Refine Your Search

Topic

Search Results

Viewing 1 to 17 of 17
Video

Cooling Airflow System Modeling in CFD Using Assumption of Stationary Flow

2011-11-29
Today CFD is an important tool for engineers in the automotive industry who model and simulate fluid flow. For the complex field of Underhood Thermal Management, CFD has become a very important tool to engineer the cooling airflow process in the engine bay of vehicles. Presenter Peter Gullberg, Chalmers University of Technology
Technical Paper

Axial Fan Performance Predictions in CFD, Comparison of MRF and Sliding Mesh with Experiments

2011-04-12
2011-01-0652
Underhood Thermal Management has become an important topic for the majority of automotive OEM's. To keep combustion engines cool and manage waste heat efficiently is an important part in the design of vehicles with low fuel consumption. To be able to predict cooling performance and underhood airflow with good precision within a virtual design process, it is of utmost importance to model and simulate the cooling fan efficiently and accurately, and this has turned out to be challenging. Simulating the cooling fan in a vehicle installation involves capturing complex fluid dynamic interaction between rotating blades and stationary objects in the vicinity of the fan. This interaction is a function of fan rotation rate, fan blade profile, upstream and downstream installation components. The flow is usually highly turbulent and small geometry details, like the distance between the blade tip and the fan shroud, have strong impact on the fan performance characteristics.
Technical Paper

Cooling Airflow System Modeling in CFD Using Assumption of Stationary Flow

2011-09-13
2011-01-2182
Today CFD is an important tool for engineers in the automotive industry who model and simulate fluid flow. For the complex field of Underhood Thermal Management, CFD has become a very important tool to engineer the cooling airflow process in the engine bay of vehicles. To model the cooling airflow process accurately in CFD, it is of utmost importance to model all components in the cooling airflow path accurately. These components are the heat exchangers, fan and engine bay blockage effect. This paper presents CFD simulations together with correlating measurements of a cooling airflow system placed in a test rig. The system contains a heavy duty truck louvered fin radiator core, fan shroud, fan ring and fan. Behind the cooling module and fan, a 1D engine silhouette is placed to mimic the blockage done by a truck engine. Furthermore, a simple hood is mounted over the module to mimic the guiding of air done by the hood shape in an engine bay.
Technical Paper

A 1D Method for Transient Simulations of Cooling Systems with Non-Uniform Temperature and Flow Boundaries Extracted from a 3D CFD Solution

2015-04-14
2015-01-0337
The current work investigates a method in 1D modeling of cooling systems including discretized cooling package with non-uniform boundary conditions. In a stacked cooling package the heat transfer through each heat exchanger depends on the mass flows and temperature fields. These are a result of complex three-dimensional phenomena, which take place in the under-hood and are highly non-uniform. A typical approach in 1D simulations is to assume these to be uniform, which reduces the authenticity of the simulation and calls for additional calibrations, normally done with input from test measurements. The presented work employs 3D CFD simulations of complete vehicle in STAR-CCM+ to perform a comprehensive study of mass-flow and thermal distribution over the inlet of the cooling package of a Volvo FM commercial vehicle in several steady-state operating points.
Technical Paper

Development of a Model Scale Heat Exchanger for Wind Tunnel Models of Road Vehicles

2008-04-14
2008-01-0097
During the development of the aerodynamic properties of fore coming road vehicles down scaled models are often used in the initial phase. However, if scale models are to be utilised even further in the aerodynamic development they have to include geometrical representatives of most of the components found in the real vehicle. As the cooling package is one of the biggest single generators of aerodynamic drag the heat exchangers are essential to include in a wind tunnel model. However, due mainly to limitations in manufacturing techniques it is complicated to make a down scaled heat exchanger and instead functional dummy heat exchangers have to be developed for scaled wind tunnel models. In this work a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code has been used to show that it is important that the simplified heat exchanger model has to be of comparable size to that of the full scale unit.
Technical Paper

A Numerical and Experimental Study of Diesel Fuel Sprays Impinging on a Temperature Controlled Wall

2006-10-16
2006-01-3333
Both spray-wall and spray-spray interactions in direct injection diesel engines have been found to influence the rate of heat release and the formation of emissions. Simulations of these phenomena for diesel sprays need to be validated, and an issue is investigating what kind of fuels can be used in both experiments and spray calculations. The objective of this work is to compare numerical simulations with experimental data of sprays impinging on a temperature controlled wall with respect to spray characteristics and heat transfer. The numerical simulations were made using the STAR-CD and KIVA-3V codes. The CFD simulations accounted for the actual spray chamber geometry and operating conditions used in the experiments. Particular attention was paid to the fuel used for the simulations.
Technical Paper

