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Technical Paper

Selecting an Expansion Machine for Vehicle Waste-Heat Recovery Systems Based on the Rankine Cycle

2013-04-08
2013-01-0552
An important objective in combustion engine research is to develop strategies for recovering waste heat and thereby increasing the efficiency of the propulsion system. Waste-heat recovery systems based on the Rankine cycle are the most efficient tools for recovering energy from the exhaust gas and the Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) system. The properties of the working fluid and the expansion machine have significant effects on Rankine cycle efficiency. The expansion machine is particularly important because it is the interface at which recovered heat energy is ultimately converted into power. Parameters such as the pressure, temperature and mass-flow conditions in the cycle can be derived for a given waste-heat source and expressed as dimensionless numbers that can be used to determine whether displacement expanders or turbo expanders would be preferable under the circumstances considered.
Technical Paper

Emission Reduction Technologies for the Future Low Emission Rail Diesel Engines: EGR vs SCR

2013-09-08
2013-24-0087
The EU emission standards for new rail Diesel engines are becoming even more stringent. EGR and SCR technologies can both be used to reduce NOx emissions; however, the use of EGR is usually accompanied by an increase in PM emissions and may require a DPF. On the other hand, the use of SCR requires on-board storage of urea. Thus, it is necessary to study these trade-offs in order to understand how these technologies can best be used in rail applications to meet new emission standards. The present study assesses the application of these technologies in Diesel railcars on a quantitative basis using one and three dimensional numerical simulation tools. In particular, the study considers a 560 kW railcar engine with the use of either EGR or SCR based solutions for NOx reduction. The NOx and PM emissions performances are evaluated over the C1 homologation cycle.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Fuel-Cut Ageing during Retardation and Fuel-Cut during Acceleration

2014-04-01
2014-01-1504
The effect of various fuel-cut agings, on a Volvo Cars 4-cylinder gasoline engine, with bimetallic three-way catalysts (TWCs) was examined. Deactivation during retardation fuel-cut (low load) and acceleration fuel-cut (high load, e.g. gearshift or traction control) was compared to aging at λ=1. Three-way catalysts were aged on an engine bench comparing two fuel-cut strategies and their impact on of the life and performance of the catalysts. In greater detail, the catalytic activity, stability and selectivity were studied. Furthermore, the catalysts were thoroughly analyzed using light-off and oxygen storage capacity measurements. The emission conversion as a function of various lambda values and loads was also determined. Fresh and 40-hour aged samples showed that the acceleration fuel-cut was the strategy that had the highest contribution towards the total deactivation of the catalyst system.
Technical Paper

Cooling Performance Investigation of a Rear Mounted Cooling Package for Heavy Vehicles

2011-04-12
2011-01-0174
The aim of the study was to investigate the cooling performance of two cooling package positions for distribution vehicles by using Computational Fluid Dynamics. The first cooling package was positioned in the front of the vehicle, behind the grill and the second position was at the rear of the vehicle. Each case was evaluated by its cooling performance for a critical driving situation and its aerodynamic drag at 90 km/h, where the largest challenge of an alternative position is the cooling air availability. The geometry used was a semi-generic commercial vehicle, based on a medium size distribution truck with a heat rejection value set to a fixed typical level at maximum power for a 13 litre Euro 6 diesel engine. The heat exchangers included in the study were the air conditioning condenser, the charge air cooler and the radiator. It was found that the main problem with the rear mounted cooling installation was the combination of the fan and the geometry after the fan.
Technical Paper

Continuing Cooling Performance Investigation of a Rear Mounted Cooling Package for Heavy Vehicles

2011-09-13
2011-01-2285
This investigation is a continuing analysis of the cooling performance and aerodynamic properties of a rear-mounted cooling module on a semi-generic commercial vehicle, which was carried out by Larsson, Löfdahl and Wiklund. In the previous study two designs of the cooling package installation were positioned behind the rear wheelhouse and the results were compared to a front-mounted cooling module. The investigation was mainly focused on a critical cooling situation occurring at lower vehicle speeds for a local distribution vehicle. The conclusion from the study was that the cooling performance for one of the rear-mounted installation was favorable compared to the front-mounted cooling package. This was mainly due to the low vehicle speed, the high fan speed and to fewer obstacles around the cooling module resulting in a lower system restriction within the installation.
Journal Article

New Methodology for Transient Engine Rig Experiments for Efficient Parameter Tuning

