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Technical Paper

Using Life Cycle Management to Evaluate Lead-Free Electrocoat‡

1997-02-24
970696
Environmental costs are a delayed financial burden that result from product decisions made early in the product life cycle--early material choices may create regulatory and waste management costs that were not factored into the acquisition cost. This paper outlines a step-wise approach to determine decision points; environmental, health, safety and recycling (EHS&R) cost drivers that affect decisions; and sources of information required to conduct a Life Cycle Management (LCM) review. Additionally, how LCM fits into the larger concurrent engineering framework is illustrated with an electrocoat primer example. Upstream and downstream supply chain processes are reviewed, as well as organizational challenges that affect the decision process.
Technical Paper

Energy-Absorbing Polyurethane Foam to Improve Vehicle Crashworthiness

1995-02-01
950553
Federal legislation mandates that automotive OEMS provide occupant protection in collisions involving front and side impacts This legislation, which is to be phased-in over several years, covers not only passenger cars but also light-duty trucks and multipurpose passenger vehicles (MPVs) having a gross vehicle weigh rating (GVWR) of 8,500 lb (3,850 kg) or less. During a frontal impact, occupants within the vehicle undergo rapid changes in velocity. This is primarily due to rapid vehicle deceleration caused by the rigid nature of the vehicle's metal frame components and body assembly. Many of today's vehicles incorporate deformable, energy-absorbing (EA) structures within the vehicle structure to manage the collision energy and slow the deceleration which in turn can lower the occupant velocity relative to the vehicle. Occupant velocities can be higher in light-duty trucks and MPVs having a full-frame structure resulting in increased demands on the supplemental restraint system (SRS).
Technical Paper

Experimental and Computer Simulation Analysis of Transients on an Automobile Communication Bus

1995-02-01
950038
Voltage and current surges are a major concern when it comes to ensuring the functional integrity of electrical and electronic components and modules in an automobile system. This paper presents a computer simulation study for analyzing the effect of high voltage spikes and current load dump on a new Integrated Driver/Receiver (IDR) IC, currently being developed for a J1850 Data Communication Bus in an automobile. It describes the modeling and simulation of the protection structure proposed for the device. The simulation study yields a prediction of current and voltage capability of the protection circuit based on thermal breakdown and transient responses of the circuit. Two levels of modeling, namely, the behavioral level model and the component level model, are used to generate the simulation results. Experimental data will be acquired and used to validate the simulation model when the actual device becomes available.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Energy Management Materials for Head Impact Protection

1997-02-24
970159
Energy management materials are widely used in automotive interiors in instrument panel, knee bolster, and door absorber applications to reduce the risk of injury to an occupant during a crash. Automobile manufacturers must meet standards set by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) that identify maximum levels of injury to an occupant. The recent NHTSA upgrade to the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 201 test procedure(1) for upper interior head impact protection has prompted energy management materials' use in several new areas of affected vehicles. While vehicle evaluations continue, results to date show that energy management foams can be effective in reducing the head injury criterion [HIC(d)] to acceptable government and OEM levels.
Technical Paper

A Procedure for Measuring Instrument Panel Visibility

1972-02-01
720232
A procedure has been developed for measuring the relative visibility of automotive instrument panel graphics and components. Through use of a Luckiesh-Moss Visibility Meter, discreet values of visibility can be assigned to visual targets and related to driver reaction time. Also, eyes off the road lapsed time boundaries may be established which will define visibility requirements necessary to serve the total driver population. These requirements can be translated into meaningful guidelines or standards for visibility attributes such as size, shape, color, contrast, and position of graphics, controls, and indicators. How visibility measurements are made and interpreted and the visibility measuring facility are discussed in this paper.
Technical Paper

How Seat Design Characteristics Affect Impact Injury Criteria

1986-03-01
860638
The seat can play an important part in improving occupant safety during a car impact. This paper discusses research done to determine how characteristics of seat design affect occupant safety. Impact simulator tests have been run which determine how variation of five specific seat characteristics affect FMVSS 208 occupant injury criteria. These tests simulated a 48.3 km/h (30 mi/h) frontal Oarrier impact using a 50th percentile male anthropomorphic device restrained by a two-point passive shoulder belt system. The five seat characteristics tested were the following: 1) Seat Frame Angle, 2) Seat Frame Structure, 3) H-Point Distance Above the Seat Frame, 4) Energy Absorption of the Seat Frame, and 5) Seat Cushion Foam Firmness. Test results show that the first characteristic can improve all injury criteria. The other four will improve some injury criteria at the expense of others.
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