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Technical Paper

Hydrogen Embrittlement in Automotive Fastener Applications

1996-02-01
960312
Fastener failure due to hydrogen embrittlement is of significant concern in the automotive industry. These types of failures occur unexpectedly. They may be very costly to the automotive company and fastener supplier, not only monetarily, but also in terms of customer satisfaction and safety. This paper is an overview of a program which one automotive company initiated to minimize hydrogen embrittlement in fasteners. The objectives of the program were two-fold. One was to obtain a better understanding of the hydrogen embrittlement phenomena as it relates to automotive fastener materials and processes. The second and most important objective, was to eliminate hydrogen embrittlement failures in vehicles. Early program efforts concentrated on a review of fastener applications and corrosion protection systems to optimize coated fasteners for hydrogen embrittlement resistance.
Technical Paper

Achieving Dent Resistance Improvements and Weight Reduction Through Stamping Process Optimization and Steel Substitution

1996-02-01
960025
Resistance to dents and dings, caused by plant handling and in-service use, is generally recognized as an important performance requirement for automotive outer body panels. This paper examines the dent resistance improvements that can be achieved by maximizing surface stretch, through adjustments to the press settings, and substitution of a higher strength steel grade. Initially, the stamping process was optimized using the steel supplied for production: a Ti/Nb-stabilized, ultra low carbon (ULC) grade. The stamping process was subsequently optimized with a Nb-stabilized, rephosphorized ULC steel, at various thicknesses. The formed panels were evaluated for percent surface stretch, percent thinning, in-panel yield strength after forming, and dent performance. The results showed that dent resistance can be significantly improved, even at a reduced steel thickness, thus demonstrating a potential for weight savings.
Technical Paper

Impact Response of Foam: The Effect of the State of Stress

1996-11-01
962418
The Finite Element predictions of the physical response of foams during impact by a rigid body (such as, the Hybrid III head form) is determined by material law equations generally approximated based on the theory of elastoplasticity. However, the structural aspect of foam, its discontinuous nature, makes it difficult to apply the laws of continuum mechanics and construct constitutive equations for foam-like material. One part of the problem relates to the state of stress. In materials such as steel, the state of hydrostatic stress does not affect the stress strain behavior under uniaxial compression or tension in plastic regime. In other words, when steel is subject to hydrostatic pressures the stress strain characteristic can be predicted from a uniaxial test. However, if the stresses acting on a section of foam are triaxial, the response of a head-form may be different than predicted from uniaxial test data.
Technical Paper

Springback Prediction in Sheet Forming Simulation

1994-03-01
940937
Although numerical simulation techniques for sheet metal forming become increasingly maturing in recent years, prediction of springback remains a topic of current investigation. The main point of this paper is to illustrate the effectiveness of a modelling approach where static implicit schemes are used for the prediction of springback regardless whether a static implicit or dynamic explicit scheme is used in the forming simulation. The approach is demonstrated by revisiting the 2-D draw bending of NUMISHEET'93 and numerical results on two real world stampings.
Technical Paper

Static and Dynamic Dent Resistance Performance of Automotive Steel Body Panels

1997-02-24
970158
In recent years, strict weight reduction targets have pushed auto manufacturers to use lighter gauge sheet steels in all areas of the vehicle including exterior body panels. As sheet metal thicknesses are reduced, dentability of body panels becomes of increasing concern. Thus, the goal becomes one of reducing sheet metal thickness while maintaining acceptable dent resistance. Most prior work in this area has focused on quasi-static loading conditions. In this study, both quasi-static and dynamic dent tests are evaluated. Fully assembled doors made from mild, medium strength bake hardenable and non-bake hardenable steels are examined. The quasi-static dent test is run at a test speed of 0.1 m/minute while the dynamic dent test is run at a test speed of 26.8 m/minute. Dynamic dent testing is of interest because it more closely approximates real life denting conditions such as in-plant handling and transit damage, and parking lot damage from car door and shopping cart impact.
Technical Paper

Improvements in the Dent Resistance of Steel Body Panels

1992-02-01
920243
A computer-controlled body panel testing machine has been used to quantify stiffness and dent resistance of body panels at Chrysler. The influence of yield strength and local reinforcement on the mechanical behavior of automotive door panels has been investigated. Medium strength steels in the range of 210 -240 MPa yield strength have produced significant improvements in dent resistance over a 160 MPa yield strength steel. Considerable improvements in dent resistance can also be attributed to the use of local, adhesively attached, glass fiber reinforcement patches. The effects of boundary conditions and panel shape on stiffness and dent resistance are illustrated in this application.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Aluminum, Sheet Molding Compound and Steel for Hoods

