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Technical Paper

Automated Test Request and Data Acquisition System for Vehicle Emission Testing

1997-02-24
970273
Due to new regulations, emissions development and compliance testing have become more complex. The amount of data acquired, the number of test types, and the variety of test conditions have increased greatly. Due to this increase, managing test information from request to analysis of results has become a critical factor. Also, automated test result presentation and test storage increases the value and quality of each test. This paper describes a computer system developed to cope with the increasing complexity of vehicle emission testing.
Technical Paper

Changes in Reliability During the Design and Development Process of a Vehicle's Electrical/Electronic Systems

1995-02-01
950826
The changes in reliability of the Electrical/Electronic Systems of a vehicle-line during its early design and development engineering processes have been studied. A computerized vehicle failure tracking system was used to provide results from several stages of early development vehicle testing at the proving grounds. The data were analyzed using a software program that assumes that failures in a repairable system, such as a car, occur as a nonhomogeneous Poisson process. Results suggest that, under normal circumstances, a significant and quantitative improvement in reliability is achievable as the system or component design progresses through the early design and development processes. This also provides a means of predicting future system(s) reliability when the system(s) is in production.
Technical Paper

Achieving Dent Resistance Improvements and Weight Reduction Through Stamping Process Optimization and Steel Substitution

1996-02-01
960025
Resistance to dents and dings, caused by plant handling and in-service use, is generally recognized as an important performance requirement for automotive outer body panels. This paper examines the dent resistance improvements that can be achieved by maximizing surface stretch, through adjustments to the press settings, and substitution of a higher strength steel grade. Initially, the stamping process was optimized using the steel supplied for production: a Ti/Nb-stabilized, ultra low carbon (ULC) grade. The stamping process was subsequently optimized with a Nb-stabilized, rephosphorized ULC steel, at various thicknesses. The formed panels were evaluated for percent surface stretch, percent thinning, in-panel yield strength after forming, and dent performance. The results showed that dent resistance can be significantly improved, even at a reduced steel thickness, thus demonstrating a potential for weight savings.
Technical Paper

Impact Response of Foam: The Effect of the State of Stress

1996-11-01
962418
The Finite Element predictions of the physical response of foams during impact by a rigid body (such as, the Hybrid III head form) is determined by material law equations generally approximated based on the theory of elastoplasticity. However, the structural aspect of foam, its discontinuous nature, makes it difficult to apply the laws of continuum mechanics and construct constitutive equations for foam-like material. One part of the problem relates to the state of stress. In materials such as steel, the state of hydrostatic stress does not affect the stress strain behavior under uniaxial compression or tension in plastic regime. In other words, when steel is subject to hydrostatic pressures the stress strain characteristic can be predicted from a uniaxial test. However, if the stresses acting on a section of foam are triaxial, the response of a head-form may be different than predicted from uniaxial test data.
Technical Paper

The Radio Mounting System

1994-03-01
940260
Chrysler Corporation Interior Electrical\Entertainment Department currently has three different mounting tab configurations on the radio escutcheon required by five platforms for radio installation. Prior to the re-organization into platforms, the corporation had one corporate mounting configuration. The reorganization into platforms encouraged diversification including different radio mounting locations. This however, requires three separate part numbers for the same radio unit, resulting in additional cost. How can we assure product diversification between platforms while controlling cost and managing complexity?
Technical Paper

Springback Prediction in Sheet Forming Simulation

1994-03-01
940937
Although numerical simulation techniques for sheet metal forming become increasingly maturing in recent years, prediction of springback remains a topic of current investigation. The main point of this paper is to illustrate the effectiveness of a modelling approach where static implicit schemes are used for the prediction of springback regardless whether a static implicit or dynamic explicit scheme is used in the forming simulation. The approach is demonstrated by revisiting the 2-D draw bending of NUMISHEET'93 and numerical results on two real world stampings.
Technical Paper

Body-in-White Prototype Process in Chrysler's Jeep/Truck Platform

1993-11-01
933038
Chrysler Corporation's Jeep and Truck platform implemented a new design and prototype process for the body-in -white of a new pickup truck. A team approach achieved concurrent body design, stamping die design, assembly process development, and assembly tooling development. The first domestic US industry use of a 100% electronic design and release system was instrumental in the process. The new process produced a prototype body-in-white on time at 95 WBVP (weeks before volume production) with the highest level of production-intent components ever achieved within Chrysler at this stage of development.
Technical Paper

