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Technical Paper

Fatigue Based Damage Analysis with Correlation to Customer Duty Cycle Using Design Reliability and Confidence

2010-04-12
2010-01-0200
This paper will define the process for correlating fatigue based customer duty cycle with laboratory bench test data. The process includes the development of the Median and Design Load-Life curve equations. The Median Load-Life curve is a best fit linear regression; whereas, the Design Load-Life curve incorporates component specific reliability and confidence targets. To account for the statistical distribution of fatigue life, due to sample size, the one-side lower-bound tolerance limit method ( Lieberman, 1958 ) will be utilized. This paper will include a correlation between the predicted design fatigue life and the actual product life.
Technical Paper

Monotonic and Fatigue Behavior of Magnesium Extrusion Alloy AM30: An International Benchmark Test in the “Magnesium Front End Research and Development Project”

2010-04-12
2010-01-0407
Magnesium alloys are the lightest structural metal and recently attention has been focused on using them for structural automotive components. Fatigue and durability studies are essential in the design of these load-bearing components. In 2006, a large multinational research effort, Magnesium Front End Research & Development (MFERD), was launched involving researchers from Canada, China and the US. The MFERD project is intended to investigate the applicability of Mg alloys as lightweight materials for automotive body structures. The participating institutions in fatigue and durability studies were the University of Waterloo and Ryerson University from Canada, Institute of Metal Research (IMR) from China, and Mississippi State University, Westmorland, General Motors Corporation, Ford Motor Company and Chrysler Group LLC from the United States.
Technical Paper

Alternative to Hydrogen/Helium as Flame Ionization Detector Fuel

2013-04-08
2013-01-1045
Flame ionization detector (FID) analyzers used in emission testing to measure total hydrocarbon emissions have been operating for the last forty years on a fuel mixture of 40% H₂ and 60% helium. These mixtures were selected based on research studies reported in the literature indicating that this particular mixed fuel combination gave the best sensitivity and relative response of the different hydrocarbons present in vehicle exhaust with respect to propane, the calibration gas. During the past few years, it was announced that there is a worldwide shortage of helium which triggered the automotive industry to look for alternatives for helium to be used in FID fuels. Helium which is produced as a byproduct from natural gas fields is non-renewable, expensive, and extremely rare on the earth. Current supply cannot keep up with demand. There are only few natural gas fields producing helium and unless new natural gas fields are found, current helium amounts will continue to dwindle.
Technical Paper

Developing the AC17 Efficiency Test for Mobile Air Conditioners

2013-04-08
2013-01-0569
Chrysler, Ford, General Motors, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the California Air Resources Board (CARB) have collaborated over the past two years to develop an efficiency test for mobile air conditioner (MAC) systems. Because the effect of efficiency differences between different MAC systems and different technologies is relatively small compared to overall vehicle fuel consumption, quantifying these differences has been challenging. The objective of this program was to develop a single dynamic test procedure that is capable of discerning small efficiency differences, and is generally representative of mobile air conditioner usage in the United States. The test was designed to be conducted in existing test facilities, using existing equipment, and within a sufficiently short time to fit standard test facility scheduling. Representative ambient climate conditions for the U.S. were chosen, as well as other test parameters, and a solar load was included.
Technical Paper

Impact of Functional Safety on EMC: ISO 26262

2013-04-08
2013-01-0178
The complexity of both hardware and software has increased significantly in automotive over the past decade. This is apparent even in the compact passenger car market segment where the presence of electronic control units (ECU) has nearly tripled. In today's luxury vehicles, software can reach 100 million lines of code and are only projected to increase. Without preventive measures, the risk of safety-related system malfunction becomes unacceptably too high. The functional safety standard ISO 26262, released as first edition in 2011, provides crucial safety-related requirements for passenger vehicles. Although the standard defines the proper development for safety-related systems to ensure the avoidance of a hazard, it's implication for electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) is not clearly defined. This paper outlines the impact of ISO 26262 for EMC related issues, and discusses the standard's implications for EMC requirements on the present EMC practices for production vehicles.
Technical Paper

