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Cooling Airflow System Modeling in CFD Using Assumption of Stationary Flow

Today CFD is an important tool for engineers in the automotive industry who model and simulate fluid flow. For the complex field of Underhood Thermal Management, CFD has become a very important tool to engineer the cooling airflow process in the engine bay of vehicles. Presenter Peter Gullberg, Chalmers University of Technology
Technical Paper

Axial Fan Performance Predictions in CFD, Comparison of MRF and Sliding Mesh with Experiments

Underhood Thermal Management has become an important topic for the majority of automotive OEM's. To keep combustion engines cool and manage waste heat efficiently is an important part in the design of vehicles with low fuel consumption. To be able to predict cooling performance and underhood airflow with good precision within a virtual design process, it is of utmost importance to model and simulate the cooling fan efficiently and accurately, and this has turned out to be challenging. Simulating the cooling fan in a vehicle installation involves capturing complex fluid dynamic interaction between rotating blades and stationary objects in the vicinity of the fan. This interaction is a function of fan rotation rate, fan blade profile, upstream and downstream installation components. The flow is usually highly turbulent and small geometry details, like the distance between the blade tip and the fan shroud, have strong impact on the fan performance characteristics.
Journal Article

A Computational Investigation of Ground Simulation for a Saloon Car

Automotive aerodynamics measurements and simulations now routinely use a moving ground and rotating wheels (MVG&RW), which is more representative of on-road conditions than the fixed ground-fixed wheel (FG&FW) alternative. This can be understood as a combination of three elements: (a) moving ground (MVG), (b) rotating front wheels (RWF) and (c) rotating rear wheels (RWR). The interaction of these elements with the flow field has been explored to date by mainly experimental means. This paper presents a mainly computational (CFD) investigation of the effect of RWF and RWR, in combination with MVG, on the flow field around a saloon vehicle. The influence of MVG&RW is presented both in terms of a combined change from a FG&FW baseline and the incremental effects seen by the addition of each element separately. For this vehicle, noticeable decrease in both drag and rear lift is shown when adding MVG&RW, whereas front lift shows little change.
Technical Paper

Influences of Different Front and Rear Wheel Designs on Aerodynamic Drag of a Sedan Type Passenger Car

Efforts towards ever more energy efficient passenger cars have become one of the largest challenges of the automotive industry. This involves numerous different fields of engineering, and every finished model is always a compromise between different requirements. Passenger car aerodynamics is no exception; the shape of the exterior is often dictated by styling, engine bay region by packaging issues etcetera. Wheel design is also a compromise between different requirements such as aerodynamic drag and brake cooling, but as the wheels and wheel housings are responsible for up to a quarter of the overall aerodynamic drag on a modern passenger car, it is not surprising that efforts are put towards improving the wheel aerodynamics.
Technical Paper

Modelling of Gasoline and Ethanol Hollow-Cone Sprays Using OpenFOAM

Over the past few years, an open-source code called OpenFOAM has been becoming a promising CFD tool for multi-dimensional numerical simulations of internal combustion engines. The primary goal of the present study is to assess the feasibility of the code for computations of hollow-cone sprays discharged by an outward-opening pintle-type injector by simulating the experiments performed recently by Hemdal et al., (SAE 2009-01-1496) with gasoline and ethanol sprays under the following conditions: air temperature Tair = 295 or 350 K, air pressure pair = 6 bar, fuel temperature Tfuel = 243, or 295, or 320 K, and fuel injection pressure pinj = 50, or 125, or 200 bar. To simulate the experiments, a pintle injector model and the physical properties of gasoline were implemented in OpenFOAM. The flow field calculated using the pintle injector model is more realistic than that yielded by the default unit injector model normally used in OpenFOAM.
Technical Paper

Cooling Airflow System Modeling in CFD Using Assumption of Stationary Flow

Today CFD is an important tool for engineers in the automotive industry who model and simulate fluid flow. For the complex field of Underhood Thermal Management, CFD has become a very important tool to engineer the cooling airflow process in the engine bay of vehicles. To model the cooling airflow process accurately in CFD, it is of utmost importance to model all components in the cooling airflow path accurately. These components are the heat exchangers, fan and engine bay blockage effect. This paper presents CFD simulations together with correlating measurements of a cooling airflow system placed in a test rig. The system contains a heavy duty truck louvered fin radiator core, fan shroud, fan ring and fan. Behind the cooling module and fan, a 1D engine silhouette is placed to mimic the blockage done by a truck engine. Furthermore, a simple hood is mounted over the module to mimic the guiding of air done by the hood shape in an engine bay.
Technical Paper

A 1D Method for Transient Simulations of Cooling Systems with Non-Uniform Temperature and Flow Boundaries Extracted from a 3D CFD Solution

The current work investigates a method in 1D modeling of cooling systems including discretized cooling package with non-uniform boundary conditions. In a stacked cooling package the heat transfer through each heat exchanger depends on the mass flows and temperature fields. These are a result of complex three-dimensional phenomena, which take place in the under-hood and are highly non-uniform. A typical approach in 1D simulations is to assume these to be uniform, which reduces the authenticity of the simulation and calls for additional calibrations, normally done with input from test measurements. The presented work employs 3D CFD simulations of complete vehicle in STAR-CCM+ to perform a comprehensive study of mass-flow and thermal distribution over the inlet of the cooling package of a Volvo FM commercial vehicle in several steady-state operating points.
Technical Paper

