Refine Your Search

Topic

Search Results

Video

Cooling Airflow System Modeling in CFD Using Assumption of Stationary Flow

2011-11-29
Today CFD is an important tool for engineers in the automotive industry who model and simulate fluid flow. For the complex field of Underhood Thermal Management, CFD has become a very important tool to engineer the cooling airflow process in the engine bay of vehicles. Presenter Peter Gullberg, Chalmers University of Technology
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Investigations of the Base Wake on an SUV

2013-04-08
2013-01-0464
With the increase in fuel prices and the increasingly strict environmental legislations regarding CO₂ emissions, reduction of the total energy consumption of our society becomes more important. Passenger vehicles are partly responsible for this consumption due to their strong presence in the daily life of most people. Therefore reducing the impact of cars on the environment can assist in decreasing the overall energy consumption. Even though several fields have an impact on a passenger car's performance, this paper will focus on the aerodynamic part and more specifically, the wake behind a vehicle. By definition a car is a bluff body on which the air resistance is for the most part driven by pressure drag. This is caused by the wake these bodies create. Therefore analyzing the wake characteristics behind a vehicle is crucial if one would like to reduce drag.
Technical Paper

Modelling of Gasoline and Ethanol Hollow-Cone Sprays Using OpenFOAM

2011-08-30
2011-01-1896
Over the past few years, an open-source code called OpenFOAM has been becoming a promising CFD tool for multi-dimensional numerical simulations of internal combustion engines. The primary goal of the present study is to assess the feasibility of the code for computations of hollow-cone sprays discharged by an outward-opening pintle-type injector by simulating the experiments performed recently by Hemdal et al., (SAE 2009-01-1496) with gasoline and ethanol sprays under the following conditions: air temperature Tair = 295 or 350 K, air pressure pair = 6 bar, fuel temperature Tfuel = 243, or 295, or 320 K, and fuel injection pressure pinj = 50, or 125, or 200 bar. To simulate the experiments, a pintle injector model and the physical properties of gasoline were implemented in OpenFOAM. The flow field calculated using the pintle injector model is more realistic than that yielded by the default unit injector model normally used in OpenFOAM.
Technical Paper

Effect of Semi-Active Front Axle Suspension Design on Vehicle Comfort and Road Holding for a Heavy Truck

2012-09-24
2012-01-1931
Semi-active suspension systems for ground vehicles have been the focus of research for several years as they offer improvements in vehicle comfort and handling. This kind of suspension has attracted more interest compared to active suspension systems especially due to lower cost and energy consumption. In this paper the capabilities of a semi-active front axle suspension are investigated for a commercial vehicle. A half-truck model of a 4x2 tractor and semitrailer combination is developed in Matlab/Simulink for this purpose. Also, a 2 DOF roll plane model is considered to capture the roll motion of the vehicle body mass. Employing the above-mentioned models, results from on-off and continuous variable semi-active damping systems are compared to the ones from the passive suspension system according to ride comfort and handling safety characteristics.
Technical Paper

A 1D Method for Transient Simulations of Cooling Systems with Non-Uniform Temperature and Flow Boundaries Extracted from a 3D CFD Solution

2015-04-14
2015-01-0337
The current work investigates a method in 1D modeling of cooling systems including discretized cooling package with non-uniform boundary conditions. In a stacked cooling package the heat transfer through each heat exchanger depends on the mass flows and temperature fields. These are a result of complex three-dimensional phenomena, which take place in the under-hood and are highly non-uniform. A typical approach in 1D simulations is to assume these to be uniform, which reduces the authenticity of the simulation and calls for additional calibrations, normally done with input from test measurements. The presented work employs 3D CFD simulations of complete vehicle in STAR-CCM+ to perform a comprehensive study of mass-flow and thermal distribution over the inlet of the cooling package of a Volvo FM commercial vehicle in several steady-state operating points.
Technical Paper

Holistic Approach for Improved Safety Including a Proposal of New Virtual Test Conditions of Small Electric Vehicles