Numerical and Experimental Analysis of the Wall Film Thickness for Diesel Fuel Sprays Impinging on a Temperature-Controlled Wall

2007-04-16
2007-01-0486
Analysis of spray-wall interaction is a major issue in the study of the combustion process in DI diesel engines. Along with spray characteristics, the investigation of impinging sprays and of liquid wall film development is fundamental for predicting the mixture formation. Simulations of these phenomena for diesel sprays need to be validated and improved; nevertheless they can extend and complement experimental measurements. In this paper the wall film thickness for impinging sprays was investigated by evaluating the heat transfer across a temperature controlled wall. In fact, heat transfer is significantly affected by the wall film thickness, and both experiments and simulations were carried out to correlate the wall temperature variations and film height. The numerical simulations were carried out using the STAR-CD and the KIVA-3V, rel. 2, codes.
Journal Article

Time and Spatially Resolved Temperature Measurements of a Combusting Diesel Spray Impinging on a Wall

2008-06-23
2008-01-1608
The interaction between a combusting diesel spray and a wall was studied by measuring the spray flame temperature time and spatially resolved. The influence of injection sequences, injection pressure and gas conditions on the heat transfer between the combusting spray and the wall was investigated by measuring the flame temperature during the complete injection event. The flame temperature was measured by an emission based optical method and determined by comparing the relative emission intensities from the soot in the flame at two wavelength intervals. The measurements were done by employing a monochromatic and non intensified high speed camera, an array of mirrors, interference filters and a beam splitter. The studies were carried out in the Chalmers High Pressure High Temperature (HP/HT) spray rig at conditions similar to those prevailing in a direct injected diesel engine prior to the injection of fuel.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation of Spray-Wall Interaction of Diesel Sprays

2009-04-20
2009-01-0842
Wall wetting can occur irrespective of combustion concept in diesel engines, e.g. during the compression stroke. This action has been related to engine-out emissions in different ways, and an experimental investigation of impinging diesel sprays is thus made for a standard diesel fuel and a two-component model fuel (IDEA). The experiment was performed at conditions corresponding to those found during the compression stroke in a heavy duty diesel engine. The spray characteristics of two fuels were measured using two different optical methods: a Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) and high-speed imaging. A temperature controlled wall equipped with rapid, coaxial thermocouples was used to record the change in surface temperature from the heat transfer of the impinging sprays.
Technical Paper

Gasoline HCCI Modeling: An Engine Cycle Simulation Code with a Multi-Zone Combustion Model

2002-05-06
2002-01-1745
For the application to Gasoline Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) modeling, a multi-zone model was developed. For this purpose, the detailed-chemistry code SENKIN from the CHEMKIN library was modified. In a previous paper, the authors explained how piston motion and a heat transfer model were implemented in the SENKIN code to make it applicable to engine modeling. The single-zone model developed was successfully implemented in the engine cycle simulation code AVL BOOST™. A multi-zone model, including a crevice volume, a quench layer and multiple core zones, is introduced here. A temperature distribution specified over these zones gives this model a wider range of application than the single-zone model, since fuel efficiency, emissions and heat release can now be predicted more accurately. The SENKIN-BOOST multi-zone model predictions are compared with experimental data.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Knock on Heat Transfer in SI Engines

2002-03-04
2002-01-0238
Heat transfer to the walls of the combustion chamber is increased by engine knock. In this study the influence of knock onset and knock intensity on the heat flux is investigated by examining over 10 000 individual engine cycles with a varying degree of knock. The heat transfer to the walls was estimated by measuring the combustion chamber wall temperature in an SI engine under knocking conditions. The influence of the air-fuel ratio and the orientation of the oscillating cylinder pressure-relative to the combustion chamber wall-were also investigated. It was found that knock intensities above 0.2 Mpa influenced the heat flux. At knock intensities above 0.6 Mpa, the peak heat flux was 2.5 times higher than for a non-knocking cycle. The direction of the oscillations did not affect the heat transfer.
Technical Paper

Temperature Oscillations in the Wall of a Cooled Multi Pulsejet Propeller for Aeronautic Propulsion

2016-09-20
2016-01-1998
Environmental and economic issues related to the aeronautic transport, with particular reference to the high-speed one are opening new perspectives to pulsejets and derived pulse detonation engines. Their importance relates to high thrust to weight ratio and low cost of manufacturing with very low energy efficiency. This papers presents a preliminary evaluation in the direction of a new family of pulsejets which can be coupled with both an air compression system which is currently in pre-patenting study and a more efficient and enduring valve systems with respect to today ones. This new pulsejet has bee specifically studied to reach three objectives: a better thermodynamic efficiency, a substantial reduction of vibrations by a multi-chamber cooled architecture, a much longer operative life by more affordable valves. Another objective of this research connects directly to the possibility of feeding the pulsejet with hydrogen.
Technical Paper

