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Technical Paper

Life Cycle Management - A Manageable Approach for Integrating Life Cycle Management into Manufacturing

Environmental issues have significantly impacted automotive operations worldwide. Countries are continuing to ratchet down their allowable emissions and to remain competitive, all industries must take Life Cycle Management (LCM) and implement it into everyday practice. Economic competitiveness as a part of economic development is central to the nation's social and financial well-being. America must catch-up to the rest of the world in how it views government and industry relationships as well as how to focus costs within the corporate structure. The adversarial relationships between government and industry must give way to stronger partnerships. For this concept to succeed a long term view of problems must be made by a corporation and both short and long term actions taken to resolve these problems. Industry must help create the market for recycled goods and must “walk the talk” by using recycled goods where possible.
Technical Paper

Panel Contribution Study: Results, Correlation and Optimal Bead Pattern for Powertrain Noise Reduction

To understand how the passenger compartment cavity interacts with the surrounding panels (roof, windshield, dash panel, etc) a numerical panel contribution analysis was performed using FEA and BEA techniques. An experimental panel contribution analysis was conducted by Reiter Automotive Systems. Test results showed good correlation with the simulation results. After gaining some insight into panel contributions for power train noise, an attempt was made to introduce beads in panels to reduce vibration levels. A fully trimmed body structural-acoustic FEA model was used in this analysis. A network of massless beam elements was created in the model. This full structural-acoustic FEA model was then used to determine the optimal location for the beads, using the added beams as optimization variables.
Technical Paper

Can the k-ε Model Withstand the Challenges Posed by Complex Industrial Flows?

The purpose of this paper is to present numerical solution for three-dimensional flow about rotating short cylinders using the computer program AIRFLO3D. The flow Reynolds number was kept at 106 for all computations. The drag forces on the cylinder were obtained for different rotational speeds. Predictions were obtained for both an isolated cylinder and a cylinder on a moving ground. The standard k-ε model was employed to model the turbulence. Computed drag coefficients agreed well with the previous experimental data up to a spin ratio (=rω/V) of 1.5.
Technical Paper

Life Cycle Management of Hydraulic Fluids and Lubricant Oils at Chrysler

A systematic life cycle management (LCM) approach has been used by Chrysler Corporation to compare existing and alternate hydraulic fluids and lubricating oils in thirteen classifications at a manufacturing facility. The presence of restricted or regulated chemicals, recyclability, and recycled content of the various products were also compared. For ten of the thirteen types of product, an alternate product was identified as more beneficial. This LCM study provided Chrysler personnel with a practical purchasing tool to identify the most cost effective hydraulic fluid or lubricant oil product available for a chosen application on an LCM basis.
Technical Paper

The Chrysler “Quick Shift Neon” Automanual Transmission Project

Formula One motorsport competition, ever seeking increases in powertrain responsiveness and efficiency, has utilized electronically-shifted manual transmissions for nearly a decade. With the advent of this technology for passenger car usage ( for example the Magneti Marelli “Selespeed” system), new levels of powertrain electronic control become possible. At the same time, world-wide emission and fuel economy standards have driven powertrain designers to seek transmissions that are multi-faceted; able to offer manual transmission levels of driveline efficiency while simultaneously offering the ability to be automatically controlled. This paper will document a 1995-1996 Chrysler advanced powertrain concept study that culminated in a fully driveable, fully automatic, manual 5 speed transmission Neon coupe.
Technical Paper

Cycle-by-Cycle Analysis of HC Emissions During Cold Start of Gasoline Engines

A cycle-by-cycle analysis of HC emissions from each cylinder of a four-stroke V-6, 3.3 L production engine was made during cold start. The HC emissions were measured in the exhaust port using a high frequency flame ionization detector (FID). The effect of the initial startup position of the piston and valves in the cycle on combustion and HC emissions from each cylinder was examined. The mass of fuel injected, burned and emitted was calculated for each cycle. The equivalence ratio of the charge in the firing cycles was determined. The analysis covered the first 120 cycles and included the effect of engine transients on HC emissions.
Technical Paper

The Behavior of Multiphase Fuel-Flow in the Intake Port

Most of the current fuel supply specifications, including the key parameters in the transient fuel control strategies, are experimentally determined since the complexity of multiphase fuel flow behavior inside the intake manifold is still not quantitatively understood. Optimizing these specifications, especially the parameters in transient fueling systems, is a key issue in improving fuel efficiency and reducing exhaust emissions. In this paper, a model of fuel spray, wall-film flow and wall-film vaporization has been developed to gain a better understanding of the multiphase fuel-flow behavior within the intake manifold which may help to determine the fuel supply specifications in a multi-point injection system.
Technical Paper

An Analysis of the Output of the 1993 3.5L Chrysler-Lamborghini CL-01 Formula 1 Engine