2015-04-14
2015-01-0571
In the next 20 years the share of small electric vehicles (SEVs) will increase especially in urban areas. SEVs show distinctive design differences compared to traditional vehicles. Thus the consequences of impacts of SEVs with vulnerable road users (VRUs) and other vehicles will be different from traditional collisions. No assessment concerning vehicle safety is defined for vehicles within European L7e category currently. Focus of the elaborated methodology is to define appropriate test scenarios for this vehicle category to be used within a virtual tool chain. A virtual tool chain has to be defined for the realization of a guideline of virtual certification. The derivation and development of new test conditions for SEVs are described and are the main focus of this work. As key methodology a prospective methodical analysis under consideration of future aspects like pre-crash safety systems is applied.
Technical Paper

Soot Evolution in Multiple Injection Diesel Flames

2008-10-06
2008-01-2470
In order to meet future emission regulations, various new combustion concepts are being developed, several of which incorporate advanced diesel injection strategies, e.g. multiple injections, offering attractive potential benefits. In this study the effects of split injections on soot evolution in diesel flames were investigated in a series of flame experiments performed using a high pressure, high temperature (HP/HT) spray chamber and laser-induced incandescence apparatus to measure soot volume fractions. The focus was on split injections with varied dwell times preceded by a short pilot. The results, which were analyzed and compared to results from engine tests, show that net soot production can be decreased by applying an appropriate split injection strategy.
Journal Article

CFD-Based Optimization of a Diesel-fueled Free Piston Engine Prototype for Conventional and HCCI Combustion

2008-10-06
2008-01-2423
This paper presents results of a parametric CFD modeling study of a prototype Free Piston Engine (FPE), designed for application in a series hybrid electric vehicle. Since the piston motion is governed by Newton's second law, accounting for the forces acting on the piston/translator, i.e. friction forces, electrical forces, and in-cylinder gas forces, having a high-level control system is vital. The control system changes the electrical force applied during the stroke, thus obtaining the desired compression ratio. Identical control algorithms were implemented in a MATLAB/SIMULINK model to those applied in the prototype engine. The ignition delay and heat release data used in the MATLAB/SIMULINK model are predicted by the KIVA-3V CFD code which incorporates detailed chemical kinetics (305 reactions among 70 species).
Technical Paper

The Role of Aerodynamics in the 1955 Le Mans Crash

2008-12-02
2008-01-2996
In the 1955 Le Mans race the worst crash in motor racing history occurred and this accident would change the face of motor racing for decades. After the crash numerous investigations on the disaster were performed, and fifty years after some interesting books were launched on the subject. However, a number of key questions remain unsolved; and one open area is the influence of aerodynamics on the scenario, since the Mercedes-Benz 300 SLR involved in the crash was equipped with an air-brake and its influence on the accident is basically unknown. This work may be considered as a first attempt to establish CFD as a tool to aid in resolving aerodynamic aspects in motor sport accidents and in the present paper, CFD has been used to investigate the aerodynamics and estimate the drag and lift coefficients of the Mercedes-Benz 300 SLR used in the Le Mans race of 1955.
Technical Paper

Heavy Vehicle Wheel Housing Flows - a Parametric Study

2009-04-20
2009-01-1169
The drag from the underbody, including wheels and wheel housing, constitutes a significant amount of the total aerodynamic drag of heavy vehicles. A correct simulation of the underbody boundary conditions, including rotating wheels and moving ground, has turned out to be of great importance in the minimising of the aerodynamic drag. In the current study several front wheel housing design parameters have been evaluated using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Design concepts, like enclosed inner wheel housings, underbody panel and wheel housing ventilation, were evaluated by flow analysis and comparison of the drag force contribution. It was shown that changes to the wheel housing geometry had an important impact on the local flow field and force distribution. The total drag of the vehicle decreased with reduced wheel housing volume and wheel housing ventilation can reduce the aerodynamic drag significantly provided it is designed properly.
Technical Paper