Advanced Predictive Diesel Combustion Simulation Using Turbulence Model and Stochastic Reactor Model

2017-03-28
2017-01-0516
Today numerical models are a major part of the diesel engine development. They are applied during several stages of the development process to perform extensive parameter studies and to investigate flow and combustion phenomena in detail. The models are divided by complexity and computational costs since one has to decide what the best choice for the task is. 0D models are suitable for problems with large parameter spaces and multiple operating points, e.g. engine map simulation and parameter sweeps. Therefore, it is necessary to incorporate physical models to improve the predictive capability of these models. This work focuses on turbulence and mixing modeling within a 0D direct injection stochastic reactor model. The model is based on a probability density function approach and incorporates submodels for direct fuel injection, vaporization, heat transfer, turbulent mixing and detailed chemistry.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Natural Convection in a Simplified Engine Bay

2016-04-05
2016-01-1683
Presented are results from numerical investigations of buoyancy driven flow in a simplified representation of an engine bay. A main motivation for this study is the necessity for a valid correlation of results from numerical methods and procedures with physical measurements in order to evaluate the accuracy and feasibility of the available numerical tools for prediction of natural convection. This analysis is based on previously performed PIV and temperature measurements in a controlled physical setup, which reproduced thermal soak conditions in the engine compartment as they occur for a vehicle parked in a quiescent ambient after sustaining high thermal loads. Thermal soak is an important phenomenon in the engine bay primarily driven by natural convection and radiation after there had been a high power demand on the engine. With the cooling fan turned off and in quiescent environment, buoyancy driven convection and radiation are the dominating modes of heat transfer.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Knock on the Heat Transfer in an SI Engine: Thermal Boundary Layer Investigation using CARS Temperature Measurements and Heat Flux Measurements

2000-10-16
2000-01-2831
It is generally accepted that knocking combustion influences the heat transfer in SI engines. However, the effects of heat transfer on the onset of knock is still not clear due to lack of experimental data of the thermal boundary layer close to the combustion chamber wall. This paper presents measurements of the temperature in the thermal boundary layer under knocking and non-knocking conditions. The temperature was measured using dual-broadband rotational Coherent anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS). Simultaneous time-resolved measurements of the cylinder pressure, at three different locations, and the heat flux to the wall were carried out. Optical access to the region near the combustion chamber wall was achieved by using a horseshoe-shaped combustion chamber with windows installed in the rectangular part of the chamber. This arrangement made CARS temperature measurements close to the wall possible and results are presented in the range 0.1-5 mm from the wall.
Technical Paper

Influence of Considering Non-Ideal Thermodynamics on Droplet Evaporation and Spray Formation (for Gasoline Direct Injection Engine Conditions) Using VSB2 Spray Model

2018-04-03
2018-01-0181
This work utilizes previously developed VSB2 (VSB2 Stochastic Blob and Bubble) multicomponent fuel spray model to study significance of using non-ideal thermodynamics for droplet evaporation under direct injection engine like operating conditions. Non-ideal thermodynamics is used to account for vapor-liquid equilibrium arising from evaporation of multicomponent fuel droplets. In specific, the evaporation of ethanol/iso-octane blend is studied in this work. Two compositions of the blend are tested, E-10 and E-85 respectively (the number denotes percentage of ethanol in blend). The VSB2 spray model is implemented into OpenFoam CFD code which is used to study evaporation of the blend in constant volume combustion vessel. Liquid and vapor penetration lengths for the E-10 case are calculated and compared with the experiment. The simulation results show reasonable agreement with the experiment. Simulation is performed with two methods- ideal and non-ideal thermodynamics respectively.
Technical Paper

Multi-Objective Optimization of Fuel Consumption and NOx Emissions with Reliability Analysis Using a Stochastic Reactor Model

2019-04-02
2019-01-1173
The introduction of a physics-based zero-dimensional stochastic reactor model combined with tabulated chemistry enables the simulation-supported development of future compression-ignited engines. The stochastic reactor model mimics mixture and temperature inhomogeneities induced by turbulence, direct injection and heat transfer. Thus, it is possible to improve the prediction of NOx emissions compared to common mean-value models. To reduce the number of designs to be evaluated during the simulation-based multi-objective optimization, genetic algorithms are proven to be an effective tool. Based on an initial set of designs, the algorithm aims to evolve the designs to find the best parameters for the given constraints and objectives. The extension by response surface models improves the prediction of the best possible Pareto Front, while the time of optimization is kept low.
X