Development of an Analytical Modeling Method and Testing Procedures to Aid in the Design of Cardan Joints for Front Steerable Beam Axles

2013-04-08
2013-01-0819
The Cardan joint of a steerable beam front axle is a complicated mechanical component. It is subjected to drive torque, speed fluctuations, and joint articulation due to powertrain inputs, steering, and suspension kinematics. This combination of high torque and speed fluctuations of the Cardan joint, due to high input drive torque and/or high steer angle maneuvers, can result in premature joint wear. Initially, some observations of premature wear were not well understood based on the existing laboratory and road test data. The present work summarizes a coordinated program of computer modeling, vehicle Rough Road data acquisition, and physical testing used to predict the joint dynamics and to develop advanced testing procedures. Results indicate analytical modeling can predict forces resulting from Cardan joint dynamics for high torque/high turn angle maneuvers, as represented by time history traces recorded in rough road data acquisition.
Technical Paper

A New Method of d'Alembert's Principle Finite Element Based Fatigue Calculation with Input of Loads and Accelerations

2013-04-08
2013-01-1003
The common practice in finite element based fatigue calculation with multiple channels of road load is to perform a set of unit load static stress analysis and conduct stress time history construction later during fatigue calculation. The main advantage of this so-called quasi-static finite element based fatigue calculation is to avoid time-consuming dynamic stress analysis and also reduce static stress analysis from millions of real load cases to a few dozens unit-load cases. The main disadvantage of this quasi-static finite element based fatigue calculation is the absence of vibration-induced stresses in stress time history construction and fatigue analysis. A decade ago, a modal transient finite element based fatigue calculation was proposed to introduce vibration-induced stresses into finite element based fatigue calculation. The idea is to add vibration-induced modal stresses to load-induced instant stresses in stress time history construction and fatigue calculation.
Technical Paper

Die Wear Estimation in Automotive Sheet Metal Stamping

2013-04-08
2013-01-1171
Automotive industry's migration to usage of HSS (High Strength Steels), AHSS (Advance High Strength Steels) from conventional steels for their low weight and high strength properties has had its significant effects on die wear. The unpredictability of die wear can pose manufacturing issues, for example, undesirable tool life. Hence die wear has been gaining immense attention and lot of research work has been carried out to provide a die wear prediction method. This paper focuses on the method of estimating wear mathematically based on the mechanics behind die wear phenomenon. This is also an effort to study wear on die for an automotive component in critical areas for which the amount of wear are calculated. This study is further to be correlated with production data from die maintenance record, explicit measurement of die wear, etc., to validate the estimation.
Technical Paper

Studies on AC Suction Line Pressure Drop using 1D Modeling

2013-04-08
2013-01-1503
In an automotive air-conditioning (AC) system, the amount of work done by the compressor is also influenced by the suction line which meters the refrigerant flow. Optimizing the AC suction line routing has thus become an important challenge and the plumbing designers are required to come up with innovative packaging solutions. These solutions are required in the early design stages when prototypes are not yet appropriate. In such scenarios, one-dimensional (1D) simulations shall be employed to compute the pressure drop for faster and economical solution. In this paper, an approach of creating a modeling tool for suction line pressure drop prediction is discussed. Using DFSS approach L12 design iterations are created and simulations are carried out using 1D AMESim software. Prototypes are manufactured and tested on HVAC bench calorimeter. AC suction line pressure drop predicted using the 1D modeling co-related well with the test data and the error is less than 5%.
Technical Paper

1D Modeling of AC Refrigerant Loop and Vehicle Cabin to Simulate Soak and Cool Down

2013-04-08
2013-01-1502
Simulation has become an integral part in the design and development of an automotive air-conditioning (AC) system. Simulation is widely used for both system level and component level analyses and are carried out with one-dimensional (1D) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tools. This paper describes a 1D approach to model refrigerant loop and vehicle cabin to simulate the soak and cool down analysis. Soak and cool down is one of the important tests that is carried out to test the performance of a heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) system of a vehicle. Ability to simulate this cool down cycle is thus very useful. 1D modeling is done for the two-phase flow through the refrigerant loop and air flow across the heat exchangers and cabin with the commercial software AMESim. The model is able to predict refrigerant pressure and temperature inside the loop at different points in the cycle.
Technical Paper