Simulation of a Two-Stroke Free Piston Engine

2004-06-08
2004-01-1871
The free piston internal combustion engine used in conjunction with a linear alternator offers an interesting choice for use in hybrid vehicles. The linear motion of the pistons is directly converted to electricity by the alternator, and the result is a compact and efficient energy converter that has only one moving part. The movement of the pistons is not prescribed by a crank mechanism, but is the result of the equilibrium of forces acting on the pistons, and the engine will act like a mass-spring system. This feature is one of the most prominent advantages of the FPE (Free Piston Engine), as the lack of mechanical linkage gives means of varying the compression ratio in simple manners, without changing the hardware of the engine. By varying the compression ratio, it is also it possible to run on a multitude of different fuels and to use HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) combustion.
Technical Paper

Conceptual Design of Distributed by-Wire Systems

2002-03-04
2002-01-0271
A design method for ultra-dependable control-by-wire systems is presented here. With a top-down approach, exploiting the system's intrinsic redundancy combined with a scalable software redundancy, it is possible to meet dependability requirements cost-effectively. The method starts with the system's functions, which are broken down to the basic elements; task, sensor or actuator. A task graph shows the basic elements interrelationships. Sensor and actuator nodes form a non-redundant hardware architecture. The functional task-graph gives input when allocating software on the node architecture. Tasks are allocated to achieve low inter-node communication and transient fault tolerance using scalable software redundancy. Hardware is added to meet the dependability requirements. Finally, the method describes fault handling and bus scheduling. The proposed method has been used in two cases; a fly-by-wire aircraft and a drive-by-wire car.
Technical Paper

Heat Release in the End-Gas Prior to Knock in Lean, Rich and Stoichiometric Mixtures With and Without EGR

2002-03-04
2002-01-0239
SI Engine knock is caused by autoignition in the unburnt part of the mixture (end-gas) ahead of the propagating flame. Autoignition of the end-gas occurs when the temperature and pressure exceeds a critical limit when comparatively slow reactions-releasing moderate amounts of heat-transform into ignition and rapid heat release. In this paper the difference in the heat released in the end-gas-by low temperature chemistry-between lean, rich, stochiometric, and stoichiometric mixtures diluted with cooled EGR was examined by measuring the temperature in the end-gas with Dual Broadband Rotational CARS. The measured temperature history was compared with an isentropic temperature calculated from the cylinder pressure trace. The experimentally obtained values for knock onset were compared with results from a two-zone thermodynamic model including detailed chemistry modeling of the end-gas reactions.
Technical Paper

Battery Parameter Estimation from Recorded Fleet Data

2016-10-17
2016-01-2360
Existing battery parameter model structures are evaluated by estimating model parameters on real driving data applying standard system identification methods. Models are then evaluated on the test data in terms of goodness of fit and RMSE in voltage predictions. This is different from previous battery model evaluations where a common approach is to train parameters using standardized tests, e.g. hybrid pulse-power capability (HPPC), with predetermined charge and discharge sequences. Equivalent linear circuit models of different complexity were tested and evaluated in order to identify parameter dependencies at different state of charge levels and temperatures. Models are then used to create voltage output given a current, state of charge and temperature. The average accuracy of modelling the DC bus voltage provides a model goodness of fit average higher than 90% for a single RC circuit model.
Technical Paper

Proactive Human Factors Engineering Analysis in Space Station Design Using the Computer Manikin Jack

2000-06-06
2000-01-2166
In this case study, a human factors analysis was carried out in the preliminary design phase of the Cupola, a European Space Agency (ESA) module for manned space flights for the International Space Station (ISS). The manikin software Jack® was used early in the design process before any flight hardware production. All Cupola astronaut tasks were evaluated in a virtual environment of the Cupola. Methodological aspects concerning the analysis are described, e.g. file processing, use of coordinate systems and the use of a prior task analysis. Results show that the thorough manikin analysis supported with the hierarchical task analysis results, was an important help in the design process.
Technical Paper

Prerequisites for Extensive Computer Manikin Analysis – An Example with Hierarchical Task Analysis, File Exchange Protocol and a Relational Database

