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Technical Paper

Achieving Dent Resistance Improvements and Weight Reduction Through Stamping Process Optimization and Steel Substitution

1996-02-01
960025
Resistance to dents and dings, caused by plant handling and in-service use, is generally recognized as an important performance requirement for automotive outer body panels. This paper examines the dent resistance improvements that can be achieved by maximizing surface stretch, through adjustments to the press settings, and substitution of a higher strength steel grade. Initially, the stamping process was optimized using the steel supplied for production: a Ti/Nb-stabilized, ultra low carbon (ULC) grade. The stamping process was subsequently optimized with a Nb-stabilized, rephosphorized ULC steel, at various thicknesses. The formed panels were evaluated for percent surface stretch, percent thinning, in-panel yield strength after forming, and dent performance. The results showed that dent resistance can be significantly improved, even at a reduced steel thickness, thus demonstrating a potential for weight savings.
Technical Paper

Impact Response of Foam: The Effect of the State of Stress

1996-11-01
962418
The Finite Element predictions of the physical response of foams during impact by a rigid body (such as, the Hybrid III head form) is determined by material law equations generally approximated based on the theory of elastoplasticity. However, the structural aspect of foam, its discontinuous nature, makes it difficult to apply the laws of continuum mechanics and construct constitutive equations for foam-like material. One part of the problem relates to the state of stress. In materials such as steel, the state of hydrostatic stress does not affect the stress strain behavior under uniaxial compression or tension in plastic regime. In other words, when steel is subject to hydrostatic pressures the stress strain characteristic can be predicted from a uniaxial test. However, if the stresses acting on a section of foam are triaxial, the response of a head-form may be different than predicted from uniaxial test data.
Technical Paper

Springback Prediction in Sheet Forming Simulation

1994-03-01
940937
Although numerical simulation techniques for sheet metal forming become increasingly maturing in recent years, prediction of springback remains a topic of current investigation. The main point of this paper is to illustrate the effectiveness of a modelling approach where static implicit schemes are used for the prediction of springback regardless whether a static implicit or dynamic explicit scheme is used in the forming simulation. The approach is demonstrated by revisiting the 2-D draw bending of NUMISHEET'93 and numerical results on two real world stampings.
Technical Paper

Body-in-White Prototype Process in Chrysler's Jeep/Truck Platform

1993-11-01
933038
Chrysler Corporation's Jeep and Truck platform implemented a new design and prototype process for the body-in -white of a new pickup truck. A team approach achieved concurrent body design, stamping die design, assembly process development, and assembly tooling development. The first domestic US industry use of a 100% electronic design and release system was instrumental in the process. The new process produced a prototype body-in-white on time at 95 WBVP (weeks before volume production) with the highest level of production-intent components ever achieved within Chrysler at this stage of development.
Technical Paper

Dodge Ram Pickup Vehicle: From Human Factors Development to Production Intent Metal Assembly

1993-11-01
932988
To evaluate and refine interior architecture of the new Dodge Ram pickup truck three years before production, a road worthy interior package validation buck was built using a fiberglass body shell. Molds for the shell were made using CAD/CAM techniques. Advanced CAD/CAM techniques were used to build the interior buck of a subsequent model from individual panels molded in carbon fiber. This buck also included inner structural panels and interior trim components taken from CAD data. For this and subsequent new vehicle programs, refinement of construction techniques allows the bucks to serve as aids in product design and manufacturing feasibility studies.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Aluminum, Sheet Molding Compound and Steel for Hoods

1992-02-01
920242
A unique opportunity arose to make a direct comparison of aluminum, sheet molding compound (SMC) and steel using a common hood design. In considering all possible material combinations of inner and outer panels, it was discovered that some of the combinations were incompatible due to material properties. Only the compatible material combinations were considered. Three different joining techniques - welding, bonding and bonded hem flanging - were evaluated. The cost, weight and structural performance of the chosen hood material combinations were established. Areas of further development were identified, including design optimization for specific material combinations.
Technical Paper

