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Technical Paper

Using Life Cycle Management to Evaluate Lead-Free Electrocoat‡

1997-02-24
970696
Environmental costs are a delayed financial burden that result from product decisions made early in the product life cycle--early material choices may create regulatory and waste management costs that were not factored into the acquisition cost. This paper outlines a step-wise approach to determine decision points; environmental, health, safety and recycling (EHS&R) cost drivers that affect decisions; and sources of information required to conduct a Life Cycle Management (LCM) review. Additionally, how LCM fits into the larger concurrent engineering framework is illustrated with an electrocoat primer example. Upstream and downstream supply chain processes are reviewed, as well as organizational challenges that affect the decision process.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Pelvis-Chest Interactions in Hybrid III

1995-02-01
950663
The interaction ILLEGIBLEf the chest of the Hybrid III dummy with the air bag restrILLEGIBLEt system during a crash is complex. Forces applied to one ILLEGIBLEmponent of the dummy can generate an unexpected response in a distal part. Motion, both linear and angular, of the pelvis during impact can create an enigmatic spike in the acceleration of the chest. Because significant changes in the chest acceleration response can affect the development of an airbag system, this pelvis-chest interaction is cause for concern. The factors that appear to affect the chest acceleration spike as a result of the pelvis-chest interaction are: the mass moment of inertia of the pelvis, the interaction of the pelvis with the femur, the characteristic of the lumbar spine, and the differential velocity of the pelvis with respect to the chest.
Technical Paper

Plastic Material Separation on Vehicle Subsystems

1997-02-24
970414
Hand dismantling of certain automotive parts has been an accepted process to remove high value materials, but in large scale recycling this may not be economical. In plastics, a pure non contaminated material stream is critical for maintaining high material values and this means designing plastic parts that can be machine separated. One candidate for separating the plastics in vehicle subsystems such as instrument panels and door trim panels is density separation. In order to better understand what processes are required to develop design requirements for automated plastic separation methods Chrysler and the Vehicle Recycling Partnership have undertaken a major materials separation study with MBA Polymers. In this paper, we describe the material separation methods and the application of these methods to three automotive interior assemblies.
Technical Paper

Energy-Absorbing Polyurethane Foam to Improve Vehicle Crashworthiness

1995-02-01
950553
Federal legislation mandates that automotive OEMS provide occupant protection in collisions involving front and side impacts This legislation, which is to be phased-in over several years, covers not only passenger cars but also light-duty trucks and multipurpose passenger vehicles (MPVs) having a gross vehicle weigh rating (GVWR) of 8,500 lb (3,850 kg) or less. During a frontal impact, occupants within the vehicle undergo rapid changes in velocity. This is primarily due to rapid vehicle deceleration caused by the rigid nature of the vehicle's metal frame components and body assembly. Many of today's vehicles incorporate deformable, energy-absorbing (EA) structures within the vehicle structure to manage the collision energy and slow the deceleration which in turn can lower the occupant velocity relative to the vehicle. Occupant velocities can be higher in light-duty trucks and MPVs having a full-frame structure resulting in increased demands on the supplemental restraint system (SRS).
Technical Paper

Experimental and Computer Simulation Analysis of Transients on an Automobile Communication Bus

1995-02-01
950038
Voltage and current surges are a major concern when it comes to ensuring the functional integrity of electrical and electronic components and modules in an automobile system. This paper presents a computer simulation study for analyzing the effect of high voltage spikes and current load dump on a new Integrated Driver/Receiver (IDR) IC, currently being developed for a J1850 Data Communication Bus in an automobile. It describes the modeling and simulation of the protection structure proposed for the device. The simulation study yields a prediction of current and voltage capability of the protection circuit based on thermal breakdown and transient responses of the circuit. Two levels of modeling, namely, the behavioral level model and the component level model, are used to generate the simulation results. Experimental data will be acquired and used to validate the simulation model when the actual device becomes available.
Technical Paper

Dodge Ram Pickup Vehicle: From Human Factors Development to Production Intent Metal Assembly

1993-11-01
932988
To evaluate and refine interior architecture of the new Dodge Ram pickup truck three years before production, a road worthy interior package validation buck was built using a fiberglass body shell. Molds for the shell were made using CAD/CAM techniques. Advanced CAD/CAM techniques were used to build the interior buck of a subsequent model from individual panels molded in carbon fiber. This buck also included inner structural panels and interior trim components taken from CAD data. For this and subsequent new vehicle programs, refinement of construction techniques allows the bucks to serve as aids in product design and manufacturing feasibility studies.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Energy Management Materials for Head Impact Protection