CAE Simulation of Door Sag/Set Using Subsystem Level Approach

2013-04-08
2013-01-1199
The performance of door assembly is very significant for the vehicle design and door sag/set is one of the important attribute for design of door assembly. This paper provides an overview of conventional approach for door sag/set study based on door-hinge-BIW assembly (system level approach) and its limitation over new approach based on subassembly (subsystem level approach). The door sag/set simulation at system level is the most common approach adopted across auto industry. This approach evaluates only structural adequacy of door assembly system for sag load. To find key contributor for door sagging is always been time consuming task with conventional approach thus there is a delay in providing design enablers to meet the design target. New approach of door sag/set at “subsystem level” evaluates the structural stiffness contribution of individual subsystem. It support for setting up the target at subsystem level, which integrate and regulate the system level performance.
Technical Paper

Virtual Road Load Data Acquisition using Full Vehicle Simulations

2013-04-08
2013-01-1189
The concept of full vehicle simulation has been embraced by the automobile industry as it is an indispensable tool for analyzing vehicles. Vehicle loads traditionally obtained by road load data acquisition such as wheel forces are typically not invariant as they depend on the vehicle that was used for the measurement. Alternatively, virtual road load data acquisition approach has been adopted in industry to derive invariant loads. Analytical loads prior to building hardware prototypes can shorten development cycles and save costs associated with data acquisition. The approach described herein estimate realistic component load histories with sufficient accuracy and reasonable effort using full vehicle simulations. In this study, a multi-body dynamic model of the vehicle was built and simulated over digitized road using ADAMS software, and output responses were correlated to a physical vehicle that was driven on the same road.
Technical Paper

Charge Motion Analysis to Guide Engine Port Development and Enhance Combustion Stability for High Cooled Exhaust Gas Recirculation

2013-04-08
2013-01-1313
CAE tools are increasingly important in the automotive design process. In part, CAE tools can be useful in reducing the number of physical prototypes required during a product development effort. CFD tools can assess and predict cylinder charge motion for proposed designs, thereby limiting the need for prototype work. Though detailed combustion simulation results could help guide product development, the time required for such simulations limits their usefulness in the context of a production program. However equally valuable information can be obtained from gas exchange analyses which require less computation time and are run only from Intake Valve opening (IVO) to spark timing. Chemical kinetics is not included in this type of analysis. Using this approach, large numbers of configurations can be evaluated in a short period of time. Every passing year automotive engineers are challenged to attain higher fuel economy targets.
Technical Paper

Smart Meshing Template Process with CAD/CAE Link

2013-04-08
2013-01-0637
The benefits of utilizing virtual engineering include not only shortened product development time and reduced reliance on expensive physical testing, but also the opportunities for greater standardization to support higher product quality. This paper describes a project for building a smart meshing template with a CAD/CAE link. The objective of the project is to optimize the utilization of CAD software and CAE preprocessing software capabilities. The deliverable of the project is a cylinder head mesh template which meets all the cylinder head durability simulation meshing requirements, and which links to CAD/CAE software. Special surface areas identified are built into the cylinder head CAD model design. By using one of the features in CAD software, all the special surfaces can be automatically updated throughout the design process.
Technical Paper

Communication Requirements for Plug-In Electric Vehicles

2011-04-12
2011-01-0866
This paper is the second in the series of documents designed to record the progress of a series of SAE documents - SAE J2836™, J2847, J2931, & J2953 - within the Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Communication Task Force. This follows the initial paper number 2010-01-0837, and continues with the test and modeling of the various PLC types for utility programs described in J2836/1™ & J2847/1. This also extends the communication to an off-board charger, described in J2836/2™ & J2847/2 and includes reverse energy flow described in J2836/3™ and J2847/3. The initial versions of J2836/1™ and J2847/1 were published early 2010. J2847/1 has now been re-opened to include updates from comments from the National Institute of Standards Technology (NIST) Smart Grid Interoperability Panel (SGIP), Smart Grid Architectural Committee (SGAC) and Cyber Security Working Group committee (SCWG).
Technical Paper