RTM Body Panels for Viper Sports Car

1993-03-01
930468
Resin transfer molding (RTM) is the process of choice for the Body Panels of the Viper Sports car. The objective of this paper is to outline the reasons for the choice of RTM, and discuss development of technology for Class A surfaces and the paint system. Accomplishments to date and finally the work yet to be completed will also be defined. Conclusions from the work to date indicate that the RTM process enables a reduction in vehicle development time through faster prototypes and tool build times and that high quality, Class A surfaces can be successfully achieved even with epoxy tools. Additional work is ongoing to reduce cycle times and finishing costs, and to improve the in-process dimensional stability.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Chromium and Chromium-Free Post-Phosphating Rinses on the Corrosion Performance of Zinc and Zinc Alloy Coated Sheet Steels After Five Years Outdoor Scab Corrosion Exposure

1993-10-01
932358
A selection of commercially available chromium and chromium-free post phosphate rinses along with a deionized water rinse were evaluated over several zinc and zinc-alloy coated sheet steels. The test specimens were pretreated and electrocoated on-line in an automotive assembly plant. The effect of the rinse treatments on the cosmetic corrosion performance of the substrates, after 5 years of exposure in an outdoor scab corrosion test was determined. After this exposure none of the rinse treatments had performed better than deionized water rinse on zinc and zinc-iron coated sheet. The zinc-nickel coating showed improved scribe creepage when treated with the Cr+6/Cr+3 rinse. Data is provided comparing the concentration of the treatments used vs scribe creepage and chipping corrosion paint loss.
Technical Paper

Five Year Outdoor Scab Corrosion Results on Zinc and Zinc Alloy Coated Sheet Steels

1993-10-01
932361
A comprehensive selection of automotive sheet steels were exposed in an outdoor scab corrosion test to provide a base-line of cosmetic corrosion performance. Eighteen different coated sheet steels along with CRS as a control were processed using two commercially available zinc phosphate chemistries. The phosphating was done using both immersion and spray phosphate processes in a laboratory and an automotive assembly plant. Scribe creepage results are reported for 5 years outdoor scab exposure. Comparisons of the scribe creepage behavior of CRS, zinc, and zinc alloy coatings and the effect of the phosphate treatment are provided. An estimate of 10 years field performance is made.
Technical Paper

Brake and Clutch Pedal System Optimization Using Design for Manufacture and Assembly

1992-02-01
920774
This paper describes the application of the Design for Manufacture and Assembly (DFMA) method at Chrysler. Attention is focused on the development of the clutch and brake pedal and bracketry system of the PL project in the Small Car Platform. The Chrysler DFMA procedure including competitive evaluation and value engineering was utilized during the initial design phase involving product concept development from the original functional and manufacturing requirements. After the first laboratory tests, a number of key design and manufacturing concerns surfaced and led to a second cycle of DFMA analysis. The procedure permits major design functions and manufacturing and assembly process issues and criteria to be incorporated in the initial design stages.
Technical Paper

New Concept Modular Manual Transmission Clutch and Flywheel Assembly

1992-09-01
922110
Most United States vehicle assembly plants produce significantly more automatic transmission equipped vehicles than manual transmission vehicles. Assembling these two vehicles on a common production line can create complexity problems. This paper describes the design and development of a pre-assembled manual transmission clutch and flywheel modular assembly which reduces most of these problems. This assembly is used on the 1993 model year mini-van with a 2.5L four cylinder engine. This modular clutch system utilizes the same starter ring gear carrier (driveplate) used on automatic transmission equipped vehicles. It pilots into the crankshaft similar to the automatic transmission torque converter. It is balanced as an assembly which results in a lower system imbalance. A significant system piece cost saving, in comparison with today's competitive market, was achieved.
Technical Paper

Permeation of Gasoline-Alcohol Fuel Blends Through High-Density Polyethylene Fuel Tanks with Different Barrier Technologies

1992-02-01
920164
The automobile industry has been using high-density polyethylene (HDPE) as a material to fabricate fuel tanks. Because untreated HDPE is permeable to the primary constituents of gasoline, these fuel tanks are now being produced with various barrier technologies that significantly reduce this permeation rate. Four currently available barrier technologies are fluorination, sulfonation, coextrusion, and the laminar barrier technology. These technologies have successfully proven to decrease the permeation rate of pure gasoline. However, it is suspected that their effectiveness may be reduced when alcohols are introduced into the fuel blend. In this work, we determine the permeation rates of gasoline-alcohol fuel blends through HDPE by conducting tests on 22-gallon HDPE fuel tanks and on small HDPE bottles fabricated with and without these barrier technologies. The goal of this study is to provide a comprehensive evaluation of these four barrier technologies.
Technical Paper

