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Technical Paper

An Analytical Load Distribution Solution for Bearings

2012-04-16
2012-01-0756
An analytical load distribution solution for calculation of the loads exerted by the rolling elements on the outer raceway in cylindrical roller bearings under radial loading is proposed in this paper. The loads exerted by the rolling elements are obtained based on an assumption that the profile of the maximum contact pressures of rolling elements resemble the profile of the contact pressure of the corresponding lumped cylinder. Based on this assumption, an analytical load distribution solution which gives the loads exerted by the rolling elements on the outer raceway is derived based on the non-conforming contact solution of Hertz and the conforming contact solution of Persson. These loads can be calculated from the analytical solution with the total applied load and the normalized contact pressure profile of the corresponding lumped cylinder. Two-dimensional finite element analysis was conducted to validate the proposed analytical solutions.
Technical Paper

A Mesoscopic-Stress Based Fatigue Limit Theory - A Revised Dang Van's Model

2014-04-01
2014-01-0902
Dang Van (Dang Van et al., 1982 and Dang Van, 1993) states that for an infinite lifetime (near fatigue limit), crack nucleation in slip bands may occur at the most unfavorable oriented grains, which are subject to plastic deformation even if the macroscopic stress is elastic. Since the residual stresses in these plastically deformed grains are induced by the restraining effect of the adjacent grains, it is assumed that the residual stresses are stabilized at a mesoscopic level. These stresses are currently approximated by the macroscopic hydrostatic stress defined by the normal stresses to the faces of an octahedral element oriented with the faces symmetric to the principal axis; mathematically they are equal to each other and they are the average of the principal stresses.
Journal Article

Estimation of One-Sided Lower Tolerance Limits for a Weibull Distribution Using the Monte Carlo Pivotal Simulation Technique

2013-04-08
2013-01-0329
This paper introduces a methodology to calculate confidence bounds for a normal and Weibull distribution using Monte Carlo pivotal statistics. As an example, a ready-to-use lookup table to calculate one-sided lower confidence bounds is established and demonstrated for normal and Weibull distributions. The concept of one-sided lower tolerance limits for a normal distribution was first introduced by G. J. Lieberman in 1958 (later modified by Link in 1985 and Wei in 2012), and has been widely used in the automotive industry because of the easy-to-use lookup tables. Monte Carlo simulation methods presented here are more accurate as they eliminate assumptions and approximations inherent in existing approaches by using random experiments. This developed methodology can be used to generate confidence bounds for any parametric distribution. The ready-to-use table for the one-sided lower tolerance limits for a Weibull distribution is presented.
Journal Article

Random Vibration Testing Development for Engine Mounted Products Considering Customer Usage

2013-04-08
2013-01-1007
In this paper, the development of random vibration testing schedules for durability design verification of engine mounted products is presented, based on the equivalent fatigue damage concept and the 95th-percentile customer engine usage data for 150,000 miles. Development of the 95th-percentile customer usage profile is first discussed. Following that, the field engine excitation and engine duty cycle definition is introduced. By using a simplified transfer function of a single degree-of-freedom (SDOF) system subjected to a base excitation, the response acceleration and stress PSDs are related to the input excitation in PSD, which is the equivalent fatigue damage concept. Also, the narrow-band fatigue damage spectrum (FDS) is calculated in terms of the input excitation PSD based on the Miner linear damage rule, the Rayleigh statistical distribution for stress amplitude, a material's S-N curve, and the Miles approximate solution.
Journal Article

Fatigue Life Prediction of an Automobile Cradle Mount

2013-04-08
2013-01-1009
Elastomers have large reversible elastic deformation, good damping and high energy absorption capabilities. Due to these characteristics along with low cost of manufacturing, elastomeric components are widely used in many industries and applications, including in automobiles. These components are typically subjected to complex multiaxial and variable amplitude cyclic loads during their service life. Therefore, fatigue failure and life prediction are important issues in the design and analyses of these components. Availability of an effective CAE technique to evaluate fatigue damage and to predict fatigue life under complex loading conditions is a valuable tool for such analysis. This paper discusses a general CAE analytical technique for durability analysis and life prediction of elastomeric components. The methodology is then illustrated and verified by using experimental fatigue test results from an automobile cradle mount.
Journal Article

Assessing Dirlik's Fatigue Damage Estimation Method for Automotive Applications

2012-04-16
2012-01-0757
Fatigue analysis in the time domain using the rainflow cycle counting algorithm is considered the most accurate method for estimating damage. Dirlik's method has been found to be very accurate for damage estimation in the frequency domain. Previous studies have demonstrated the usefulness of Dirlik's method for ocean engineering and wind turbines but few have shown how well Dirlik performs in automotive applications. This study compares Dirlik's method with the rainflow cycle counting and with other frequency domain methods. The study analyzes measured data for an automotive component subjected to five test track load conditions. In addition, fourteen of Dirlik's original spectra and seven additional spectra which combine sine and random spectra are studied. It was found that Dirlik's method predicts more damage than the rainflow cycle counting method when applied to the original data used in creating the method.
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