. From the pressure drop and the airflow characteristic results recommendations were made that those kinds of simulations could be defined as steady state, and with the kω-SST turbulence model. For the same heat-exchanger angle the airflow within the core was similar, with a turbulent characteristic behind it.
Technical Paper

Cooling Performance Investigation of a Rear Mounted Cooling Package for Heavy Vehicles

2011-04-12
2011-01-0174
The aim of the study was to investigate the cooling performance of two cooling package positions for distribution vehicles by using Computational Fluid Dynamics. The first cooling package was positioned in the front of the vehicle, behind the grill and the second position was at the rear of the vehicle. Each case was evaluated by its cooling performance for a critical driving situation and its aerodynamic drag at 90 km/h, where the largest challenge of an alternative position is the cooling air availability. The geometry used was a semi-generic commercial vehicle, based on a medium size distribution truck with a heat rejection value set to a fixed typical level at maximum power for a 13 litre Euro 6 diesel engine. The heat exchangers included in the study were the air conditioning condenser, the charge air cooler and the radiator. It was found that the main problem with the rear mounted cooling installation was the combination of the fan and the geometry after the fan.
Technical Paper

Effects of Ground Simulation on the Aerodynamic Coefficients of a Production Car in Yaw Conditions

2010-04-12
2010-01-0755
Automotive wind tunnel testing is a key element in the development of the aerodynamics of road vehicles. Continuous advancements are made in order to decrease the differences between actual on-road conditions and wind tunnel test properties and the importance of ground simulation with relative motion of the ground and rotating wheels has been the topic of several studies. This work presents a study on the effect of active ground simulation, using moving ground and rotating wheels, on the aerodynamic coefficients on a passenger car in yawed conditions. Most of the published studies on the effects of ground simulation cover only zero yaw conditions and only a few earlier investigations covering ground simulation during yaw were found in the existing literature and all considered simplified models. To further investigate this, a study on a full size sedan type vehicle of production status was performed in the Volvo Aerodynamic Wind Tunnel.
Technical Paper

A Wind Tunnel Study Correlating the Aerodynamic Effect of Cooling Flows for Full and Reduced Scale Models of a Passenger Car

2010-04-12
2010-01-0759
In the early stages of an aerodynamic development programme of a road vehicle it is common to use wind tunnel scale models. The obvious reasons for using scale models are that they are less costly to build and model scale wind tunnels are relatively inexpensive to operate. It is therefore desirable for model scale testing to be utilized even more than it is today. This however, requires that the scale models are highly detailed and that the results correlate with those of the full size vehicle. This paper presents a correlation study that was carried out in the Chalmers and Volvo Car Aerodynamic Wind Tunnels. The aim of the study was to investigate how successfully a correlation of the cooling air flow between a detailed scale model and a real full size vehicle could be achieved. Results show limited correlation on absolute global aerodynamic loads, but relative good correlation in drag and lift increments.
Technical Paper

Continuing Cooling Performance Investigation of a Rear Mounted Cooling Package for Heavy Vehicles

2011-09-13
2011-01-2285
This investigation is a continuing analysis of the cooling performance and aerodynamic properties of a rear-mounted cooling module on a semi-generic commercial vehicle, which was carried out by Larsson, Löfdahl and Wiklund. In the previous study two designs of the cooling package installation were positioned behind the rear wheelhouse and the results were compared to a front-mounted cooling module. The investigation was mainly focused on a critical cooling situation occurring at lower vehicle speeds for a local distribution vehicle. The conclusion from the study was that the cooling performance for one of the rear-mounted installation was favorable compared to the front-mounted cooling package. This was mainly due to the low vehicle speed, the high fan speed and to fewer obstacles around the cooling module resulting in a lower system restriction within the installation.
Journal Article

Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Wheel Housing Aerodynamics on Heavy Trucks

2012-04-16
2012-01-0106
Wheel and underbody aerodynamics have become important topics in the search to reduce the aerodynamic drag of the heavy trucks. This study aims to investigate, experimentally as well as numerically, the local flow field around the wheels and in the wheel housing on a heavy truck; and how different approaches to modelling the wheel rotation in CFD influences the results. Emphasis is on effects due to ground simulation, and both moving ground and wheel rotation were requirements for this study. A 1:4-scale model of part of a heavy truck geometry has been developed. During the model design numerical simulations were used to optimise the shape, in order to replicate the flow field near the wheel of a complete truck. This was done by changing the flow angles of the incoming and exiting flows, and by keeping the mass flow rates in to, and out of, the wheel housing at the same ratios as in a reference full size vehicle.
Journal Article

Aerodynamic Effects of Different Tire Models on a Sedan Type Passenger Car

2012-04-16
2012-01-0169
Targets for reducing emissions and improving energy efficiency present the automotive industry with many challenges. Passenger cars are by far the most common means of personal transport in the developed part of the world, and energy consumption related to personal transportation is predicted to increase significantly in the coming decades. Improved aerodynamic performance of passenger cars will be one of many important areas which will occupy engineers and researchers for the foreseeable future. The significance of wheels and wheel housings is well known today, but the relative importance of the different components has still not been fully investigated. A number of investigations highlighting the importance of proper ground simulation have been published, and recently a number of studies on improved aerodynamic design of the wheel have been presented as well. This study is an investigation of aerodynamic influences of different tires.
Journal Article