2013-12-20
2013-01-9043
When performing catalyst modeling and parameter tuning it is desirable that the experimental data contain both transient and stationary points and can be generated over a short period of time. Here a method of creating such concentration transients for a full scale engine rig system is presented. The paper describes a valuable approach for changing the composition of engine exhaust gas going to a DOC (or potentially any other device) by conditioning the exhaust gas with an additional upstream DOC and/or SCR. By controlling the urea injection and the DOC bypass a wide range of exhaust compositions, not possible by only controlling the engine, could be achieved. This will improve the possibilities for parameter estimation for the modeling of the DOC.
Technical Paper

Fuel-Cut Based Rapid Aging of Commercial Three Way Catalysts - Influence of Fuel-Cut Frequency, Duration and Temperature on Catalyst Activity

2013-09-08
2013-24-0156
In order to quantify fuel-cut aging effects on commercial bimetallic Pd/Rh three-way catalysts (TWCs), supported on cerium-zirconium promoted alumina, full-size automotive catalysts were exposed to accelerated fuel-cut aging on an engine test bench, with a variation in temperature, fuel-cut frequency and fuel-cut duration. After aging, samples of the catalysts were tested in a laboratory environment for Light-off temperature (T50), Specific surface area (BET), Dispersion of noble metals and changes in the oxidation state of Pd and Rh. The catalytic tests showed clear deactivation of the aged samples and influence on the TWC's properties. The light off temperature and noble metal dispersion were found to be a clear function of oxygen exposure to the catalysts, i.e. fuel-cut frequency and duration, while the specific surface area was found to be a function of fuel-cut frequency. No changes in oxidation states of Pd and Rh could be detected.
Journal Article

Valve Profile Adaptation, Stratification, Boosting and 2-Stroke Strategies for Raising Loads of Gasoline HCCI Engines

2012-04-16
2012-01-1108
The development of high efficiency powertrains is a key objective for car manufacturers. One approach for improving the efficiency of gasoline engines is based on homogeneous charge compression ignition, HCCI, which provides higher efficiency than conventional strategies. However, HCCI is only currently viable at relatively low loads, primarily because at high loads it involves rapid combustion that generates pressure oscillations in the cylinder (ringing), and partly because it gives rise to relatively high NOX emissions. This paper describes studies aimed at increasing the viability of HCCI combustion at higher loads by using fully flexible valve trains, direct injection with charge stratification (SCCI), and intake air boosting. These approaches were complemented by using EGR to control NOX emissions by stoichiometric operation, which enables the use of a three-way catalyst.
Journal Article

Experimental Investigation of Heat Transfer Rate and Pressure Drop through Angled Compact Heat Exchangers Relative to the Incoming Airflow

2014-09-30
2014-01-2337
This paper presents pressure drops and heat transfer rates for compact heat exchangers, where the heat exchangers are angled 90°, 60°, 30° and 10° relative to the incoming airflow. The investigation is based on three heat exchangers with thicknesses of 19mm and 52mm. Each heat exchanger was mounted in a duct, where it was tested for thermal and isothermal conditions. The inlet temperature of the coolant was defined to two temperatures; ambient temperature and 90°C. For the ambient cases the coolant had the same temperature as the surrounding air, these tests were performed for five airflow rates. When the coolant had a temperature of 90°C a combination of five coolant flow rates and five airflow rates were tested. The test set-up was defined as having a constant cross-section area for 90°, 60° and 30° angles, resulting in a larger core area and a lower airspeed through the core, for a more inclined heat exchanger.
Journal Article

Parameter Estimation of a DOC from Engine Rig Experiments with a Discretized Catalyst Washcoat Model

2014-07-01
2014-01-9049
Parameter tuning was performed against data from a full scale engine rig with a Diesel Oxidation Catalysts (DOC). Several different catalyst configurations were used with varying Pt loading, washcoat thickness and volume. To illustrate the interplay between kinetics and mass transport, engine operating points were chosen with a wide variation in variables (inlet conditions) and both transient and stationary operation was used. A catalyst model was developed where the catalyst washcoat was discretized as tanks in series both radially and axially. Three different model configurations were used for parameter tuning, evaluating three different approaches to modeling of internal transport resistance. It was concluded that for a catalyst model with internal transport resistance the best fit could be achieved if some parameters affecting the internal mass transport were tuned in addition to the kinetic parameters.
Journal Article

