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Technical Paper

Panel Contribution Study: Results, Correlation and Optimal Bead Pattern for Powertrain Noise Reduction

1997-05-20
971953
To understand how the passenger compartment cavity interacts with the surrounding panels (roof, windshield, dash panel, etc) a numerical panel contribution analysis was performed using FEA and BEA techniques. An experimental panel contribution analysis was conducted by Reiter Automotive Systems. Test results showed good correlation with the simulation results. After gaining some insight into panel contributions for power train noise, an attempt was made to introduce beads in panels to reduce vibration levels. A fully trimmed body structural-acoustic FEA model was used in this analysis. A network of massless beam elements was created in the model. This full structural-acoustic FEA model was then used to determine the optimal location for the beads, using the added beams as optimization variables.
Technical Paper

Can the k-ε Model Withstand the Challenges Posed by Complex Industrial Flows?

1997-04-08
971516
The purpose of this paper is to present numerical solution for three-dimensional flow about rotating short cylinders using the computer program AIRFLO3D. The flow Reynolds number was kept at 106 for all computations. The drag forces on the cylinder were obtained for different rotational speeds. Predictions were obtained for both an isolated cylinder and a cylinder on a moving ground. The standard k-ε model was employed to model the turbulence. Computed drag coefficients agreed well with the previous experimental data up to a spin ratio (=rω/V) of 1.5.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Pelvis-Chest Interactions in Hybrid III

1995-02-01
950663
The interaction ILLEGIBLEf the chest of the Hybrid III dummy with the air bag restrILLEGIBLEt system during a crash is complex. Forces applied to one ILLEGIBLEmponent of the dummy can generate an unexpected response in a distal part. Motion, both linear and angular, of the pelvis during impact can create an enigmatic spike in the acceleration of the chest. Because significant changes in the chest acceleration response can affect the development of an airbag system, this pelvis-chest interaction is cause for concern. The factors that appear to affect the chest acceleration spike as a result of the pelvis-chest interaction are: the mass moment of inertia of the pelvis, the interaction of the pelvis with the femur, the characteristic of the lumbar spine, and the differential velocity of the pelvis with respect to the chest.
Technical Paper

Hydrogen Embrittlement in Automotive Fastener Applications

1996-02-01
960312
Fastener failure due to hydrogen embrittlement is of significant concern in the automotive industry. These types of failures occur unexpectedly. They may be very costly to the automotive company and fastener supplier, not only monetarily, but also in terms of customer satisfaction and safety. This paper is an overview of a program which one automotive company initiated to minimize hydrogen embrittlement in fasteners. The objectives of the program were two-fold. One was to obtain a better understanding of the hydrogen embrittlement phenomena as it relates to automotive fastener materials and processes. The second and most important objective, was to eliminate hydrogen embrittlement failures in vehicles. Early program efforts concentrated on a review of fastener applications and corrosion protection systems to optimize coated fasteners for hydrogen embrittlement resistance.
Technical Paper

Achieving Dent Resistance Improvements and Weight Reduction Through Stamping Process Optimization and Steel Substitution

1996-02-01
960025
Resistance to dents and dings, caused by plant handling and in-service use, is generally recognized as an important performance requirement for automotive outer body panels. This paper examines the dent resistance improvements that can be achieved by maximizing surface stretch, through adjustments to the press settings, and substitution of a higher strength steel grade. Initially, the stamping process was optimized using the steel supplied for production: a Ti/Nb-stabilized, ultra low carbon (ULC) grade. The stamping process was subsequently optimized with a Nb-stabilized, rephosphorized ULC steel, at various thicknesses. The formed panels were evaluated for percent surface stretch, percent thinning, in-panel yield strength after forming, and dent performance. The results showed that dent resistance can be significantly improved, even at a reduced steel thickness, thus demonstrating a potential for weight savings.
Technical Paper

Traction Batteries - Their Effects on Electric Vehicle Performance

1997-02-24
970240
A few years ago, electric vehicles (EVs) were considered to be objects of the distant future … technology that was still in its infancy, not yet ready and for those outside the “high pollution” areas probably not even worth the expenditure. But the present day scenario has changed dramatically. In the United States of America, several states are following California's lead and the need for the operating fleets to commit to purchase of Zero Emission vehicles (ZEVs) is becoming a requirement. In order to make the technology available to the utilities … as well as the public, state of the art, affordable batteries are essential for making EVs a reality and an effective means of transportation.
Technical Paper

