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Technical Paper

An Application of Ant Colony Optimization to Energy Efficient Routing for Electric Vehicles

2013-04-08
2013-01-0337
With the increased market share of electric vehicles, the demand for energy-efficient routing algorithms specifically optimized for electric vehicles has increased. Traditional routing algorithms are focused on optimizing the shortest distance or the shortest time in finding a path from point A to point B. These traditional methods have been working well for fossil fueled vehicles. Electric vehicles, on the other hand, require different route optimization techniques. Negative edge costs, battery power limits, battery capacity limits, and vehicle parameters that are only available at query time, make the task of electric vehicle routing a challenging problem. In this paper, we present an ant colony based, energy-efficient routing algorithm that is optimized and designed for electric vehicles. Simulation results show improvements in the energy consumption of electric vehicles when applied to a start-to-destination routing problem.
Technical Paper

Charge Capacity Versus Charge Time in CC-CV and Pulse Charging of Li-Ion Batteries

2013-04-08
2013-01-1546
Due to their high energy density and low self-discharge rates, lithium-ion batteries are becoming the favored solution for portable electronic devices and electric vehicles. Lithium-Ion batteries require special charging methods that must conform to the battery cells' power limits. Many different charging methods are currently used, some of these methods yield shorter charging times while others yield more charge capacity. This paper compares the constant-current constant-voltage charging method against the time pulsed charging method. Charge capacity, charge time, and cell temperature variations are contrasted. The results allow designers to choose between these two methods and select their parameters to meet the charging needs of various applications.
Technical Paper

Battery Development for Stop-Start Application in Brazilian Market

2013-04-08
2013-01-1526
There is a growing worldwide concern regarding the environmental aspects related to the performance of a corporation and its products, whether by consumer demand or government requirements. The constant pressure for innovations and improvements related to sustainable development are current issues in everyday life of any institution that seeks to consolidate a position of acceptance and competitiveness in the global market. The automotive industry is one of the markets more involved and challenged to the demand of the environmental requirements in regards the limits of pollutant emissions and consequently fuel consumption. The European and North America vehicles already have more electrical content inside (either related to safety and comfort or even needs related to weather), which results in significantly higher consumption levels than traditionally observed in Brazil's application.
Technical Paper

Crash Test Pulses for Advanced Batteries

2012-04-16
2012-01-0548
This paper reports a 2010 study undertaken to determine generic acceleration pulses for testing and evaluating advanced batteries for application in electric passenger vehicles. These were based on characterizing vehicle acceleration time histories from standard laboratory vehicle crash tests. Crash tested passenger vehicles in the United States vehicle fleet of the model years 2005-2009 were used. The crash test data were gathered from the following test modes and sources: 1 Frontal rigid flat barrier test at 35 mph (NHTSA NCAP) 2 Frontal 40% offset deformable barrier test at 40 mph (IIHS) 3 Side moving deformable barrier test at 38 mph (NHTSA side NCAP) 4 Side oblique pole test at 20 mph (US FMVSS 214/NHTSA side NCAP) 5 Rear 70% offset moving deformable barrier impact at 50 mph (US FMVSS 301). The accelerometers used were from locations in the vehicle where deformation is minor or non-existent, so that the acceleration represents the “rigid-body” motion of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Energy Efficient Routing for Electric Vehicles using Particle Swarm Optimization

2014-04-01
2014-01-1815
Growing concerns about the environment, energy dependency, and unstable fuel prices have increased the market share of electric vehicles. This has led to an increased demand for energy efficient routing algorithms that are optimized for electric vehicles. Traditional routing algorithms are focused on finding the shortest distance or the least time route between two points. These approaches have been working well for fossil fueled vehicles. Electric vehicles, on the other hand, require different route optimization techniques. Negative edge costs, battery power and capacity limits, as well as vehicle parameters that are only available at query time, make the task of electric vehicle routing a challenging problem. In this paper, we present a simulated solution to the energy efficient routing for electric vehicles using Particle Swarm Optimization. Simulation results show improvements in the energy consumption of the electric vehicle when applied to a start-to-destination routing problem.
Journal Article

Optimizing Electric Vehicle Battery Life through Battery Thermal Management

2011-04-12
2011-01-1370
In order to define and to optimize a thermal management system for a high voltage vehicular battery, it is essential to understand the environmental factors acting on the battery and their influence on battery life. This paper defines a calendar life aging model for a battery, and applies real world environmental and operating conditions to that model. Charge and usage scenarios are combined with various cooling/heating approaches. This set of scenarios is then applied to the calendar life model, permitting optimization of battery thermal management strategies. Real-world battery life can therefore be maximized, and trade-offs for grid energy conversion efficiency and fuel economy/vehicle range can be determined.
Journal Article

Idealized Vehicle Crash Test Pulses for Advanced Batteries

2013-04-08
2013-01-0764
This paper reports a study undertaken by the Crash Safety Working Group (CSWG) of the United States Council for Automotive Research (USCAR) to determine generic acceleration pulses for testing and evaluating advanced batteries subjected to inertial loading for application in electric passenger vehicles. These pulses were based on characterizing vehicle acceleration time histories from standard laboratory vehicle crash tests. Crash tested passenger vehicles in the United States vehicle fleet of the model years 2005-2009 were used in this study. Crash test data, in terms of acceleration time histories, were collected from various crash modes conducted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) during their New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) and Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) evaluations, and the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS).
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