1992-02-01
920242
A unique opportunity arose to make a direct comparison of aluminum, sheet molding compound (SMC) and steel using a common hood design. In considering all possible material combinations of inner and outer panels, it was discovered that some of the combinations were incompatible due to material properties. Only the compatible material combinations were considered. Three different joining techniques - welding, bonding and bonded hem flanging - were evaluated. The cost, weight and structural performance of the chosen hood material combinations were established. Areas of further development were identified, including design optimization for specific material combinations.
Technical Paper

Experience in Sand Casting Aluminum MMC Prototype Components

1993-03-01
930179
Typical sand-casting techniques have been shown to be inappropriate in pouring particulate reinforced aluminum metal matrix composite (Al-MMC) castings. New gating/risering configurations were necessary to produce castings of acceptable soundness. Several automotive components, including brake rotors, cylinder liners and camshaft thrust plates, were prepared using special techniques. Initial durability test results of several Al-MMC prototype components are presented.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Chromium and Chromium-Free Post-Phosphating Rinses on the Corrosion Performance of Zinc and Zinc Alloy Coated Sheet Steels After Five Years Outdoor Scab Corrosion Exposure

1993-10-01
932358
A selection of commercially available chromium and chromium-free post phosphate rinses along with a deionized water rinse were evaluated over several zinc and zinc-alloy coated sheet steels. The test specimens were pretreated and electrocoated on-line in an automotive assembly plant. The effect of the rinse treatments on the cosmetic corrosion performance of the substrates, after 5 years of exposure in an outdoor scab corrosion test was determined. After this exposure none of the rinse treatments had performed better than deionized water rinse on zinc and zinc-iron coated sheet. The zinc-nickel coating showed improved scribe creepage when treated with the Cr+6/Cr+3 rinse. Data is provided comparing the concentration of the treatments used vs scribe creepage and chipping corrosion paint loss.
Technical Paper

Five Year Outdoor Scab Corrosion Results on Zinc and Zinc Alloy Coated Sheet Steels

1993-10-01
932361
A comprehensive selection of automotive sheet steels were exposed in an outdoor scab corrosion test to provide a base-line of cosmetic corrosion performance. Eighteen different coated sheet steels along with CRS as a control were processed using two commercially available zinc phosphate chemistries. The phosphating was done using both immersion and spray phosphate processes in a laboratory and an automotive assembly plant. Scribe creepage results are reported for 5 years outdoor scab exposure. Comparisons of the scribe creepage behavior of CRS, zinc, and zinc alloy coatings and the effect of the phosphate treatment are provided. An estimate of 10 years field performance is made.
Technical Paper

Carbon and Sulfur Effects on Performance of Microalloyed Spindle Forgings

1993-03-01
930966
Five heats of vanadium-microalloyed steel with carbon contents from 0.29% to 0.40% and sulfur contents from 0.031% to 0.110% were forged into automotive spindles and air cooled. Three of the steels were continuously cast whereas the other two were ingot cast. The forged spindles were subjected to microstructural analysis, mechanical property testing, full component testing and machinability testing. The microstructures of the five steels consisted of pearlite and ferrite which nucleated on prior austenite grain boundaries and predominantly on intragranularly dispersed sulfide inclusions of the resulfurized grades. Ultimate tensile strengths and room temperature Charpy V-notch impact toughness values were relatively insensitive to processing and compositional variations. The room temperature tensile and room-temperature impact properties ranged from 820 MPa to 1000 MPa (120 to 145 ksi) and from 13 Joules to 19 Joules (10 to 14 ft-lbs), respectively, for the various steels.
Technical Paper

High Performance Forged Steel Crankshafts - Cost Reduction Opportunities

1992-02-01
920784
Higher horsepower per liter engines have put more demand on the crankshaft, often requiring the use of forged steel. This paper examines cost reduction opportunities to offset the penalties associated with forged steel, with raw material and machinability being the primary factors evaluated. A cost model for crankshaft processing is utilized in this paper as a design tool to select the lowest cost material grade. This model is supported by fatigue and machinability data for various steel grades. Materials considered are medium carbon, low alloy, and microalloy steels; the effects of sulfur as a machining enhancer is also studied.
Technical Paper

Performance of Heat-Resistant Alloys in Emission-Control Systems

1974-02-01
740093
An extensive program has been established to screen and evaluate heat- and corrosion-resistant alloys that may have some potential application in emission-control systems anywhere from the exhaust manifold to the tailpipe. The various phases of this program, which include tests conducted in air and controlled exhaust atmospheres at temperatures between 1300-2200°F are described. Some selected test data and the results of metallographic studies are presented to illustrate how representative alloys react to the various test conditions. The characteristics and functions of the basic emission-control devices are reviewed in light of their effect upon materials requirements.
Technical Paper

