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Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Numerical Study of Diesel Fuel Spray Formation with OpenFOAM

2011-04-12
2011-01-0842
The accuracy and robustness of spray models and their implementation in current commercial CFD codes vary substantially. However, common features are that the resulting spray penetration and levels of spray-generated turbulence - two factors that strongly influence the rate of heat released during combustion - are to a great extent grid size-dependent. In the work presented here a new kind of spray model has been implemented and thoroughly tested, under various ambient conditions, in the open source code OpenFOAM. In addition, since the turbulence model applied in simulations is known to strongly affect spray penetration rates, results obtained using both the standard k-ε and RNG k-ε models have been compared. In the new spray model, designated VSB2, the traditional Lagrangian parcel has been replaced by a so-called stochastic blob containing droplets with a distribution of sizes, rather than a number of uniform-sized droplets.
Technical Paper

Selecting an Expansion Machine for Vehicle Waste-Heat Recovery Systems Based on the Rankine Cycle

2013-04-08
2013-01-0552
An important objective in combustion engine research is to develop strategies for recovering waste heat and thereby increasing the efficiency of the propulsion system. Waste-heat recovery systems based on the Rankine cycle are the most efficient tools for recovering energy from the exhaust gas and the Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) system. The properties of the working fluid and the expansion machine have significant effects on Rankine cycle efficiency. The expansion machine is particularly important because it is the interface at which recovered heat energy is ultimately converted into power. Parameters such as the pressure, temperature and mass-flow conditions in the cycle can be derived for a given waste-heat source and expressed as dimensionless numbers that can be used to determine whether displacement expanders or turbo expanders would be preferable under the circumstances considered.
Journal Article

Performance of an Automotive Under-Body Diffuser Applied to a Sedan and a Wagon Vehicle

2013-04-08
2013-01-0952
Reducing resistance forces all over the vehicle is the most sustainable way to reduce fuel consumption. Aerodynamic drag is the dominating resistance force at highway speeds, and the power required to overcome this force increases by the power three of speed. The exterior body and especially the under-body and rear-end geometry of a passenger car are significant contributors to the overall aerodynamic drag. To reduce the aerodynamic drag it is of great importance to have a good pressure recovery at the rear. Since pressure drag is the dominating aerodynamic drag force for a passenger vehicle, the drag force will be a measure of the difference between the pressure in front and at the rear. There is high stagnation pressure at the front which requires a base pressure as high as possible. The pressure will recover from the sides by a taper angle, from the top by the rear wind screen, and from the bottom, by a diffuser.
Technical Paper

Emission Reduction Technologies for the Future Low Emission Rail Diesel Engines: EGR vs SCR

2013-09-08
2013-24-0087
The EU emission standards for new rail Diesel engines are becoming even more stringent. EGR and SCR technologies can both be used to reduce NOx emissions; however, the use of EGR is usually accompanied by an increase in PM emissions and may require a DPF. On the other hand, the use of SCR requires on-board storage of urea. Thus, it is necessary to study these trade-offs in order to understand how these technologies can best be used in rail applications to meet new emission standards. The present study assesses the application of these technologies in Diesel railcars on a quantitative basis using one and three dimensional numerical simulation tools. In particular, the study considers a 560 kW railcar engine with the use of either EGR or SCR based solutions for NOx reduction. The NOx and PM emissions performances are evaluated over the C1 homologation cycle.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Study on Stratified Turbulent Combustion in a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition Gasoline Engine Using an Open-Source Code

2014-04-01
2014-01-1126
In recent years, a free, open source CFD software package called OpenFOAM has been attracting increasing amounts of attention as a promising, inexpensive, and efficient CFD tool for the numerical simulation of processes such as fuel injection and evaporation, turbulent mixing and burning. Here, we describe the further development of OpenFOAM to enable its use in simulating stratified turbulent combustion in DI SI engines. Advanced models of various phenomena relevant to partially premixed turbulent flames were implemented into the code, and the effects of these implementations were investigated by performing unsteady 3D RANS simulations of stratified turbulent burning in a DI SI engine. First, the Flame Speed Closure (FSC) model of premixed turbulent combustion was implemented. Second, a method for evaluating the mean density in premixed turbulent flames that is available in the standard OpenFOAM library was improved.
Technical Paper