Energy-Absorbing Polyurethane Foam to Improve Vehicle Crashworthiness

1995-02-01
950553
Federal legislation mandates that automotive OEMS provide occupant protection in collisions involving front and side impacts This legislation, which is to be phased-in over several years, covers not only passenger cars but also light-duty trucks and multipurpose passenger vehicles (MPVs) having a gross vehicle weigh rating (GVWR) of 8,500 lb (3,850 kg) or less. During a frontal impact, occupants within the vehicle undergo rapid changes in velocity. This is primarily due to rapid vehicle deceleration caused by the rigid nature of the vehicle's metal frame components and body assembly. Many of today's vehicles incorporate deformable, energy-absorbing (EA) structures within the vehicle structure to manage the collision energy and slow the deceleration which in turn can lower the occupant velocity relative to the vehicle. Occupant velocities can be higher in light-duty trucks and MPVs having a full-frame structure resulting in increased demands on the supplemental restraint system (SRS).
Technical Paper

Network I/O and System Considerations

1995-02-01
950036
The J1850 bus requirements promote an unique and well characterized physical layer behavior developed through the learning curve of previous multiplex solutions. Design requirements such as: 1) Reliably interconnecting all of the vehicle's most complex modules, 2) Consistently withstanding the vehicle's harsh environment, and 3) Meeting SAE's functionality requirements, were all a formidable task to achieve. This paper will highlight the path taken to achieve a J1850 Bus interface which successfully met all of the design and functional goals. Chrysler's C2D insights will be discussed and related to goals for J1850. Other design considerations will also be discussed such as EMC issues, custom test equipment, and vehicle and component testability. In turn, silicon processes with special structures and topologies will be discussed relating the specific design with the needed electrical behavior. The HIP7020 J1850 BUS TRANSCEIVER I/O for MULTIPLEX WIRING accomplishes these requirements.
Technical Paper

OPNET J1850 Network Simulator

1995-02-01
950037
MIL 3's OPNET simulator was used to model Chrysler's J1850 bus. Modeled were both J1850 bus characteristics and those portions of control modules (e.g., the engine controller) which communicate on the bus. Current Chrysler control module algorithms and proposed Chrysler J1850 message formats were used to design the control module models. The control module models include all messages which are transmitted at fixed intervals over the J1850 bus. The effects of function-based messages (e.g., messages to be transmitted on a particular sensor or push-button reading) on system load were investigated by transmitting an additional message with a fixed, relatively high priority at 50 millisecond intervals.
Technical Paper

Analyzing Vibrations in an IC Engine Valve Train

1998-02-23
980570
This study analyzes the vibration characteristics of the valve train of a 2.0L SOHC Chrysler Corp. Neon engine over a range of operating speeds to investigate and demonstrate the advantages and limitations of various dynamic measurements such as displacement, velocity, and acceleration in this application. The valve train was tested in a motoring fixture at speeds of 500 to 3500 camshaft rpm. The advantages of analyzing both time and frequency domain measurements are described. Both frequency and order analysis were done on the data. The theoretical order spectra of cam displacement and acceleration were computed and compared to the experimental data. Deconvolution was used to uncover characteristic frequencies of vibration in the system. The theoretical cam acceleration spectrum was deconvolved from measured acceleration spectra to reveal the frequency response function of the follower system.
Technical Paper

The Effect of the Internet on Electric-Drive Vehicle Choices

1998-10-19
98C057
The rapid growth of information technology has the potential to affect many of the reasons why people drive. The Internet is arguably the most significant recent milestone in the growth of information technology. This paper examines the ways Internet communication might affect the travel experience by a) eliminating traditional reasons for personal travel, b) providing new reasons, c) changing the balance between personal and freight travel, and d) changing trip length distribution. Changes of the types listed could affect the product demand "mix" for electric, hybrid-electric and fuel cell vehicles being developed.
Technical Paper

The Car as a Peripheral, Adapting a Portable Computer to a Vehicle Intranet

1998-10-19
98C030
This paper discusses the feasibility and issues associated with integrating a consumer off-the shelf product into a vehicle. For this evaluation, we selected a handheld personal computer (HPC), cellular telephone and modem to integrate with the vehicle audio, climate and system controls. Connectivity between the HPC and the vehicle is established by the use of the standard infrared serial data link that comes with the HPC. Connectivity outside the vehicle uses a cellular telephone for voice and a cellular digital packet data (CDPD) modem for data. This system is built into the Dodge ESX-2 hybrid powered concept vehicle for demonstration.
Technical Paper

Body-in-White Prototype Process in Chrysler's Jeep/Truck Platform

1993-11-01
933038
Chrysler Corporation's Jeep and Truck platform implemented a new design and prototype process for the body-in -white of a new pickup truck. A team approach achieved concurrent body design, stamping die design, assembly process development, and assembly tooling development. The first domestic US industry use of a 100% electronic design and release system was instrumental in the process. The new process produced a prototype body-in-white on time at 95 WBVP (weeks before volume production) with the highest level of production-intent components ever achieved within Chrysler at this stage of development.
Technical Paper