Development of a Standard Spin Loss Test Procedure for 4WD Transfer Cases

2012-04-16
2012-01-0306
As vehicle fuel economy continues to grow in importance, the ability to accurately measure the level of parasitic losses on all driveline components is required. A standardized comparison procedure enables manufacturers and suppliers to measure component losses consistently, in addition to offering a reliable process to assess enablers for efficiency improvements. This paper reviews the development of a comprehensive test procedure to measure transfer case speed-dependent parasitic losses at key speed, load, and environmental conditions. This procedure was validated for repeatability considering variations in soak time, temperature measurement positions on the transfer case, and test operating conditions. Additional assessments of spin loss at low ambient temperatures, and the effect of component break-in on spin loss were also conducted.
Technical Paper

Impact of Ethanol Fuels on Regulated Tailpipe Emissions

2012-04-16
2012-01-0872
Flexible fuel vehicle production has been steadily increasing in the US over the past fifteen years. Ethanol is considered a renewable fuel additive to gasoline which helps the US efforts in minimizing the dependency on foreign oil. As a result, it is becoming very hard to find pure gasoline which does not contain some ethanol content at the pump in the US. The fuel currently available at the pump contains close to 10% ethanol. The fuel and evaporative systems components and materials on newer flexible fuel vehicles are being designed to be tolerant of the 10% ethanol content. There is a strong desire from ethanol producers to increase the ethanol content up to a 20% level. This is still being debated by the Environmental Protection Agency and a final decision has not been made yet but will be announced by the upcoming Tier 3 Notice of Public Rule Making (NPRM) in December of 2011.
Technical Paper

A Technique to Predict Thermal Buckling in Automotive Body Panels by Coupling Heat Transfer and Structural Analysis

2014-04-01
2014-01-0943
This paper describes a comprehensive methodology for the simulation of vehicle body panel buckling in an electrophoretic coat (electro-coat or e-coat) and/or paint oven environment. The simulation couples computational heat transfer analysis and structural analysis. Heat transfer analysis is used to predict temperature distribution throughout a vehicle body in curing ovens. The vehicle body temperature profile from the heat transfer analysis is applied as an input for a structural analysis to predict buckling. This study is focused on the radiant section of the curing ovens. The radiant section of the oven has the largest temperature gradients within the body structure. This methodology couples a fully transient thermal analysis to simulate the structure through the electro-coat and paint curing environments with a structural, buckling analysis.
Technical Paper

Tonal Metrics in the Presence of Masking Noise and Correlation to Subjective Assessment

2014-04-01
2014-01-0892
As the demand for Sound Quality improvements in vehicles continues to grow, robust analysis methods must be established to clearly represent end-user perception. For vehicle sounds which are tonal by nature, such as transmission or axle whine, the common practice of many vehicle manufacturers and suppliers is to subjectively rate the performance of a given part for acceptance on a scale of one to ten. The polar opposite of this is to measure data and use the peak of the fundamental or harmonic orders as an objective assessment. Both of these quantifications are problematic in that the former is purely subjective and the latter does not account for the presence of masking noise which has a profound impact on a driver's assessment of such noises. This paper presents the methodology and results of a study in which tonal noises in the presence of various level of masking noise were presented to a group of jurors in a controlled environment.
Technical Paper

The New Powertrain Virtual Analysis Process in Engine Design and Development

2013-04-08
2013-01-1720
Due to new federal regulations and higher environmental awareness, the market demands for high fuel economy and low exhaust emission engines are increasing. At the same time customer demands for engine performance, NVH and reliability are also increasing. It is a challenge for engineers to design an engine to meet all requirements with less development time. Currently, the new engine development time has been trimmed in order to introduce more products to the market. Utilizing CAE technology and processes in an engine development cycle can enable engineers to satisfy all requirements in a timely and cost-effectively way. This paper describes a new Powertrain Virtual Analysis Process which has been successfully implemented into Chrysler PTCP (Powertrain Creation Process) and effectively utilized to shorten and improve the product development process. This new virtual analysis process guides the product development from concept through the production validation phases.
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