2001-06-26
2001-01-2101
In this case study, a human factors engineering (HFE) analysis was carried out in the preliminary design phase of the Cupola. Cupola is a European Space Agency (ESA) module for manned space flights for the International Space Station (ISS) as part of a Barter Arrangement between ESA and the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Manikin software was used early in the design process before the production of any flight hardware. The manikin analysis was supported by the use of hierarchical task analysis, a file exchange protocol and a relational database. This paper describes methodological aspects of the use of the supporting methods. Results show that hierarchical task analysis, a file exchange protocol and a relational database are prerequisites for successful extensive manikin analysis.
Technical Paper

Speed Limit in City Area and Improvement of Vehicle Front Design for Pedestrian Impact Protection-A Computer Simulation Study

2001-06-04
2001-06-0227
This paper presented a part of results from an ongoing project for pedestrian protection, which is carried out at Chalmers University of Technology in Sweden. A validated pedestrian mathematical model was used in this study to simulate vehicle-pedestrian impacts. A large number of simulations have been carried out with various parameters. The injury-related parameters concerning head, chest, pelvis and lower extremities were calculated to evaluate the effect of impact speed and vehicle front structure on the risk of pedestrian injuries. The effect of following vehicle parameters was studied: stiffness of bumper, hood edge, hood top, windscreen frame, and shape of vehicle front structures. A parameter study was conducted by modelling vehicle-pedestrian impacts with various sizes of cars, mini vans, and light trucks. This choice represents the trends of new vehicle fleet and their frequency of involvement in real world accidents.
Technical Paper

The Structure of Cavitation and its Effect on the Spray Pattern in a Single-Hole Diesel Nozzle

2001-05-07
2001-01-2008
The structure and evolution of cavitation in a transparent scaled-up diesel nozzle having a hole perpendicular to the nozzle axis has been investigated using high-speed motion pictures, flash photography and stroboscopic visualization. Observations revealed that, at the inception stage, cavitation bubbles are dominantly seen in the vortices at the boundary layer shear flow and outside the separation zone. Cavitation bubbles grow intensively in the shear layer and develop into cloud-like coherent structures when viewed from the side of the nozzle. Shedding of the coherent cloud cavitation was observed. When the flow was increased further the cloud like cavitation bubbles developed into a large-scale coherent structure extending downstream of the hole. Under this condition the cavitation starts as a mainly glassy sheet at the entrance of the hole. Until this stage the spray appeared to be symmetric.
Technical Paper

Modelling Gasoline Spray-wall Interaction -a Review of Current Models

2000-10-16
2000-01-2808
A literature survey was carried out to examine the advances in knowledge regarding spray impingement on surfaces over the last five years. Published experiments indicate that spray impingement is controlled by various spray parameters, surface conditions, and liquid properties. One disadvantage of the published results is that the experiments have mainly been conducted with water droplets or diesel fuel, often at atmospheric conditions. A sensitivity analysis was performed for one common impingement model. The purpose was to investigate how the model described different phenomena when different parameters were changed, including wall temperature, wall roughness and injection velocity of the spray. The model tested showed sensitivity to surface roughness, whereas changes in wall temperature only resulted in increased evaporation from the surface. The increase of injection velocity resulted in a decrease of fuel on the wall by 70%.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Spark Position Effects in a Small Pre-chamber on Ignition and Early Flame Propagation

2000-10-16
2000-01-2839
Lean gas engines have a potential for a significant reduction in both fuel consumption and emission levels. The use of a small pre-chamber with controlled stoichiometric or rich mixture composition is an effective way to deal with ignition problems in such engines. A constant volume vessel equipped with a device for generation of turbulence of known quantities is used to study the operation of a cylindrical pre-chamber of 1% of the main chamber volume. Pressure was measured in the main chamber and Schlieren images of the flame initiation and propagation in the main chamber were recorded for all set-ups. The investigation of the pre-chamber is focused on the position of the spark within the pre-chamber. Spark locations close to the orifice and close to the opposite wall as well as in the middle of the pre-chamber were tested and flame evolution and pressure history were studied.
X