Chrysler 8.0-Liter V-10 Engine

1993-11-01
933033
Chrysler Corporation has developed an 8.0-liter engine for light truck applications. Numerous features combine to produce the highest power and torque ratings of any gasoline-fueled light truck engine currently available while also providing commensurate durability. These features include: a deep-skirt ten-cylinder 90° “V” block, a Helmholtz resonator intake manifold that enhances both low and mid-range torque, light die cast all-aluminum pistons for low vibration, a unique firing order for smooth operation, a “Y” block configuration for strength and durability, a heavy duty truck-type thermostat to control warm up, and a direct ignition system.
Technical Paper

Inadvertent Air Bag Sensor Testing for Off-Road Vehicles

1993-11-01
933020
This paper presents the development of a test procedure for evaluation of inadvertent deployment of air bags. The methodology and early development of the procedure is discussed along with additional criteria thought to be required for trucks and sport utility vehicles. Tests conducted address severe off-road use in relation to air bag sensing systems. Data is collected from accelerometers. After worst case test conditions are identified (examples include rough road, snow plowing and jerk towing events), the data is analyzed and comparisons for design decisions can be made.
Technical Paper

Dodge Ram Pickup Vehicle: From Human Factors Development to Production Intent Metal Assembly

1993-11-01
932988
To evaluate and refine interior architecture of the new Dodge Ram pickup truck three years before production, a road worthy interior package validation buck was built using a fiberglass body shell. Molds for the shell were made using CAD/CAM techniques. Advanced CAD/CAM techniques were used to build the interior buck of a subsequent model from individual panels molded in carbon fiber. This buck also included inner structural panels and interior trim components taken from CAD data. For this and subsequent new vehicle programs, refinement of construction techniques allows the bucks to serve as aids in product design and manufacturing feasibility studies.
Technical Paper

An Evaluation of Turbulent Kinetic Energy for the In-Cylinder Flow of a Four-Valve 3.5L SI Engine Using 3-D LDV Measurements

1997-02-24
970793
A better understanding of turbulent kinetic energy is important for improvement of fuel-air mixing, which can lead to lower emissions and reduced fuel consumption. An in-cylinder flow study was conducted using 1548 Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) measurements inside one cylinder of a 3.5L four-valve engine. The measurement method, which simultaneously collects three-dimensional velocity data through a quartz cylinder, allowed a volumetric evaluation of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) inside an automotive engine. The results were animated on a UNIX workstation, using a 3D wireframe model. The data visualization software allowed the computation of TKE isosurfaces, and identified regions of higher turbulence within the cylinder. The mean velocity fields created complex flow patterns with symmetries about the center plane between the two intake valves. High levels of TKE were found in regions of high shear flow, attributed to the collisions of intake flows.
Technical Paper

Static and Dynamic Dent Resistance Performance of Automotive Steel Body Panels

1997-02-24
970158
In recent years, strict weight reduction targets have pushed auto manufacturers to use lighter gauge sheet steels in all areas of the vehicle including exterior body panels. As sheet metal thicknesses are reduced, dentability of body panels becomes of increasing concern. Thus, the goal becomes one of reducing sheet metal thickness while maintaining acceptable dent resistance. Most prior work in this area has focused on quasi-static loading conditions. In this study, both quasi-static and dynamic dent tests are evaluated. Fully assembled doors made from mild, medium strength bake hardenable and non-bake hardenable steels are examined. The quasi-static dent test is run at a test speed of 0.1 m/minute while the dynamic dent test is run at a test speed of 26.8 m/minute. Dynamic dent testing is of interest because it more closely approximates real life denting conditions such as in-plant handling and transit damage, and parking lot damage from car door and shopping cart impact.
Technical Paper

Improvements in the Dent Resistance of Steel Body Panels

1992-02-01
920243
A computer-controlled body panel testing machine has been used to quantify stiffness and dent resistance of body panels at Chrysler. The influence of yield strength and local reinforcement on the mechanical behavior of automotive door panels has been investigated. Medium strength steels in the range of 210 -240 MPa yield strength have produced significant improvements in dent resistance over a 160 MPa yield strength steel. Considerable improvements in dent resistance can also be attributed to the use of local, adhesively attached, glass fiber reinforcement patches. The effects of boundary conditions and panel shape on stiffness and dent resistance are illustrated in this application.
Technical Paper

Reliability Estimation and Failure Prediction of Vehicle Systems and Components

1990-09-01
901740
For designing new products or developing new specifications, the reliability performance of systems and components experienced by the customer provides invaluable information for the engineer. This information, not only provides for the visibility of reliability requirements, but also an awareness of potential degradation of the systems and components during its life cycle. In this paper, a method is presented for predicting vehicle system and component reliability from vehicle fleet repair data. This method combines sampling stratification, computer data analysis and statistical modeling techniques into a reliability analysis procedure to provide reliability prediction. Specifically, published vehicle fleet data was used to provide the basis for predicting the vehicle system and component reliability at any mileage level.
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