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Technical Paper

Digital Image Correlation System Application - Measuring Deformation and Load of Convertible Top Fabric

2010-04-12
2010-01-0954
Strain gages have been widely used for measuring strain or deformation. They are very reliable and accurate. However, for application on fabric material, strain gages have their limitations. In this paper, digital image correlation (DIC) is used to measure the deformation around the rear window on a convertible top. The test needed to be non destructive, the vehicle and convertible top could not be damaged. The deformation or strain measured on the fabric was used to estimate the force experienced at the interface between the glass and the fabric during an opening/closing application. A speckle pattern was created on the convertible fabric where deformation was to be measured with washable paint. The image of the measured area was first recorded. The convertible top was then latched down and the fabric was stretched. A second image was recorded again. Based on the two images, the deformation/strain between the two conditions was measured.
Technical Paper

Standardization Proposal for “Automotive-Grade AVRCP” with Respect to In-Car use of Bluetooth Devices.

2010-04-12
2010-01-0689
With regard to the use of portable consumer electronic devices in an automobile, Bluetooth has become a widely accepted method for short range wireless communication between a vehicle and a portable device. One Bluetooth connectivity protocol for this use case is Audio/Visual Remote Control Profile (AVRCP). Currently, AVRCP specifies mandatory commands for both target devices (cellular phones and audio players), as well as for control devices like an audio head unit. However, there is no requirement that control devices and target devices implement the same commands, nor is there a requirement that supported commands utilize information that would be useful in improving the driver's experience (i.e. metadata). This paper will describe the impact of this reality from the perspective of the automotive consumer, and propose an “automotive grade” AVRCP that could provide a more consistent consumer experience in the automotive market.
Technical Paper

Development of a Hybrid Powertrain Active Damping Control System via Sliding Mode Control Scheme

2013-04-08
2013-01-0486
This paper presents the design of a hybrid powertrain damping control algorithm using the sliding mode control (SMC) scheme. Motor control-based active damping control strategy is used to ensure smooth drive line operation and provide the driver with seamless driving experience. In the case of active damping control, motor and engine speeds are measured to monitor the driveline state, and corrective motor torques are generated to dampen out drive line vibrations. Drive lines are prone to internal vibration (engine, clutches and motors) as well as external disturbances caused by road inputs. As such, fast-response actuator-based damping control systems are desirable in a hybrid powertrain application, where a torque converter is generally not used. The most significant aspect of an active damping control algorithm is the error calculation, based on proper states information, and torque determination based on the adaptive control gain applied to the nonlinear system.
Technical Paper

An Application of Ant Colony Optimization to Energy Efficient Routing for Electric Vehicles

2013-04-08
2013-01-0337
With the increased market share of electric vehicles, the demand for energy-efficient routing algorithms specifically optimized for electric vehicles has increased. Traditional routing algorithms are focused on optimizing the shortest distance or the shortest time in finding a path from point A to point B. These traditional methods have been working well for fossil fueled vehicles. Electric vehicles, on the other hand, require different route optimization techniques. Negative edge costs, battery power limits, battery capacity limits, and vehicle parameters that are only available at query time, make the task of electric vehicle routing a challenging problem. In this paper, we present an ant colony based, energy-efficient routing algorithm that is optimized and designed for electric vehicles. Simulation results show improvements in the energy consumption of electric vehicles when applied to a start-to-destination routing problem.
Technical Paper

Impact of Functional Safety on EMC: ISO 26262

2013-04-08
2013-01-0178
The complexity of both hardware and software has increased significantly in automotive over the past decade. This is apparent even in the compact passenger car market segment where the presence of electronic control units (ECU) has nearly tripled. In today's luxury vehicles, software can reach 100 million lines of code and are only projected to increase. Without preventive measures, the risk of safety-related system malfunction becomes unacceptably too high. The functional safety standard ISO 26262, released as first edition in 2011, provides crucial safety-related requirements for passenger vehicles. Although the standard defines the proper development for safety-related systems to ensure the avoidance of a hazard, it's implication for electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) is not clearly defined. This paper outlines the impact of ISO 26262 for EMC related issues, and discusses the standard's implications for EMC requirements on the present EMC practices for production vehicles.
Technical Paper