Chrysler 8.0-Liter V-10 Engine

1993-11-01
933033
Chrysler Corporation has developed an 8.0-liter engine for light truck applications. Numerous features combine to produce the highest power and torque ratings of any gasoline-fueled light truck engine currently available while also providing commensurate durability. These features include: a deep-skirt ten-cylinder 90° “V” block, a Helmholtz resonator intake manifold that enhances both low and mid-range torque, light die cast all-aluminum pistons for low vibration, a unique firing order for smooth operation, a “Y” block configuration for strength and durability, a heavy duty truck-type thermostat to control warm up, and a direct ignition system.
Technical Paper

Dodge Ram Pickup Vehicle: From Human Factors Development to Production Intent Metal Assembly

1993-11-01
932988
To evaluate and refine interior architecture of the new Dodge Ram pickup truck three years before production, a road worthy interior package validation buck was built using a fiberglass body shell. Molds for the shell were made using CAD/CAM techniques. Advanced CAD/CAM techniques were used to build the interior buck of a subsequent model from individual panels molded in carbon fiber. This buck also included inner structural panels and interior trim components taken from CAD data. For this and subsequent new vehicle programs, refinement of construction techniques allows the bucks to serve as aids in product design and manufacturing feasibility studies.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Energy Management Materials for Head Impact Protection

1997-02-24
970159
Energy management materials are widely used in automotive interiors in instrument panel, knee bolster, and door absorber applications to reduce the risk of injury to an occupant during a crash. Automobile manufacturers must meet standards set by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) that identify maximum levels of injury to an occupant. The recent NHTSA upgrade to the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 201 test procedure(1) for upper interior head impact protection has prompted energy management materials' use in several new areas of affected vehicles. While vehicle evaluations continue, results to date show that energy management foams can be effective in reducing the head injury criterion [HIC(d)] to acceptable government and OEM levels.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Aluminum, Sheet Molding Compound and Steel for Hoods

1992-02-01
920242
A unique opportunity arose to make a direct comparison of aluminum, sheet molding compound (SMC) and steel using a common hood design. In considering all possible material combinations of inner and outer panels, it was discovered that some of the combinations were incompatible due to material properties. Only the compatible material combinations were considered. Three different joining techniques - welding, bonding and bonded hem flanging - were evaluated. The cost, weight and structural performance of the chosen hood material combinations were established. Areas of further development were identified, including design optimization for specific material combinations.
Technical Paper

Experience in Sand Casting Aluminum MMC Prototype Components

1993-03-01
930179
Typical sand-casting techniques have been shown to be inappropriate in pouring particulate reinforced aluminum metal matrix composite (Al-MMC) castings. New gating/risering configurations were necessary to produce castings of acceptable soundness. Several automotive components, including brake rotors, cylinder liners and camshaft thrust plates, were prepared using special techniques. Initial durability test results of several Al-MMC prototype components are presented.
Technical Paper

RTM Body Panels for Viper Sports Car

1993-03-01
930468
Resin transfer molding (RTM) is the process of choice for the Body Panels of the Viper Sports car. The objective of this paper is to outline the reasons for the choice of RTM, and discuss development of technology for Class A surfaces and the paint system. Accomplishments to date and finally the work yet to be completed will also be defined. Conclusions from the work to date indicate that the RTM process enables a reduction in vehicle development time through faster prototypes and tool build times and that high quality, Class A surfaces can be successfully achieved even with epoxy tools. Additional work is ongoing to reduce cycle times and finishing costs, and to improve the in-process dimensional stability.
Technical Paper

Process Improvement in Chrysler's Small Car Platform

1993-03-01
930471
There are important changes unfolding in domestic industry. In the face of increased competition and the reality that traditional practices are no longer sufficient, manufacturers are taking daring new looks at the ways that they do business. Platforms and small business units are being formed within large companies to manage product lines. Cross-functional teams are replacing functional organizations as the driving forces in product development. Authority and leadership are being shifted lower and lower Into the working ranks, and the reengineering of work processes is becoming the challenge. This paper presents part of the story of Chrysler's Small Car Platform. It begins with an overview of the platform system. Then it focuses on the Process Phase of a vehicle program. The story is told to illustrate our experience in a continuous improvement process.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Chromium and Chromium-Free Post-Phosphating Rinses on the Corrosion Performance of Zinc and Zinc Alloy Coated Sheet Steels After Five Years Outdoor Scab Corrosion Exposure