CFD Method and Simulations on a Section of a Detailed Multi-Louvered Fin Where the Incoming Air is Directed at 90° and 30° Relative to the Compact Heat-Exchanger

2013-09-24
2013-01-2417
This paper presents results and a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method for simulation of a detailed louvered fin for a multi-louvered compact heat-exchanger. The airflow was angled at 90°, +30° and −30° relative to the heat-exchanger to evaluate changes in static pressure drop and airflow characteristics. The investigation was based on three heat-exchangers with thicknesses of 52mm and two of 19mm. One period of a detailed louvered fin was simulated for two airflows for each heat-exchanger. The pressure drop data was thereafter compared to experimental data from a full-size heat-exchanger. From the pressure drop and the airflow characteristic results recommendations were made that those kinds of simulations could be defined as steady state, and with the kω-SST turbulence model. For the same heat-exchanger angle the airflow within the core was similar, with a turbulent characteristic behind it.
Journal Article

Investigation of Wheel Aerodynamic Resistance of Passenger Cars

2014-04-01
2014-01-0606
There are a number of numerical and experimental studies of the aerodynamic performance of wheels that have been published. They show that wheels and wheel-housing flows are responsible for a substantial part of the total aerodynamic drag on passenger vehicles. Previous investigations have also shown that aerodynamic resistance moment acting on rotating wheels, sometimes referred to as ventilation resistance or ventilation torque is a significant contributor to the total aerodynamic resistance of the vehicle; therefore it should not be neglected when designing the wheel-housing area. This work presents a numerical study of the wheel ventilation resistance moment and factors that affect it, using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). It is demonstrated how pressure and shear forces acting on different rotating parts of the wheel affect the ventilation torque. It is also shown how a simple change of rim design can lead to a significant decrease in power consumption of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Chemical Model of Gasoline-Ethanol Blends for Internal Combustion Engine Applications

2010-04-12
2010-01-0543
A semi-detailed chemical mechanism for combustion of gasoline-ethanol blends, which is based on sub-mechanisms of gasoline surrogate and for ethanol is developed and validated aiming at CFD engine modeling. The gasoline surrogate is composed of iso-octane, toluene, and n-heptane in volumetric proportions of 55%:35%:10%, respectively. In this way, the hydrogen-carbon atomic ratio H/C, which is around 1.87 for real gasoline, is accurately reproduced as well as a mixture equivalence ratio that is important for Gasoline Direct Injection engine applications. The integrated mechanism for gasoline-ethanol blends includes 120 species participating in 677 reactions. The mechanism is tested against experimental data on ignition delay times and laminar flame speeds, obtained for various n-heptane/iso-octane/toluene/ethanol-air mixtures under various equivalence ratios, initial temperatures, and pressures. Chemical, thermodynamic and transport properties used in the calculations are discussed.
Technical Paper

Exploration and Improvement of Road Vehicle Aerodynamics using LES

2011-04-12
2011-01-0176
The paper discusses an appropriate usage of large eddy simulation (LES) in external vehicle aerodynamics. Three different applications, wheelhouse flow, gusty flow and active flow control, are used to demonstrate how LES can be used to obtain new knowledge about vehicle flows. The three examples illustrate the information that can be extracted using LES in vehicle aerodynamics and show the potential of LES in explorations of this complex flow.
Technical Paper

Cooling Performance Investigation of a Rear Mounted Cooling Package for Heavy Vehicles

2011-04-12
2011-01-0174
The aim of the study was to investigate the cooling performance of two cooling package positions for distribution vehicles by using Computational Fluid Dynamics. The first cooling package was positioned in the front of the vehicle, behind the grill and the second position was at the rear of the vehicle. Each case was evaluated by its cooling performance for a critical driving situation and its aerodynamic drag at 90 km/h, where the largest challenge of an alternative position is the cooling air availability. The geometry used was a semi-generic commercial vehicle, based on a medium size distribution truck with a heat rejection value set to a fixed typical level at maximum power for a 13 litre Euro 6 diesel engine. The heat exchangers included in the study were the air conditioning condenser, the charge air cooler and the radiator. It was found that the main problem with the rear mounted cooling installation was the combination of the fan and the geometry after the fan.
Technical Paper