Bonding Processes in Automotive Manufacture

1973-02-01
730136
Five bonding processes used in the automotive industry, ranging from structural adhesive to nonstructural and filler, are discussed in this paper. Surface preparation, including use of primers; nature, application, and curing of adhesive; secondary processes; in-line testing and destructive test methods; and repair processes are covered. The integral bonding of disc pad shoe assemblies is detailed. Vinyl plastisol adhesives are used for bonding assemblies. Windshield and backlight bonding is a semistructural adhesive application. Contact bonding cements bond exterior vinyl roof covering to roof panels. A vinyl plastisol sealer replaces solder on the joint between the roof and rear quarter panel.
Technical Paper

A New Method of Predicting the Formability of Materials

1972-02-01
720019
The paper presents a new method, based on standard laboratory cup tests, for predicting the formability of materials; in the example provided, the forming potentials of four new materials are shown. The properties of stretchability and drawability, which are the principal factors defining a material's forming limits, may be assessed using the Olsen spherical cup test and the Swift flat-bottomed cup test. In the shape analysis procedure described, the minimum amount of deformation needed to fix a desired shape is determined. Then necessary adjustments to tooling for optimum sheet metal usage are made based on calculations from a new type of chart showing stretch forming ratio and draw forming ratio, providing a comparison of the formabilities of a number of materials.
Technical Paper

Laboratory Test Device for the Optimization of Seat Belt System Component Design and Installation Geometry

1986-02-24
860056
A laboratory test fixture was designed and built to simulate seat belt assembly installations. The anchor positions of the retractor and pillar loop, and the engaged or free-hanging position of the latchplate can be varied to either simulate a vehicle's seat belt system geometry, or to optimize a proposed geometry. The required retraction forces for a simulated geometry are determined by replacing the retractor action with a motorized load transducer that measures the force required to stow the latchplate. The pillar loop, webbing, latchplate, and their relative positions can be varied until the minimum retraction force that successfully stores the latchplate is determined. The geometry of such a condition can then be applied to future designs of seat belt assembly components and their anchor positions.
Technical Paper

Optimizing Press Performance for Difficult Automotive Stampings

1986-02-01
860440
A method has been employed in the stamping facility to reduce scrap by correlating observations from the press shop with laboratory test results. This paper illustrates the successful use of this method for reducing formability failures. Correlation of observed coating behavior with laboratory adherence tests is also discussed.
Technical Paper

The VIN in Industry and Its International Application

1976-02-01
760234
There is a major problem in maintaining the records of the more than 275 million vehicles presently registered throughout the world. Monitoring the life of a given vehicle from its fabrication to its destruction can best be accomplished by the inner facing of major computer programs and a uniform system for vehicle identification. The Vehicle Identification Number (VIN) is the legal identification of the vehicle. Every manufacturer has the responsibility of assigning a unique VIN to each vehicle, in compliance with numerous procedures, standards and laws. The VIN is attached to the vehicle, stamped and embossed on components, and printed on tamper resistant labels. It is printed on hundreds of documents and maintained in numerous files.
Technical Paper

Application of Strain Analysis to Sheet Metal Forming Problems in the Press Shop

1968-02-01
680093
Strain analysis of stampings is explained. The system is based on the strain distributions obtained from 0.2 in. inter-locking circle grid patterns etched on blanks. The strain distributions are related to a developed formability limit curve and the mechanical properties of the gridded blank. The evaluation of the graphic relation of the strains to the formability limit enables the press shop to determine what factors should be changed to produce stampings with less scrap and lower cost.
Technical Paper

Stiffness Simulation Techniques and Test Correlations in Automotive Interior Cockpit Systems (IP, Door Trim and Floor Console Assembly)

2014-04-01
2014-01-1025
An automotive cockpit module is a complex assembly, which consists of components and sub-systems. The critical systems in the cockpit module are the instrument panel (IP), the floor console, and door trim assemblies, which consist of many plastic trims. Stiffness is one of the most important parameters for the plastic trims' design, and it should be optimum to meet all the three functional requirements of safety, vibration and durability. This paper presents how the CAE application and various other techniques are used efficiently to predict the stiffness, and the strength of automotive cockpit systems, which will reduce the product development cycle time and cost. The implicit solver is used for the most of the stiffness analysis, and the explicit techniques are used in highly non-linear situations. This paper also shows the correlations of the CAE results and the physical test results, which will give more confidence in product design and reduce the cost of prototype testing.
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