Comparative Studies between CFD and Wind Tunnel Measurements of Cooling Performance and External Aerodynamics for a Heavy Truck

2014-09-30
2014-01-2443
Nowadays, much focus for vehicle manufacturers is directed towards improving the energy efficiency of their products. The aerodynamic drag constitutes one major part of the total driving resistance for a vehicle travelling at higher speeds. In fact, above approximately 80km/h the aerodynamic drag is the dominating resistance acting on a truck. Hence the importance of reducing this resistance is apparent. Cooling drag is one part of the total aerodynamic drag, which arises from air flowing through the heat exchangers, and the irregular under-hood area. When using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) in the development process it is of great importance to ensure that the methods used are accurately capturing the physics of the flow. This paper deals with comparative studies between CFD and wind-tunnel tests. In this paper, two comparative studies are presented.
Technical Paper

Transient Responses of Various Ammonia Formation Catalyst Configurations for Passive SCR in Lean-Burning Gasoline Engines under Various Real Engine Conditions.

2016-04-05
2016-01-0935
Passive selective catalyst reduction (SCR) systems can be used as aftertreatment systems for lean burn spark ignition (SI)-engines. Their operation is based on the interaction between the engine, an ammonia formation catalyst (AFC), and an SCR catalyst. Under rich conditions the AFC forms ammonia, which is stored in the SCR catalyst. Under lean conditions, the SCR catalyst reduces the engine out NOx using the stored NH3. This study compared the ammonia production and response times of a standard three way catalyst (TWC) and a Pd/Al2O3 catalyst under realistic engine operating conditions. In addition, the relationships between selected engine operating parameters and ammonia formation over a TWC were investigated, considering the influence of both the chosen load point and the engine settings.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Lab Versus Engine Tests In the Development of a Highly Efficient Ammonia Formation Catalyst for a Passive SCR System

2015-09-06
2015-24-2504
Commercial three way catalysts have limited capacity towards reducing NOx in the presence of excessive oxygen. This prevents lean-burn combustion concepts from meeting legislative emission standards. A solution towards decreasing NOx emissions in the presence of excess air is the use of a passive-SCR system. Under rich conditions ammonia is formed over an ammonia formation catalyst, the ammonia is stored in the SCR and in its turn reacts with the NOx under lean engine conditions. Here up-scaled Pt/Al2O3 and Pd/Al2O3 catalysts as well as a commercially Pd-Rh based three-way catalyst (TWC) are evaluated using both engine and further lab-scale tests. The purpose of these tests is to compare the ammonia production for the various catalysts under various lambda values and temperatures by means of engine and lab scale tests. The Pd/Al2O3 showed little sensitivity to temperature both under engine and lab scale experiments.
Journal Article

CFD Simulations of one Period of a Louvered Fin where the Airflow is Inclined Relative to the Heat Exchanger

2015-04-14
2015-01-1656
This article presents Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations fo one period of a louvered fin, for a crossflow compact finned heat exchanger, where the incoming airflow was inclined relative to its core. Four inclinations were investigated: 90°, which was when the air flowed perpendicular to the heat exchanger, 60°, 30° and 10° angles relative to the vertical plane. The study included three heat exchanger designs, where two of them had symmetrical louvered fins and a thickness of 19mm and 52mm. The third had a thickness of 19mm and had the louvers angled in one direction. All heat exchangers have been simulated when the airflow entered both from above and below relative to the horizontal plane. Simulations have also been carried out when the airflow entered from the side, illustrating the heat exchanger to be angled relative to the vertical axis. Two air speeds have been investigated for each configuration, where the results were compared to experimental data.
Journal Article

Force Based Measurement Method for Cooling Flow Quantification

2017-03-28
2017-01-1520
Quantification of heat exchanger performance in its operative environment is in many engineering applications an essential task, and the air flow rate through the heat exchanger core is an important optimizing parameter. This paper explores an alternative method for quantifying the air flow rate through compact heat exchangers positioned in the underhood of a passenger car. Unlike conventional methods, typically relying on measurements of direct flow characteristics at discrete probe locations, the proposed method is based on the use of load-cells for direct measurement of the total force acting on the heat exchanger. The air flow rate is then calculated from the force measurement. A direct comparison with a conventional pressure based method is presented as both methods are applied on a passenger car’s radiator tested in a full scale wind tunnel using six different grill configurations. The measured air flow rates are presented and discussed over a wide range of test velocities.
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