Development of an Analytical Modeling Method and Testing Procedures to Aid in the Design of Cardan Joints for Front Steerable Beam Axles

2013-04-08
2013-01-0819
The Cardan joint of a steerable beam front axle is a complicated mechanical component. It is subjected to drive torque, speed fluctuations, and joint articulation due to powertrain inputs, steering, and suspension kinematics. This combination of high torque and speed fluctuations of the Cardan joint, due to high input drive torque and/or high steer angle maneuvers, can result in premature joint wear. Initially, some observations of premature wear were not well understood based on the existing laboratory and road test data. The present work summarizes a coordinated program of computer modeling, vehicle Rough Road data acquisition, and physical testing used to predict the joint dynamics and to develop advanced testing procedures. Results indicate analytical modeling can predict forces resulting from Cardan joint dynamics for high torque/high turn angle maneuvers, as represented by time history traces recorded in rough road data acquisition.
Technical Paper

A New Method of d'Alembert's Principle Finite Element Based Fatigue Calculation with Input of Loads and Accelerations

2013-04-08
2013-01-1003
The common practice in finite element based fatigue calculation with multiple channels of road load is to perform a set of unit load static stress analysis and conduct stress time history construction later during fatigue calculation. The main advantage of this so-called quasi-static finite element based fatigue calculation is to avoid time-consuming dynamic stress analysis and also reduce static stress analysis from millions of real load cases to a few dozens unit-load cases. The main disadvantage of this quasi-static finite element based fatigue calculation is the absence of vibration-induced stresses in stress time history construction and fatigue analysis. A decade ago, a modal transient finite element based fatigue calculation was proposed to introduce vibration-induced stresses into finite element based fatigue calculation. The idea is to add vibration-induced modal stresses to load-induced instant stresses in stress time history construction and fatigue calculation.
Technical Paper

Austempering Process for Carburized Low Alloy Steels

2013-04-08
2013-01-0949
There is a continual need to apply heat treatment processes in innovative ways to optimize material performance. One such application studied in this research is carburizing followed by austempering of low carbon alloy steels, AISI 8620, AISI 8822 and AISI 4320, to produce components with high strength and toughness. This heat treatment process was applied in two steps; first, carburization of the surface of the parts, second, the samples were quenched from austenitic temperature at a rate fast enough to avoid the formation of ferrite or pearlite and then held at a temperature just above the martensite starting temperature to partially or fully form bainite. Any austenite which was not transformed during austempering, upon further cooling formed martensite or was present as retained austenite.
Technical Paper

Studies on AC Suction Line Pressure Drop using 1D Modeling

2013-04-08
2013-01-1503
In an automotive air-conditioning (AC) system, the amount of work done by the compressor is also influenced by the suction line which meters the refrigerant flow. Optimizing the AC suction line routing has thus become an important challenge and the plumbing designers are required to come up with innovative packaging solutions. These solutions are required in the early design stages when prototypes are not yet appropriate. In such scenarios, one-dimensional (1D) simulations shall be employed to compute the pressure drop for faster and economical solution. In this paper, an approach of creating a modeling tool for suction line pressure drop prediction is discussed. Using DFSS approach L12 design iterations are created and simulations are carried out using 1D AMESim software. Prototypes are manufactured and tested on HVAC bench calorimeter. AC suction line pressure drop predicted using the 1D modeling co-related well with the test data and the error is less than 5%.
Technical Paper

Charge Capacity Versus Charge Time in CC-CV and Pulse Charging of Li-Ion Batteries

2013-04-08
2013-01-1546
Due to their high energy density and low self-discharge rates, lithium-ion batteries are becoming the favored solution for portable electronic devices and electric vehicles. Lithium-Ion batteries require special charging methods that must conform to the battery cells' power limits. Many different charging methods are currently used, some of these methods yield shorter charging times while others yield more charge capacity. This paper compares the constant-current constant-voltage charging method against the time pulsed charging method. Charge capacity, charge time, and cell temperature variations are contrasted. The results allow designers to choose between these two methods and select their parameters to meet the charging needs of various applications.
Technical Paper

