Refine Your Search

Search Results

Viewing 1 to 3 of 3
Technical Paper

Impact Response of Foam: The Effect of the State of Stress

The Finite Element predictions of the physical response of foams during impact by a rigid body (such as, the Hybrid III head form) is determined by material law equations generally approximated based on the theory of elastoplasticity. However, the structural aspect of foam, its discontinuous nature, makes it difficult to apply the laws of continuum mechanics and construct constitutive equations for foam-like material. One part of the problem relates to the state of stress. In materials such as steel, the state of hydrostatic stress does not affect the stress strain behavior under uniaxial compression or tension in plastic regime. In other words, when steel is subject to hydrostatic pressures the stress strain characteristic can be predicted from a uniaxial test. However, if the stresses acting on a section of foam are triaxial, the response of a head-form may be different than predicted from uniaxial test data.
Technical Paper

Development of a Rubber-Like Headform Skin Model for Predicting the Head Injury Criterion (HIC)

This paper describes the development of a rubber-like skin Finite Elements Model (FEM) for the Hybrid III headform and an experimental method to determine its material properties. The finite element modeling procedures, using material parameters derived from tests conducted on the headform skin (rubber) material, are described. Dynamic responses and computations of HIC using the developed headform model show that an Elastic-Plastic Hydrodynamic (EPH) material model of the rubber can be used for headform impact simulations. The results obtained from the headform simulation using an EPH rubber material model and drop tower tests of the headform on both a rigid and a deformable structure will be compared, in order to show the applicability of the EPH model.
Technical Paper

Material Modeling of Structural Foams in Finite Element Analysis Using Compressive Uniaxial and Triaxial Data

The impact response of foam is investigated using Finite Element Analysis (FEA). A procedure will be described for determining the material constants used in the FEA material models. The procedure uses compressive uniaxial, force versus displacement, and triaxial, pressure versus volume-change, data. After the material model is constructed using the uniaxial and triaxial data, FEA is used to predict the results of a free-moving-mass striking rigidly backed foam. The limitations of the current material models are also addressed.