Influence of Different Truck and Trailer Combinations on the Aerodynamic Drag

2011-04-12
2011-01-0179
The aim with this investigation was to study the aerodynamic properties of truck-trailer combinations of varying lengths. The aerodynamic properties of the combinations were evaluated in order to study similarities and differences in the flow field between different configurations. By the use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) six different types of truck-trailer combinations used for long hauling have been evaluated. The combinations have a total length varying between 10.10 m and 25.25 m and consist of either a tractor or rigid truck in combination with one or two cargo units. All of the combinations are commonly found on roads in Sweden and several other countries in Europe. The results from the simulations show that the aerodynamic properties differ significantly for the truck-trailer combinations. It was found that the longer vehicle combinations are much more sensitive to yaw conditions than the shorter combinations.
Technical Paper

Effects of Ground Simulation on the Aerodynamic Coefficients of a Production Car in Yaw Conditions

2010-04-12
2010-01-0755
Automotive wind tunnel testing is a key element in the development of the aerodynamics of road vehicles. Continuous advancements are made in order to decrease the differences between actual on-road conditions and wind tunnel test properties and the importance of ground simulation with relative motion of the ground and rotating wheels has been the topic of several studies. This work presents a study on the effect of active ground simulation, using moving ground and rotating wheels, on the aerodynamic coefficients on a passenger car in yawed conditions. Most of the published studies on the effects of ground simulation cover only zero yaw conditions and only a few earlier investigations covering ground simulation during yaw were found in the existing literature and all considered simplified models. To further investigate this, a study on a full size sedan type vehicle of production status was performed in the Volvo Aerodynamic Wind Tunnel.
Technical Paper

A Wind Tunnel Study Correlating the Aerodynamic Effect of Cooling Flows for Full and Reduced Scale Models of a Passenger Car

2010-04-12
2010-01-0759
In the early stages of an aerodynamic development programme of a road vehicle it is common to use wind tunnel scale models. The obvious reasons for using scale models are that they are less costly to build and model scale wind tunnels are relatively inexpensive to operate. It is therefore desirable for model scale testing to be utilized even more than it is today. This however, requires that the scale models are highly detailed and that the results correlate with those of the full size vehicle. This paper presents a correlation study that was carried out in the Chalmers and Volvo Car Aerodynamic Wind Tunnels. The aim of the study was to investigate how successfully a correlation of the cooling air flow between a detailed scale model and a real full size vehicle could be achieved. Results show limited correlation on absolute global aerodynamic loads, but relative good correlation in drag and lift increments.
Technical Paper

Continuing Cooling Performance Investigation of a Rear Mounted Cooling Package for Heavy Vehicles

2011-09-13
2011-01-2285
This investigation is a continuing analysis of the cooling performance and aerodynamic properties of a rear-mounted cooling module on a semi-generic commercial vehicle, which was carried out by Larsson, Löfdahl and Wiklund. In the previous study two designs of the cooling package installation were positioned behind the rear wheelhouse and the results were compared to a front-mounted cooling module. The investigation was mainly focused on a critical cooling situation occurring at lower vehicle speeds for a local distribution vehicle. The conclusion from the study was that the cooling performance for one of the rear-mounted installation was favorable compared to the front-mounted cooling package. This was mainly due to the low vehicle speed, the high fan speed and to fewer obstacles around the cooling module resulting in a lower system restriction within the installation.
Technical Paper

Continued Study of the Error and Consistency of Fan CFD MRF Models

2010-04-12
2010-01-0553
The most common fan model to use in commercial CFD software today is the Multiple Reference Frame (MRF) model. This is at least valid for automotive under hood applications. Within the industry, for this typical application, this model is commonly known to under predict performance. This under prediction has been documented by the authors' of this paper in SAE paper 2009-01-0178 and VTMS paper 2009-01-3067. Furthermore has this been documented by S.Moreau from Valeo in “Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Rotor-Stator Interaction in Automotive Engine Cooling Fan Systems”, ETC, 7th European Conference on Turbomachinery, 2007. In preceding papers a specific methodology of use has been documented and it has been shown that the MRF model under predicts performance for the airflow in a cooling system commonly with 14% in volumetric flow rate. This is for a system dominated by inertial effects.
Journal Article

Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Wheel Housing Aerodynamics on Heavy Trucks