Battery Development for Stop-Start Application in Brazilian Market

2013-04-08
2013-01-1526
There is a growing worldwide concern regarding the environmental aspects related to the performance of a corporation and its products, whether by consumer demand or government requirements. The constant pressure for innovations and improvements related to sustainable development are current issues in everyday life of any institution that seeks to consolidate a position of acceptance and competitiveness in the global market. The automotive industry is one of the markets more involved and challenged to the demand of the environmental requirements in regards the limits of pollutant emissions and consequently fuel consumption. The European and North America vehicles already have more electrical content inside (either related to safety and comfort or even needs related to weather), which results in significantly higher consumption levels than traditionally observed in Brazil's application.
Technical Paper

CAE Simulation of Door Sag/Set Using Subsystem Level Approach

2013-04-08
2013-01-1199
The performance of door assembly is very significant for the vehicle design and door sag/set is one of the important attribute for design of door assembly. This paper provides an overview of conventional approach for door sag/set study based on door-hinge-BIW assembly (system level approach) and its limitation over new approach based on subassembly (subsystem level approach). The door sag/set simulation at system level is the most common approach adopted across auto industry. This approach evaluates only structural adequacy of door assembly system for sag load. To find key contributor for door sagging is always been time consuming task with conventional approach thus there is a delay in providing design enablers to meet the design target. New approach of door sag/set at “subsystem level” evaluates the structural stiffness contribution of individual subsystem. It support for setting up the target at subsystem level, which integrate and regulate the system level performance.
Technical Paper

Virtual Road Load Data Acquisition using Full Vehicle Simulations

2013-04-08
2013-01-1189
The concept of full vehicle simulation has been embraced by the automobile industry as it is an indispensable tool for analyzing vehicles. Vehicle loads traditionally obtained by road load data acquisition such as wheel forces are typically not invariant as they depend on the vehicle that was used for the measurement. Alternatively, virtual road load data acquisition approach has been adopted in industry to derive invariant loads. Analytical loads prior to building hardware prototypes can shorten development cycles and save costs associated with data acquisition. The approach described herein estimate realistic component load histories with sufficient accuracy and reasonable effort using full vehicle simulations. In this study, a multi-body dynamic model of the vehicle was built and simulated over digitized road using ADAMS software, and output responses were correlated to a physical vehicle that was driven on the same road.
Technical Paper

Smart Meshing Template Process with CAD/CAE Link

2013-04-08
2013-01-0637
The benefits of utilizing virtual engineering include not only shortened product development time and reduced reliance on expensive physical testing, but also the opportunities for greater standardization to support higher product quality. This paper describes a project for building a smart meshing template with a CAD/CAE link. The objective of the project is to optimize the utilization of CAD software and CAE preprocessing software capabilities. The deliverable of the project is a cylinder head mesh template which meets all the cylinder head durability simulation meshing requirements, and which links to CAD/CAE software. Special surface areas identified are built into the cylinder head CAD model design. By using one of the features in CAD software, all the special surfaces can be automatically updated throughout the design process.
Technical Paper

Communication Requirements for Plug-In Electric Vehicles

2011-04-12
2011-01-0866
This paper is the second in the series of documents designed to record the progress of a series of SAE documents - SAE J2836™, J2847, J2931, & J2953 - within the Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Communication Task Force. This follows the initial paper number 2010-01-0837, and continues with the test and modeling of the various PLC types for utility programs described in J2836/1™ & J2847/1. This also extends the communication to an off-board charger, described in J2836/2™ & J2847/2 and includes reverse energy flow described in J2836/3™ and J2847/3. The initial versions of J2836/1™ and J2847/1 were published early 2010. J2847/1 has now been re-opened to include updates from comments from the National Institute of Standards Technology (NIST) Smart Grid Interoperability Panel (SGIP), Smart Grid Architectural Committee (SGAC) and Cyber Security Working Group committee (SCWG).
Technical Paper