The true output of racing engines is normally a closely guarded secret. This is particularly so in Formula One. Also, the consistency of output between engines of identical specifications is of interest to all those involved. This paper outlines a study that was done on the 1993 3.5L Chrysler-Lamborghini CL-01 Formula 1 Engine, and will cover: The output variation of one specific engine configuration/fuel combination over the course of the season, The output variation of a second build/fuel combination over a significant number of builds, The output improvements due to fuels, The output changes due to mechanical developments during the season. The paper will also show that if engine output has been designated as one of the criteria for accepting or rejecting an engine, very small differences in either the acceptable level of performance or the recorded output can make a very significant difference to the number of engines rejected.
Technical Paper

Fuel Mixture Temperature Variations in the Intake Port

Temperature variation and heat transfer phenomena in the intake port of a spark ignition engine with port injection play a significant role in the mixture preparation process, especially during the warm up period. Cold temperatures in the intake port result in a large amount of liquid-fuel film. Since the liquid-fuel film responds at a slower speed than the gas-phase flow during transient operations, the liquid-fuel film acts as a fuel sink (or source) and can degrade the vehicle's driveability, fuel economy, and emissions control. In this work, a one-dimensional, unsteady, multicomponent, multiphase flow model has been developed to study the mixture formation process in the intake port for a modern, multipoint-fuel-injection, gasoline engine. The droplet, liquid film and gas-phase mixture temperature variations and the effects of charge air, initial fuel and port wall temperatures involved in generating the air-fuel mixture are examined.
Technical Paper

Refinement of the Interior Sound Quality of Chrysler's Dodge and Plymouth

The low noise and linear sound level characteristics of passenger vehicles are receiving increased scrutiny from automotive journalists. A linear noise level rise with increasing engine rpm is the first basic aspect of insuring an acceptable vehicle interior engine noise sound quality. In a typical case of structural response to engine vibration input, interior noise begins to rise with rpm, remains constant or even drops as the engine continues to accelerate, and then exhibits a noise period corresponding to the structure's natural frequency. Frequently this nonlinearity is bothersome to the customer. During the development process, Chrysler's Dodge and Plymouth Neon exhibited just such a nonlinear rise in noise level, heard within the passenger compartment, when the vehicle was accelerated through 4200 rpm.
Technical Paper

Assessing Design Concepts for NVH Using HYFEX (Hybrid Finite Element/Experimental) Modeling

This paper outlines several methodologies which use finite element and experimental models to predict vehicle NVH responses. Trimmed body experimental modal subsystem models are incorporated into the finite element system model to evaluate engine mounting systems for low frequency vibration problems. Higher frequency noise issues related to road input are evaluated using experimentally derived acoustic transfer functions combined with finite element subsystem model responses. Specific examples of system models built to simulate idle shake and road noise are given. Applications to engine mounting, suspension design, and body structure criteria are discussed.
Technical Paper

Engine Misfire Detection by Ionization Current Monitoring

Engine misfires cause a negative impact on exhaust emissions. Severe cases could damage the catalyst system permanently. These are the basic reasons why CARB (California Air Resources Board) mandated the detection of engine misfires in their OBD II (On-Board Diagnostics II) regulations. For the last several years, automobile manufacturers and their suppliers have been working diligently on various solutions for the “Misfire Detection” challenge. Many have implemented a solution called “Crankshaft Velocity Fluctuation” (CVF), which utilizes the crank sensor input to calculate the variation of the crankshaft rotational speed. The theory is that any misfires will contribute to a deceleration of the crankshaft velocity due to the absence of pressure torque. This approach is marginal at best due to the fact that there could be many contributors to a crankshaft velocity deceleration under various operating conditions. To sort out which is a true misfire is a very difficult task.
Technical Paper

Architecture and Operation of the HIP7010 J1850 Byte-Level Interface Circuit

As a cost effective solution to making microcontroller based systems “J1850[1] aware”, a peripheral device (the HIP7010) was developed to extend the capabilities of standard microcontrollers. From the perspective of the Host, the peripheral device handles J1850 messages as a series of bytes (similar in concept to a universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter [UART]). The architecture of the HIP7010 is discussed. The design of the J1850 interface, state machine, status/control blocks, cyclical redundancy check (CRC) hardware, host interface, and fail-safe features are detailed. Illustrations are provided of: Host/HIP7010 interfacing; message transmission and reception; error handling; and In-Frame Response (IFR) generation.
Technical Paper

In-Situ Phase-Shift Measurement of the Time-Resolved UBHC Emissions

The UBHC emissions during cold starting need to be controlled in order to meet the future stringent standards. This requires a better understanding of the characteristics of the time resolved UBHC signal measured by a high frequency FID and its phasing with respect to the valve events. The computer program supplied with the instrument and currently used to compute the phase shift has many uncertainties due to the unsteady nature of engine operation during starting. A new technique is developed to measure the in-situ phase shift of the UBHC signal under the transient thermodynamic and dynamic conditions of the engine. The UBHC concentration is measured at two locations in the exhaust manifold of one cylinder in a multicylinder port injected gasoline engine. The two locations are 77 mm apart. The downstream probe is positioned opposite to a solenoid-operated injector which delivers a gaseous jet of hydrocarbon-free nitrogen upon command.
Technical Paper