2012-04-16
2012-01-0106
Wheel and underbody aerodynamics have become important topics in the search to reduce the aerodynamic drag of the heavy trucks. This study aims to investigate, experimentally as well as numerically, the local flow field around the wheels and in the wheel housing on a heavy truck; and how different approaches to modelling the wheel rotation in CFD influences the results. Emphasis is on effects due to ground simulation, and both moving ground and wheel rotation were requirements for this study. A 1:4-scale model of part of a heavy truck geometry has been developed. During the model design numerical simulations were used to optimise the shape, in order to replicate the flow field near the wheel of a complete truck. This was done by changing the flow angles of the incoming and exiting flows, and by keeping the mass flow rates in to, and out of, the wheel housing at the same ratios as in a reference full size vehicle.
Journal Article

Experimental Investigation of Heat Transfer Rate and Pressure Drop through Angled Compact Heat Exchangers Relative to the Incoming Airflow

2014-09-30
2014-01-2337
This paper presents pressure drops and heat transfer rates for compact heat exchangers, where the heat exchangers are angled 90°, 60°, 30° and 10° relative to the incoming airflow. The investigation is based on three heat exchangers with thicknesses of 19mm and 52mm. Each heat exchanger was mounted in a duct, where it was tested for thermal and isothermal conditions. The inlet temperature of the coolant was defined to two temperatures; ambient temperature and 90°C. For the ambient cases the coolant had the same temperature as the surrounding air, these tests were performed for five airflow rates. When the coolant had a temperature of 90°C a combination of five coolant flow rates and five airflow rates were tested. The test set-up was defined as having a constant cross-section area for 90°, 60° and 30° angles, resulting in a larger core area and a lower airspeed through the core, for a more inclined heat exchanger.
Journal Article

Parameter Estimation of a DOC from Engine Rig Experiments with a Discretized Catalyst Washcoat Model

2014-07-01
2014-01-9049
Parameter tuning was performed against data from a full scale engine rig with a Diesel Oxidation Catalysts (DOC). Several different catalyst configurations were used with varying Pt loading, washcoat thickness and volume. To illustrate the interplay between kinetics and mass transport, engine operating points were chosen with a wide variation in variables (inlet conditions) and both transient and stationary operation was used. A catalyst model was developed where the catalyst washcoat was discretized as tanks in series both radially and axially. Three different model configurations were used for parameter tuning, evaluating three different approaches to modeling of internal transport resistance. It was concluded that for a catalyst model with internal transport resistance the best fit could be achieved if some parameters affecting the internal mass transport were tuned in addition to the kinetic parameters.
Journal Article

Comparative Studies between CFD and Wind Tunnel Measurements of Cooling Performance and External Aerodynamics for a Heavy Truck

2014-09-30
2014-01-2443
Nowadays, much focus for vehicle manufacturers is directed towards improving the energy efficiency of their products. The aerodynamic drag constitutes one major part of the total driving resistance for a vehicle travelling at higher speeds. In fact, above approximately 80km/h the aerodynamic drag is the dominating resistance acting on a truck. Hence the importance of reducing this resistance is apparent. Cooling drag is one part of the total aerodynamic drag, which arises from air flowing through the heat exchangers, and the irregular under-hood area. When using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) in the development process it is of great importance to ensure that the methods used are accurately capturing the physics of the flow. This paper deals with comparative studies between CFD and wind-tunnel tests. In this paper, two comparative studies are presented.
Technical Paper

Load Transfer From the Striking Vehicle in Side and Pedestrian Impacts

1985-01-01
856082
The level at which forces are transmitted from the striking vehicle in side impacts may influence the response of the struck car in several different ways. A better contact between the front bumper of the striking and the sill area of the struck car has been considered to be desirable in this respect. In side impacts, the most frequent direction of the impact is from 3 and 9 o'clock, while the direction of the forces is usually from 2 and 10 o'clock due to the velocity of the struck car. A European car and the EEVC moving deformable barrier have, therefore, been used in a crabbed mode to study the problem of load transfer at different levels above the ground. Volvo and Saab cars were used as targets in 55 km/h side impact with an APROD-81 side impact dummy placed on the struck side in the front seat. The results indicate that a difference in the level at which the loads were applied could influence the deformations, the kinematics of the struck cars, and the loading of the occupant.
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