Development of a Model Scale Heat Exchanger for Wind Tunnel Models of Road Vehicles

During the development of the aerodynamic properties of fore coming road vehicles down scaled models are often used in the initial phase. However, if scale models are to be utilised even further in the aerodynamic development they have to include geometrical representatives of most of the components found in the real vehicle. As the cooling package is one of the biggest single generators of aerodynamic drag the heat exchangers are essential to include in a wind tunnel model. However, due mainly to limitations in manufacturing techniques it is complicated to make a down scaled heat exchanger and instead functional dummy heat exchangers have to be developed for scaled wind tunnel models. In this work a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code has been used to show that it is important that the simplified heat exchanger model has to be of comparable size to that of the full scale unit.
Journal Article

Estimation of Cylinder-Wise Combustion Features from Engine Speed and Cylinder Pressure

Advanced engine control and diagnosis strategies for internal combustion engines need accurate feedback information from the combustion engine. The feedback information can be utilized to control combustion features which allow the improvement of engine's efficiency through real-time control and diagnosis of the combustion process. This article describes a new method for combustion phase and IMEP estimation using one in-cylinder pressure and engine speed. In order to take torsional deflections of the crankshaft into account a gray-box model of the crankshaft is identified by subspace identification. The modeling accuracy is compared to a stiff physical crankshaft model. For combustion feature estimation, the identified MISO (multiple input single output) system is inverted. Experiments for a four-cylinder spark-ignition engine show the superior performance of the new method for combustion feature estimation compared to a stiff model approach.
Technical Paper

Large-Scale CFD Approach for Spray Combustion Modelling in Compression-Ignited Engines

Computational simulations of the spray combustion and emissions formation processes in a heavy-duty DI diesel engine and in a small-bore DI diesel engine with a complicated injection schedule were performed by using the modified KIVA3V, rel. 2 code. Some initial parameter sets varying engine operating conditions, such as injection pressure, injector nozzle diameter, EGR load, were examined in order to evaluate their effects on the engine performance. Full-scale combustion chamber representations on 360-deg, Cartesian and polar, multiblock meshes with a different number of sprays have been used in the modelling unlike the conventional approach based on polar sector meshes covering the region around one fuel spray. The spray combustion phenomena were simulated using the detailed chemical mechanism for diesel fuel surrogate (69 species and 306 reactions).
Technical Paper

A Numerical and Experimental Study of Diesel Fuel Sprays Impinging on a Temperature Controlled Wall

Both spray-wall and spray-spray interactions in direct injection diesel engines have been found to influence the rate of heat release and the formation of emissions. Simulations of these phenomena for diesel sprays need to be validated, and an issue is investigating what kind of fuels can be used in both experiments and spray calculations. The objective of this work is to compare numerical simulations with experimental data of sprays impinging on a temperature controlled wall with respect to spray characteristics and heat transfer. The numerical simulations were made using the STAR-CD and KIVA-3V codes. The CFD simulations accounted for the actual spray chamber geometry and operating conditions used in the experiments. Particular attention was paid to the fuel used for the simulations.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Split Injections at Low Load in an HDDI Diesel Engine Equipped with a Piezo Injector

In order to investigate the effects of split injection on emission formation and engine performance, experiments were carried out using a heavy duty single cylinder diesel engine. Split injections with varied dwell time and start of injection were investigated and compared with single injection cases. In order to isolate the effect of the selected parameters, other variables were kept constant. In this investigation no EGR was used. The engine was equipped with a common rail injection system with a piezo-electric injector. To interpret the observed phenomena, engine CFD simulations using the KIVA-3V code were also made. The results show that reductions in NOx emissions and brake specific fuel consumption were achieved for short dwell times whereas they both were increased when the dwell time was prolonged. No EGR was used so the soot levels were already very low in the cases of single injections.
Technical Paper

CFD Modelling of Gasoline Sprays

A comprehensive model for sprays emerging from high pressure swirl injectors for GDI engine application has been developed. The primary and secondary atomization mechanism as well as the evaporation process both in standard and superheated conditions are taken into account. The spray modelling after the injection is based on the Liquid Instability Sheet Atomization (LISA) approach, modified to correctly predict the liquid sheet thickness at the breakup length. The effect of different values of the superheat degree on evaporation and impact on the spray distribution and fuel-air mixing is analyzed. Comparisons with experimental data show good agreements under atmospheric conditions and with different superheated degrees, while some discrepancies occur under higher ambient pressures.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Effect of Injection Schedule Change on Free Piston Engine Operation

