THE Junkers 211B engine follows the usual German practice of very large displacements and conservative mean effective pressures and rotative speeds. However, the relative light weight per unit of displacement results in a net weight per horsepower that is not far above its competitors. Fully automatic devices which control propeller speed, manifold pressure, mixture ratio, spark advance, and supercharger gear ratio follow the German policy of removing all possible distractions from the pilot. This is one of three large liquid-cooled engines known to be produced in quantity in Germany; it powers an impressive percentage of the Luftwaffe. While of external appearance and displacement that resemble the Daimler-Benz DB-601 engine, the fundamental construction, detail design practice, and metallurgy of the Junkers 211B are surprisingly different.
WORK done in a development program relative to camshafts and tappets in the design of the Chrysler overhead-valve V-8 engine is described. The types of failure encountered are categorized as wear, scuffing, and fatigue. An accelerated test procedure was designed to promote early cam-tappet failures, and the development work was predicated upon the results obtained therefrom. Among the variables affecting the failure conditions, major emphasis was placed on material development. Specifically, the greater amount of time was spent in determining the optimum tappet material, while some time was devoted to the camshaft material. A combination of adjusted chemical composition and heat-treatment of hardenable cast iron for camshaft and tappets provided the best solution to the failure problems.
The heater air flow rate is a function not only of the heater itself but also of the size and location of the heater system air inlets, the car body air outlets, and the body surface pressure at these inlets and outlets. Favorable pressure conditions generally exist at the typical top cowl heater air inlet; however, the aerodynamics of each particular vehicle should be studied to confirm the existence of these conditions. Little consideration has been given to body air outlet pressure conditions since body leakage paths have generally served as adequate air outlets; but, as body leakage is reduced, specific air outlets must be considered and a knowledge of aerodynamics is essential to the achieving of appropriately sized and appropriately located air outlets.
The aerodynamic features of the race version of the Charger Daytona, an aerodynamically modified 1970 Charger, are discussed. Effects of major specific modifications are evaluated individually and as a total package. Wind tunnel techniques and philosophy employed in the Daytona Development Program are also discussed.
The SAE Recommended Practice J963 “Anthropomorphic Test Device for Dynamic Testing” describes a standard 50th percentile adult male anthropomorphic test dummy. For nearly three years the Crash Test Dummy Task Force worked with the limited data available in selecting values for the body dimensions and ranges of motion. The data for specifying the values of mass distribution were developed experimentally as was a test procedure for determining the dynamic spring rate of the thorax.
Cooling testing conditions and temperature goals have been established based upon critical high ambient temperature field sites in the southwestern U.S. Mountain grade-climbing, level highway, build-up, city traffic, and idle tests are included. They are used for the evaluation and development of engine and transmission cooling systems and various underhood and underbody components and systems. The procedures are designed for testing in a climatically-controlled wind tunnel, but are also suited, with appropriate adjustments, for road testing. Substantial reductions in product weight and cost have been achieved while maintaining customer satisfaction by the application of these procedures which replaced previous unrealistically severe test conditions.
An extensive program has been established to screen and evaluate heat- and corrosion-resistant alloys that may have some potential application in emission-control systems anywhere from the exhaust manifold to the tailpipe. The various phases of this program, which include tests conducted in air and controlled exhaust atmospheres at temperatures between 1300-2200°F are described. Some selected test data and the results of metallographic studies are presented to illustrate how representative alloys react to the various test conditions. The characteristics and functions of the basic emission-control devices are reviewed in light of their effect upon materials requirements.
The Chrysler wind tunnel is a closed-circuit, single-return, semiopen jet facility used for performing engine cooling, transmission cooling, engine compartment airflow, underhood component temperature, air-conditioning, and other types of tests. It operates over a 0-120 mph speed range with 400 hp rear-wheel power absorption capacity. Special provisions have been made for idle, city traffic, and tail wind tests. Facility controls provide precise set-point capability, and comprehensive instrumentation and data acquisition systems permit measurement of many parameters and real time data reduction.
Five bonding processes used in the automotive industry, ranging from structural adhesive to nonstructural and filler, are discussed in this paper. Surface preparation, including use of primers; nature, application, and curing of adhesive; secondary processes; in-line testing and destructive test methods; and repair processes are covered. The integral bonding of disc pad shoe assemblies is detailed. Vinyl plastisol adhesives are used for bonding assemblies. Windshield and backlight bonding is a semistructural adhesive application. Contact bonding cements bond exterior vinyl roof covering to roof panels. A vinyl plastisol sealer replaces solder on the joint between the roof and rear quarter panel.
The application of automation to dynamometer testing of engines has led to the development of specialized circuits and techniques to compensate for limitations inherent within the electromechanical systems used to implement automation theory. Stable, quick response to a programmed speed change has been achieved for engine-automatic transmission testing by the use of a parallel feedback technique. Vehicle simulation using analog computer circuitry and road test data is used to calculate torque requirements from programmed acceleration-time and velocity-time curves. Similar circuitry is used to calculate engine-transmission output torque from dynamometer parameters.