Crash Test Pulses for Advanced Batteries

2012-04-16
2012-01-0548
This paper reports a 2010 study undertaken to determine generic acceleration pulses for testing and evaluating advanced batteries for application in electric passenger vehicles. These were based on characterizing vehicle acceleration time histories from standard laboratory vehicle crash tests. Crash tested passenger vehicles in the United States vehicle fleet of the model years 2005-2009 were used. The crash test data were gathered from the following test modes and sources: 1 Frontal rigid flat barrier test at 35 mph (NHTSA NCAP) 2 Frontal 40% offset deformable barrier test at 40 mph (IIHS) 3 Side moving deformable barrier test at 38 mph (NHTSA side NCAP) 4 Side oblique pole test at 20 mph (US FMVSS 214/NHTSA side NCAP) 5 Rear 70% offset moving deformable barrier impact at 50 mph (US FMVSS 301). The accelerometers used were from locations in the vehicle where deformation is minor or non-existent, so that the acceleration represents the “rigid-body” motion of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Energy Efficient Routing for Electric Vehicles using Particle Swarm Optimization

2014-04-01
2014-01-1815
Growing concerns about the environment, energy dependency, and unstable fuel prices have increased the market share of electric vehicles. This has led to an increased demand for energy efficient routing algorithms that are optimized for electric vehicles. Traditional routing algorithms are focused on finding the shortest distance or the least time route between two points. These approaches have been working well for fossil fueled vehicles. Electric vehicles, on the other hand, require different route optimization techniques. Negative edge costs, battery power and capacity limits, as well as vehicle parameters that are only available at query time, make the task of electric vehicle routing a challenging problem. In this paper, we present a simulated solution to the energy efficient routing for electric vehicles using Particle Swarm Optimization. Simulation results show improvements in the energy consumption of the electric vehicle when applied to a start-to-destination routing problem.
Journal Article

Optimizing Electric Vehicle Battery Life through Battery Thermal Management

2011-04-12
2011-01-1370
In order to define and to optimize a thermal management system for a high voltage vehicular battery, it is essential to understand the environmental factors acting on the battery and their influence on battery life. This paper defines a calendar life aging model for a battery, and applies real world environmental and operating conditions to that model. Charge and usage scenarios are combined with various cooling/heating approaches. This set of scenarios is then applied to the calendar life model, permitting optimization of battery thermal management strategies. Real-world battery life can therefore be maximized, and trade-offs for grid energy conversion efficiency and fuel economy/vehicle range can be determined.
Journal Article

Idealized Vehicle Crash Test Pulses for Advanced Batteries

2013-04-08
2013-01-0764
This paper reports a study undertaken by the Crash Safety Working Group (CSWG) of the United States Council for Automotive Research (USCAR) to determine generic acceleration pulses for testing and evaluating advanced batteries subjected to inertial loading for application in electric passenger vehicles. These pulses were based on characterizing vehicle acceleration time histories from standard laboratory vehicle crash tests. Crash tested passenger vehicles in the United States vehicle fleet of the model years 2005-2009 were used in this study. Crash test data, in terms of acceleration time histories, were collected from various crash modes conducted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) during their New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) and Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) evaluations, and the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS).
Journal Article

Real Time Virtual Temperature Sensor for Transmission Clutches

2011-04-12
2011-01-1230
Many experiments have demonstrated that clutch overheating is a major cause of clutch deterioration. Clutch friction material deterioration not only leads to clutch failure, but also causes poor shift quality. Unfortunately, it is not practical to monitor each individual clutch temperature in a production vehicle due to high costs or technical challenges. This paper introduces a proposal for a virtual clutch temperature sensor to monitor the real time clutch temperature changes in Chrysler transmissions with PWM solenoid based control systems. Both vehicle and laboratory dynamometer (dyno) tests demonstrate that the model results match very closely with the thermocouple temperature measurements under many different driving conditions. The real time virtual temperature sensor provides a tool for clutch surface overheat protection and for design improvement and enhancement to shift quality.
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