1993-10-01
932358
A selection of commercially available chromium and chromium-free post phosphate rinses along with a deionized water rinse were evaluated over several zinc and zinc-alloy coated sheet steels. The test specimens were pretreated and electrocoated on-line in an automotive assembly plant. The effect of the rinse treatments on the cosmetic corrosion performance of the substrates, after 5 years of exposure in an outdoor scab corrosion test was determined. After this exposure none of the rinse treatments had performed better than deionized water rinse on zinc and zinc-iron coated sheet. The zinc-nickel coating showed improved scribe creepage when treated with the Cr+6/Cr+3 rinse. Data is provided comparing the concentration of the treatments used vs scribe creepage and chipping corrosion paint loss.
Technical Paper

Five Year Outdoor Scab Corrosion Results on Zinc and Zinc Alloy Coated Sheet Steels

1993-10-01
932361
A comprehensive selection of automotive sheet steels were exposed in an outdoor scab corrosion test to provide a base-line of cosmetic corrosion performance. Eighteen different coated sheet steels along with CRS as a control were processed using two commercially available zinc phosphate chemistries. The phosphating was done using both immersion and spray phosphate processes in a laboratory and an automotive assembly plant. Scribe creepage results are reported for 5 years outdoor scab exposure. Comparisons of the scribe creepage behavior of CRS, zinc, and zinc alloy coatings and the effect of the phosphate treatment are provided. An estimate of 10 years field performance is made.
Technical Paper

Brake and Clutch Pedal System Optimization Using Design for Manufacture and Assembly

1992-02-01
920774
This paper describes the application of the Design for Manufacture and Assembly (DFMA) method at Chrysler. Attention is focused on the development of the clutch and brake pedal and bracketry system of the PL project in the Small Car Platform. The Chrysler DFMA procedure including competitive evaluation and value engineering was utilized during the initial design phase involving product concept development from the original functional and manufacturing requirements. After the first laboratory tests, a number of key design and manufacturing concerns surfaced and led to a second cycle of DFMA analysis. The procedure permits major design functions and manufacturing and assembly process issues and criteria to be incorporated in the initial design stages.
Technical Paper

New Concept Modular Manual Transmission Clutch and Flywheel Assembly

1992-09-01
922110
Most United States vehicle assembly plants produce significantly more automatic transmission equipped vehicles than manual transmission vehicles. Assembling these two vehicles on a common production line can create complexity problems. This paper describes the design and development of a pre-assembled manual transmission clutch and flywheel modular assembly which reduces most of these problems. This assembly is used on the 1993 model year mini-van with a 2.5L four cylinder engine. This modular clutch system utilizes the same starter ring gear carrier (driveplate) used on automatic transmission equipped vehicles. It pilots into the crankshaft similar to the automatic transmission torque converter. It is balanced as an assembly which results in a lower system imbalance. A significant system piece cost saving, in comparison with today's competitive market, was achieved.
Technical Paper

Permeation of Gasoline-Alcohol Fuel Blends Through High-Density Polyethylene Fuel Tanks with Different Barrier Technologies

1992-02-01
920164
The automobile industry has been using high-density polyethylene (HDPE) as a material to fabricate fuel tanks. Because untreated HDPE is permeable to the primary constituents of gasoline, these fuel tanks are now being produced with various barrier technologies that significantly reduce this permeation rate. Four currently available barrier technologies are fluorination, sulfonation, coextrusion, and the laminar barrier technology. These technologies have successfully proven to decrease the permeation rate of pure gasoline. However, it is suspected that their effectiveness may be reduced when alcohols are introduced into the fuel blend. In this work, we determine the permeation rates of gasoline-alcohol fuel blends through HDPE by conducting tests on 22-gallon HDPE fuel tanks and on small HDPE bottles fabricated with and without these barrier technologies. The goal of this study is to provide a comprehensive evaluation of these four barrier technologies.
Technical Paper

Technical Highlights of the Dodge Compressed Natural Gas Ram Van/Wagon

1992-08-01
921551
An OEM Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) has been developed to address recently enacted Clean-Fuel Vehicle legislation. The NGV incorporates advanced fuel storage and fuel metering technologies to produce very low emissions and to provide superior customer value compared to aftermarket conversion units.
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