Design Criteria for the Dent Resistance of Auto Body Panels

1974-02-01
740081
One solution to the problem of spiraling automotive weights is the substitution of thinner high strength steels or thicker aluminum alloy outer body panels. In doing so the dent resistance of these panels must not be sacrificed. This study investigates the dent resistance of doubly curved rectangular panels in various steels and aluminum alloys. Dent depth on the order of magnitude of the panel thickness was studied. An empirical equation is developed that relates dent resistance to the yield strengths, metal thickness, and panel geometry.
Technical Paper

Considerations Affecting the Life of Automotive Camshafts and Tappets

1956-01-01
560015
WORK done in a development program relative to camshafts and tappets in the design of the Chrysler overhead-valve V-8 engine is described. The types of failure encountered are categorized as wear, scuffing, and fatigue. An accelerated test procedure was designed to promote early cam-tappet failures, and the development work was predicated upon the results obtained therefrom. Among the variables affecting the failure conditions, major emphasis was placed on material development. Specifically, the greater amount of time was spent in determining the optimum tappet material, while some time was devoted to the camshaft material. A combination of adjusted chemical composition and heat-treatment of hardenable cast iron for camshaft and tappets provided the best solution to the failure problems.
Technical Paper

A New Method of Predicting the Formability of Materials

1972-02-01
720019
The paper presents a new method, based on standard laboratory cup tests, for predicting the formability of materials; in the example provided, the forming potentials of four new materials are shown. The properties of stretchability and drawability, which are the principal factors defining a material's forming limits, may be assessed using the Olsen spherical cup test and the Swift flat-bottomed cup test. In the shape analysis procedure described, the minimum amount of deformation needed to fix a desired shape is determined. Then necessary adjustments to tooling for optimum sheet metal usage are made based on calculations from a new type of chart showing stretch forming ratio and draw forming ratio, providing a comparison of the formabilities of a number of materials.
Technical Paper

Application of Induction Heating in Automotive Production

1935-01-01
350121
INDUCTION heating is a process or method by which metal parts are heated by simply placing them in an alternating magnetic field. The action is that of the transformer, whereby electrical energy is transferred or passed over to another isolated electric or secondary circuit by means of the magnetic field; thus, no physical attachments or electrical contacts are necessary to have electrical currents, which are dissipated as heat, flow in the parts to be processed. The strength and frequency of the alternating magnetic field can be selected to produce any desired rate of heating and ultimate temperature. A circuit can be set up to dry lacquer at 160 deg. fahr. on thin sheet-metal parts or to melt in record time immense steel ingots. Induction heating is now commercially applied in automotive production to many processes, and these are specified.
Technical Paper

Determining Hardenability on Small Sizes

1941-01-01
410115
LIMITATIONS of the two general methods available for determining hardenability in steel, the authors point out, are that the test piece may not have a sufficient cross-section in which to develop the desired series of cooling rates, and that a special test piece (known as the L-type) must be machined for steels of low hardenability. The method using the Wuerfel bomb described in their paper, they explain, is directed primarily toward removal of these two limitations. Stated in terms of the critical diameter, they report that the results of the method are reproducible within ⅛ in.
Technical Paper

Design Features of the JUNKERS 211B AIRCRAFT ENGINE

1942-01-01
420123
THE Junkers 211B engine follows the usual German practice of very large displacements and conservative mean effective pressures and rotative speeds. However, the relative light weight per unit of displacement results in a net weight per horsepower that is not far above its competitors. Fully automatic devices which control propeller speed, manifold pressure, mixture ratio, spark advance, and supercharger gear ratio follow the German policy of removing all possible distractions from the pilot. This is one of three large liquid-cooled engines known to be produced in quantity in Germany; it powers an impressive percentage of the Luftwaffe. While of external appearance and displacement that resemble the Daimler-Benz DB-601 engine, the fundamental construction, detail design practice, and metallurgy of the Junkers 211B are surprisingly different.
Technical Paper

Application of Strain Analysis to Sheet Metal Forming Problems in the Press Shop

1968-02-01
680093
Strain analysis of stampings is explained. The system is based on the strain distributions obtained from 0.2 in. inter-locking circle grid patterns etched on blanks. The strain distributions are related to a developed formability limit curve and the mechanical properties of the gridded blank. The evaluation of the graphic relation of the strains to the formability limit enables the press shop to determine what factors should be changed to produce stampings with less scrap and lower cost.
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