In this study, the effects of varying the start of injection in a Free Piston Engine (FPE) have been investigated, using the KIVA-3V CFD code. In order to simulate the FPE the code has been modified by replacing the conventional crank shaft controlled piston motion by a piston motion profile calculated using a MATLAB/SIMULINK model. In this model, the piston motion is controlled by Newton's second law and the combustion process is represented by a simplified model based on ignition delay integrals and Wiebe functions. The results were tuned using predictions from the SENKIN software which are based on the detailed chemical kinetics mechanism of a Diesel oil surrogate represented by a blend of the main aliphatic (70% n-heptane) and aromatic (30% toluene) components. In order to help analyze the emission formation resulting from the HCCI/PPCI combustion modes in the engine, a special approach based on the temperature-equivalence ratio maps has been developed.
Technical Paper

Digital Human Models' Appearance Impact on Observers' Ergonomic Assessment

The objective of this paper is to investigate whether different appearance modes of the digital human models (DHM or manikins) affect the observers when judging a working posture. A case where the manikin is manually assembling a battery in the boot with help of a lifting device is used in the experiment. 16 different pictures were created and presented for the subjects. All pictures have the same background, but include a unique posture and manikin appearance combination. Four postures and four manikin appearances were used. The subjects were asked to rank the pictures after ergonomic assessment based on posture of the manikin. Subjects taking part in the study were either manufacturing engineering managers, simulation engineers or ergonomists. Results show that the different appearance modes affect the ergonomic judgment. A more realistic looking manikin is rated higher than the very same posture visualized with a less natural appearance.
Technical Paper

Early Risk Identification and Cost-Benefit Analyses through Ergonomics Simulation

For cost-beneficial reasons simulations with computer manikins have been increasingly used in the automotive industry for prediction of ergonomics problems before the product and work place exist in physical form. The main purpose of ergonomics simulations is to apply biomechanical models and data to assess the acceptability of the physical work load, e.g. working postures, visibility, clearance etc., which could result in requirements to change the design of the product. The aim is to improve ergonomics conditions in manual assembly and to promote a better product quality through improved assemblability (ease of assembly). Many studies have shown a clear correlation between assembly ergonomics and product quality and that poor assembly ergonomics result in impaired product quality and in decreased productivity. Nevertheless, there are remaining difficulties in achieving acceptance for changes of product and production solutions because of poor assembly ergonomics.
Technical Paper

Modeling, Identification, and Separation of Crankshaft Dynamics in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

Mathematical models of a torque sensor equipped crankshaft in a light-duty diesel engine are identified, validated, and compared. The models are based on in-cylinder pressure and crankshaft torque data collected from a 5-cylinder common-rail diesel engine running at multiple operating points. The work is motivated by the need of a crankshaft model in a closed-loop combustion control system based on crankshaft torque measurements. In such a system a crankshaft model is used in order to separate the measured crankshaft torque into cylinder individual torque contributions. A method for this is described and used for IMEP estimation. Not surprisingly, the results indicate that higher order models are able to estimate crankshaft torque more accurately than lower order models, even if the differences are small. For IMEP estimation using the cylinder separation method however, these differences have large effects on accuracy.
Journal Article

Modeling of Combustion and Emissions Formation in Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Fueled by RME and Diesel Oil

A comparative study on engine performance and emissions (NOx, soot) formation has been carried out for the Volvo D12C diesel engine fueled by Rapeseed Methyl Ester, RME and conventional diesel oil. The fuel and combustion models used in this paper are the modifications of those described in [1–3]. The numerical results for different load cases illustrate that for both fuels nearly 100% combustion efficiency was predicted; in the case of RME, the cumulative heat release was compared with the RME LHV, 37.2 kJ/g. To minimize soot and NOx emissions, 25–30% EGR levels depending on the engine loads and different injection timings were analyses. To illustrate the optimal engine performance conditions, a special technique based on the time-transient parametric ϕ-T maps [4] has been used.
Technical Paper

An Investigation and Correction Method of Stationary Fan CFD MRF Simulations

A common fan model to use in automotive under hood simulations is the Multiple Reference Frame (MRF) model and within the industry, for this specific application, this model is well known to under predict performance. In a former paper, referenced 2009-01-0178, a simple “speed correction” of the MRF model was proposed by the authors'. The correction was shown to apply across different operating speeds for a specific fan. In this paper the generality and limitation of this correction across fans of different type, design and dimensions are investigated. Investigated in this paper is as well the sensitivity of the MRF model to specific methodology of use. In this paper it is shown that the speed correction of 14% proposed in the former paper applies widely, hence, although the MRF model is erroneous the error is consistent.
Technical Paper

Role of Late Soot Oxidation for Low Emission Combustion in a Diffusion-controlled, High-EGR, Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

Soot formation and oxidation are complex and competing processes during diesel combustion. The balance between the two processes and their history determines engine-out soot values. Besides the efforts to lower soot formation with measures to influence the flame lift-off distance for example or to use HCCI-combustion, enhancement of late soot oxidation is of equal importance for low-λ diffusion-controlled low emissions combustion with EGR. The purpose of this study is to investigate soot oxidation in a heavy duty diesel engine by statistical analysis of engine data and in-cylinder endoscopic high speed photography together with CFD simulations with a main focus on large scale in-cylinder gas motion. Results from CFD simulations using a detailed soot model were used to reveal details about the soot oxidation.