Analyzing Vibrations in an IC Engine Valve Train

This study analyzes the vibration characteristics of the valve train of a 2.0L SOHC Chrysler Corp. Neon engine over a range of operating speeds to investigate and demonstrate the advantages and limitations of various dynamic measurements such as displacement, velocity, and acceleration in this application. The valve train was tested in a motoring fixture at speeds of 500 to 3500 camshaft rpm. The advantages of analyzing both time and frequency domain measurements are described. Both frequency and order analysis were done on the data. The theoretical order spectra of cam displacement and acceleration were computed and compared to the experimental data. Deconvolution was used to uncover characteristic frequencies of vibration in the system. The theoretical cam acceleration spectrum was deconvolved from measured acceleration spectra to reveal the frequency response function of the follower system.
Technical Paper

Chrysler 8.0-Liter V-10 Engine

Chrysler Corporation has developed an 8.0-liter engine for light truck applications. Numerous features combine to produce the highest power and torque ratings of any gasoline-fueled light truck engine currently available while also providing commensurate durability. These features include: a deep-skirt ten-cylinder 90° “V” block, a Helmholtz resonator intake manifold that enhances both low and mid-range torque, light die cast all-aluminum pistons for low vibration, a unique firing order for smooth operation, a “Y” block configuration for strength and durability, a heavy duty truck-type thermostat to control warm up, and a direct ignition system.
Technical Paper

Diesel Flex Plate Development Process

Basic procedures are described for the design and development of flexible drive plates that couple automatic transmissions to engines. An innovative combination of analysis and test techniques were employed during the development of a drive plate for a turbocharged diesel truck engine when premature failures occurred. FEA (finite element analysis) was expanded from use as a preliminary design tool to the prediction of high stress conditions and the loading that caused them. A laboratory test was developed to rapidly assess drive plate design changes based on these FEA predictions.
Technical Paper

An Evaluation of Turbulent Kinetic Energy for the In-Cylinder Flow of a Four-Valve 3.5L SI Engine Using 3-D LDV Measurements

A better understanding of turbulent kinetic energy is important for improvement of fuel-air mixing, which can lead to lower emissions and reduced fuel consumption. An in-cylinder flow study was conducted using 1548 Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) measurements inside one cylinder of a 3.5L four-valve engine. The measurement method, which simultaneously collects three-dimensional velocity data through a quartz cylinder, allowed a volumetric evaluation of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) inside an automotive engine. The results were animated on a UNIX workstation, using a 3D wireframe model. The data visualization software allowed the computation of TKE isosurfaces, and identified regions of higher turbulence within the cylinder. The mean velocity fields created complex flow patterns with symmetries about the center plane between the two intake valves. High levels of TKE were found in regions of high shear flow, attributed to the collisions of intake flows.
Technical Paper

Tumble and Swirl Quantification within a Motored Four-Valve SI Engine Cylinder Based on 3-D LDV Measurements

The flow field contained within ten planes inside a cylinder of a 3.5 liter, 24-valve, V-6 engine was mapped using a three-dimensional Laser Doppler Velocimetry (3-D LDV) system. A total of 1,548 LDV measurement locations were used to construct the time history of the in-cylinder flow fields during the intake and compression strokes. The measurements began during the intake stroke at a crank angle of 60° ATDC and continued until approximately 280° ATDC. The ensemble averaged LDV measurements allowed for a quantitative analysis of the dynamic in-cylinder flow process in terms of tumble and swirl motions. Both of these quantities were calculated at every 1.8 crank degrees during the described measurement interval. Tumble calculations were performed about axes in multiple planes in both the Cartesian directions perpendicular to the plane of the piston top. Swirl calculations were also accomplished in multiple planes that lie parallel to the plane of the piston top.
Technical Paper

42LE Electronic Four-Speed Automatic Transaxle

A new electronically controlled transaxle has been put into production for Chrysler's family of LH cars. Among the attributes of this new transaxle are its ability to handle engines of high torque and high power coupled with high-speed shifts. Engine torque management is used in specific operating regimes. A feature of the transaxle is electronic modulation of the converter clutch. A number of logic features have been combined with hardware to provide good performance and shift quality over a wide operating range. An output transfer chain and a hypoid gear set are used to provide torque to the front wheels in a longitudinal power train orientation. Obtaining acceptable endurance life of the hypoid gears within an aluminum housing presented a significant challenge. New approaches were required to provide a chain-sprocket system with acceptable noise characteristics.