Experimental Investigation of Heat Transfer Rate and Pressure Drop through Angled Compact Heat Exchangers Relative to the Incoming Airflow

2014-09-30
2014-01-2337
This paper presents pressure drops and heat transfer rates for compact heat exchangers, where the heat exchangers are angled 90°, 60°, 30° and 10° relative to the incoming airflow. The investigation is based on three heat exchangers with thicknesses of 19mm and 52mm. Each heat exchanger was mounted in a duct, where it was tested for thermal and isothermal conditions. The inlet temperature of the coolant was defined to two temperatures; ambient temperature and 90°C. For the ambient cases the coolant had the same temperature as the surrounding air, these tests were performed for five airflow rates. When the coolant had a temperature of 90°C a combination of five coolant flow rates and five airflow rates were tested. The test set-up was defined as having a constant cross-section area for 90°, 60° and 30° angles, resulting in a larger core area and a lower airspeed through the core, for a more inclined heat exchanger.
Journal Article

Comparative Studies between CFD and Wind Tunnel Measurements of Cooling Performance and External Aerodynamics for a Heavy Truck

2014-09-30
2014-01-2443
Nowadays, much focus for vehicle manufacturers is directed towards improving the energy efficiency of their products. The aerodynamic drag constitutes one major part of the total driving resistance for a vehicle travelling at higher speeds. In fact, above approximately 80km/h the aerodynamic drag is the dominating resistance acting on a truck. Hence the importance of reducing this resistance is apparent. Cooling drag is one part of the total aerodynamic drag, which arises from air flowing through the heat exchangers, and the irregular under-hood area. When using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) in the development process it is of great importance to ensure that the methods used are accurately capturing the physics of the flow. This paper deals with comparative studies between CFD and wind-tunnel tests. In this paper, two comparative studies are presented.
Technical Paper

On the Possibilities and Limitations of Wind Noise Testing in the Aerodynamical Wind Tunnel at Volvo Cars

2016-06-15
2016-01-1807
This paper presents an experimental study of aeroacoustical sound sources generated by the turbulent flow around the side mirror of a Volvo V70. Measurements were carried out at the Volvo Cars aerodynamical wind tunnel (PVT) and at the aeroacoustical wind tunnel of Stuttgart University (FKFS). Several different measurement techniques were applied in both tunnels and the results were compared to each other. The configurations considered here were: side mirror with a cord and without the cord. The results discussed in this paper include intensity probe measurements in the flow around the side mirror, sound source localization with beamforming technique using a three-dimensional spherical array as well as standard measurements inside the car with an artificial head. This experimental study focused on understanding the differences between testing at the PVT and FKFS.
Journal Article

CFD Simulations of one Period of a Louvered Fin where the Airflow is Inclined Relative to the Heat Exchanger

2015-04-14
2015-01-1656
This article presents Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations fo one period of a louvered fin, for a crossflow compact finned heat exchanger, where the incoming airflow was inclined relative to its core. Four inclinations were investigated: 90°, which was when the air flowed perpendicular to the heat exchanger, 60°, 30° and 10° angles relative to the vertical plane. The study included three heat exchanger designs, where two of them had symmetrical louvered fins and a thickness of 19mm and 52mm. The third had a thickness of 19mm and had the louvers angled in one direction. All heat exchangers have been simulated when the airflow entered both from above and below relative to the horizontal plane. Simulations have also been carried out when the airflow entered from the side, illustrating the heat exchanger to be angled relative to the vertical axis. Two air speeds have been investigated for each configuration, where the results were compared to experimental data.
Technical Paper

Validation of the VSB2 Spray Model for Ethanol under Diesel like Conditions

2017-10-08
2017-01-2193
When developing new combustion concepts, CFD simulations is a powerful tool. The modeling of spray formation is a challenging but important part when it comes to CFD modelling of non-premixed combustion. There is a large difference in the accuracy and robustness among different spray models and their implementation in different CFD codes. In the work presented in this paper a spray model, designated as VSB2 has been implemented in OpenFOAM. VSB2 differ from traditional spray models by replacing the Lagrangian parcels with stochastic blobs. The stochastic blobs consists of a droplet size distribution rather than equal sized droplets, as is the case with the traditional parcel. The VSB2 model has previously been thoroughly validated for spray formation and combustion of n-heptane. The aim of this study was to validate the VSB2 spray model for ethanol spray formation and combustion as a step in modelling dual-fuel combustion with alcohol and diesel.
Journal Article

Force Based Measurement Method for Cooling Flow Quantification

2017-03-28
2017-01-1520
Quantification of heat exchanger performance in its operative environment is in many engineering applications an essential task, and the air flow rate through the heat exchanger core is an important optimizing parameter. This paper explores an alternative method for quantifying the air flow rate through compact heat exchangers positioned in the underhood of a passenger car. Unlike conventional methods, typically relying on measurements of direct flow characteristics at discrete probe locations, the proposed method is based on the use of load-cells for direct measurement of the total force acting on the heat exchanger. The air flow rate is then calculated from the force measurement. A direct comparison with a conventional pressure based method is presented as both methods are applied on a passenger car’s radiator tested in a full scale wind tunnel using six different grill configurations. The measured air flow rates are presented and discussed over a wide range of test velocities.
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