TFC/IW, total fuel consumption divided by inertia (test) weight is a useful concept in analyzing the total or composite fuel economy generated in thousands of tests using the carbon balance technique in EPA Federal Test Procedure and Highway Driving Cycle. TFC/IW is a measure of drive train efficiency that requires no additional complicating assumptions. It is applicable to one test or a fleet representing many tests.
A method of breaking down car interior noise measurements into aerodynamic noise, residual noise and aspiration noise is presented. Correlation between car interior aerodynamic noise extracted from “on the road” measurements and car interior aerodynamic noise measured in a wind tunnel indicate the validity of the method. Limitations of the method in both frequency and car airspeed are identified.
The reliability of an electronic sensor in the automotive applications is assessed using data from Fleet Test and proving ground Vehicle Endurance test. These nonfailure data are multiply censored at different mileage. Reliability analysis of data with no failure is rarely discussed in most reliability literature. This paper applies the Weibull maximum likelihood analysis based on known values of the Weibull shape parameter to extract useful reliability information. The well-known Weibayes and Weibest methods are subsets of the discussed approach. The sensitivity of the change of reliability levels over a range of Weibull shape parameter values is also examined in our case. The Huang-Porter (1991) approach of obtaining a reliability lower bound regardless of the Weibull shape parameter values is also applied and its potential of practical application is discussed. Practical limitations of all methods are discussed.
A running loss test procedure has been developed which integrates a point-source collection method to measure fuel evaporative running loss from vehicles during their operation on the chassis dynamometer. The point-source method is part of a complete running loss test procedure which employs the combination of site-specific collection devices on the vehicle, and a sampling pump with sampling lines. Fugitive fuel vapor is drawn into these collectors which have been matched to characteristics of the vehicle and the test cell. The composite vapor sample is routed to a collection bag through an adaptation of the ordinary constant volume dilution system typically used for vehicle exhaust gas sampling. Analysis of the contents of such bags provides an accurate measure of the mass and species of running loss collected during each of three LA-4* driving cycles. Other running loss sampling methods were considered by the Auto-Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program (AQIRP or Program).
Energy management materials are widely used in automotive interiors in instrument panel, knee bolster, and door absorber applications to reduce the risk of injury to an occupant during a crash. Automobile manufacturers must meet standards set by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) that identify maximum levels of injury to an occupant. The recent NHTSA upgrade to the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 201 test procedure(1) for upper interior head impact protection has prompted energy management materials' use in several new areas of affected vehicles. While vehicle evaluations continue, results to date show that energy management foams can be effective in reducing the head injury criterion [HIC(d)] to acceptable government and OEM levels.
Testing for vehicle emissions and fuel economy certification occurs primarily on chassis dynamometers in a laboratory setting and therefore the actual road conditions, such as forces due to tire rolling resistance and internal friction, must be simulated. Test track coastdown procedures measure vehicle road load forces and produce an equation which relates these forces to velocity. The recent inclusion of onboard anemometry has allowed the coastdown procedure to account for varying wind effects; however, the new anemometer based mechanical loss coefficients do not take into account ambient weather conditions. The two purposes of this study are (1) to determine the new tire rolling resistance temperature correction coefficient that should be used when test ambient temperature is different from the standard reference value of 68°F, and (2) to investigate the effects of auxiliary measurements, such as other ambient conditions and vehicle settings, on this correction coefficient.
Due to new regulations, emissions development and compliance testing have become more complex. The amount of data acquired, the number of test types, and the variety of test conditions have increased greatly. Due to this increase, managing test information from request to analysis of results has become a critical factor. Also, automated test result presentation and test storage increases the value and quality of each test. This paper describes a computer system developed to cope with the increasing complexity of vehicle emission testing.
Vacuum insulation and phase-change thermal storage have been used to enhance the heat retention of a prototype catalytic converter. Storing heat in the converter between trips allows exhaust gases to be converted more quickly, significantly reducing cold-start emissions. Using a small metal hydride, the thermal conductance of the vacuum insulation can be varied continuously between 0.49 and 27 W/m2K (R-12 to R-0.2 insulation) to prevent overheating of the catalyst. A prototype was installed in a Dodge Neon with a 2.0-liter engine. Following a standard preconditioning and a 23-hour cold soak, an FTP (Federal Test Procedure) emissions test was performed. Although exhaust temperatures during the preconditioning were not hot enough to melt the phase-change material, the vacuum insulation performed well, resulting in a converter temperature of 146°C after the 23-hour cold soak at 27°C.
This paper presents the development of a test procedure for evaluation of inadvertent deployment of air bags. The methodology and early development of the procedure is discussed along with additional criteria thought to be required for trucks and sport utility vehicles. Tests conducted address severe off-road use in relation to air bag sensing systems. Data is collected from accelerometers. After worst case test conditions are identified (examples include rough road, snow plowing and jerk towing events), the data is analyzed and comparisons for design decisions can be made.