1997-02-24
970159
Energy management materials are widely used in automotive interiors in instrument panel, knee bolster, and door absorber applications to reduce the risk of injury to an occupant during a crash. Automobile manufacturers must meet standards set by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) that identify maximum levels of injury to an occupant. The recent NHTSA upgrade to the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 201 test procedure(1) for upper interior head impact protection has prompted energy management materials' use in several new areas of affected vehicles. While vehicle evaluations continue, results to date show that energy management foams can be effective in reducing the head injury criterion [HIC(d)] to acceptable government and OEM levels.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Automotive Front Seat Structure Constructed of Polymer Composite

1992-02-01
920335
Seats play an important role in determining customer satisfaction and safety. They also represent three to five percent of the overall vehicle cost and weight. Therefore, automotive manufacturers are continuously seeking ways to improve the areas of comfort, safety, reliability, cost and weight within the seat system. The purpose of this paper is to review the development of an automotive front seat constructed of injection molded nylon frames and metal mechanisms. This development program was initiated for the purpose of reducing vehicle weight while increasing the reliability and safety of the front seats. This paper will review the material and process selection decision, a design overview, the performance criteria and the results of tests performed on the injection molded front seats.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Impact Test Accelerations: A Damage Index for the Head and Torso

1970-02-01
700902
The head Severity Index concept has attracted widespread attention in the automotive industry. This index is intended to estimate human survivability in a systematic way without relying on judgment values. It is employed for evaluating the probability of internal head injury for those indeterminate conditions where the human tolerance limits are not clearly defined. This paper discusses a damage index which is believed to be superior to the current Severity Index in several respects: 1. The concept is applicable to internal injuries of the torso as well as the head. 2. It is felt to describe the actual damage mechanism more directly. 3. It fits the Wayne State head tolerance curve better than the Severity Index. 4. It is suitable for analyzing impact pulses of any time duration. Examples cited in this paper include rocket sled exposures (250 ms duration) down to severe head impacts (5 ms duration). 5. It is more convenient to employ.
Technical Paper

A Procedure for Measuring Instrument Panel Visibility

1972-02-01
720232
A procedure has been developed for measuring the relative visibility of automotive instrument panel graphics and components. Through use of a Luckiesh-Moss Visibility Meter, discreet values of visibility can be assigned to visual targets and related to driver reaction time. Also, eyes off the road lapsed time boundaries may be established which will define visibility requirements necessary to serve the total driver population. These requirements can be translated into meaningful guidelines or standards for visibility attributes such as size, shape, color, contrast, and position of graphics, controls, and indicators. How visibility measurements are made and interpreted and the visibility measuring facility are discussed in this paper.
Technical Paper

How Seat Design Characteristics Affect Impact Injury Criteria

1986-03-01
860638
The seat can play an important part in improving occupant safety during a car impact. This paper discusses research done to determine how characteristics of seat design affect occupant safety. Impact simulator tests have been run which determine how variation of five specific seat characteristics affect FMVSS 208 occupant injury criteria. These tests simulated a 48.3 km/h (30 mi/h) frontal Oarrier impact using a 50th percentile male anthropomorphic device restrained by a two-point passive shoulder belt system. The five seat characteristics tested were the following: 1) Seat Frame Angle, 2) Seat Frame Structure, 3) H-Point Distance Above the Seat Frame, 4) Energy Absorption of the Seat Frame, and 5) Seat Cushion Foam Firmness. Test results show that the first characteristic can improve all injury criteria. The other four will improve some injury criteria at the expense of others.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Lunar Surfaces and Concepts of Manned Lunar Roving Vehicles

1963-01-01
630078
This paper discusses the development of criteria necessary to establish reliable lunar exploration and construction vehicle concepts. To establish the basis for the development of these criteria, an exploration mission using the presently conceived Apollo launch vehicle system is described. The criteria resulting from the study of the contribution made by the hostile lunar environment and the life support system requirements within the framework of the selected mission are established. Soils testing in a hard vacuum is described, as are tests of models under simulated lunar terrain environment. Two lunar vehicle configurations are reviewed, including design parameters and subsystem development.
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