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Technical Paper

Noise Contribution Analysis at Suspension Interfaces Using Different Force Identification Techniques

Road-tire induced vibrations are in many vehicles determining the interior noise levels in (semi-) constant speed driving. The understanding of the noise contributions of different connections of the suspension systems to the vehicle is essential in improvement of the isolation capabilities of the suspension- and body-structure. To identify these noise contributions, both the forces acting at the suspension-to-body connections points and the vibro-acoustic transfers from the connection points to the interior microphones are required. In this paper different approaches to identify the forces are compared for their applicability to road noise analysis. First step for the force identification is the full vehicle operational measurement in which target responses (interior noise) and indicator responses (accelerations or other) are measured.
Technical Paper

Integrated Virtual Approach for Optimization of Vehicle Sensitivity to Brake Torque Variation

Brake judder is a brake induced vibration that a vehicle driver experiences in the steering wheel or floor panel at highway speeds during vehicle deceleration. The primary cause of this disturbance phenomenon is the brake torque variation (BTV). Virtual CAE tools from both kinematics and compliance standpoints have been applied in analyzing sensitivities of the vehicle systems to BTV. This paper presents a recently developed analytical approach that identifies parameters of steering and suspension systems for achieving optimal settings that desensitize the vehicle response to BTV. The analytical steps of this integrated approach started with creating a lumped mass noise-vibration-harshness (NVH) control model and a separate multi-body dynamics (MBD) suspension model. Then, both models were linked to run in a sequence through optimization software so the results from the MBD model were used as quasi-static inputs to the lumped mass NVH model.
Technical Paper

Developing Generic Load Cases by Defining Maximum Spindle Loads as a Function of Corner Weight & Tire Sidewall Height

Generic spindle loads are used in the upfront analysis for vehicle durability development. They represent different load case into the vehicle suspension system, such as potholes, cornering, and braking. The advantage of using these generic load cases is that they can be used upfront in the durability development process before hardware is available. The generic spindle loads are cascaded through the suspension system to generate component loads which can then be used for stress analysis. The paper describes a study that was done to determine the validity of current generic spindle loads by analyzing spindle data from multiple vehicles in the same class. The paper will explain the initial data analysis that was done, which was normalizing the spindle loads by weight. In addition, the paper will then go into further detail on describing a relationship between spindle loads and tire sidewall height, which reduced the load scatter.
Technical Paper

Further CFD Studies for Detailed Tires using Aerodynamics Simulation with Rolling Road Conditions

In an environment of tougher engineering constraints to deliver tomorrow's aerodynamic vehicles, evaluation of aerodynamics early in the design process using digital prototypes and simulation tools has become more crucial for meeting cost and performance targets. Engineering needs have increased the demands on simulation software to provide robust solutions under a range of operating conditions and with detailed geometry representation. In this paper the application of simulation tools to wheel design in on-road operating conditions is explored. Typically, wheel and wheel cover design is investigated using physical tests very late in the development process, and requires costly testing of many sets of wheels in an on-road testing environment (either coast-down testing or a moving-ground wind-tunnel).
Journal Article

Combined Variation Modeling of Structural and Tuning Components for Vehicle Performance Assessment

During the vehicle development process, dimensional variation simulation modeling has been applied extensively to estimate the effects of build variation on the final product. Traditional variation simulation methods analyze the tolerance inputs of structural components, but do not account for any compliance effects due to stiffness variation in tuning components, such as bushings, springs, isolators, etc., since both product and process variation are simulated based on rigid-body assumptions. Vehicle performance objectives such as ride and handling (R&H) often involve these compliance metrics. The objective of this paper is to present a method to concurrently simulate the tolerance from the structural parts as well as the variability of compliance from the tuning components through an integration package. The combination of these two highly influential effects will allow for a more accurate prediction and assessment of vehicle performance.
Journal Article

A Study of Parking Brake Cable Efficiency as Affected by Construction Type

This paper studies the effects of various types of parking brake cable construction on parking brake system efficiency. Testing was conducted on a variety of common cable constructions from several industry sources. Cable construction variables include different types of conduit and wire strand. Input travel, input force, output travel, and output force were carefully measured under controlled conditions. Force, travel and hence work efficiencies were calculated and analyzed to identify any differences that might exist under the defined test conditions. Conclusions were drawn that might provide direction for improving parking brake system designs that have performance issues caused by poor cable efficiency.
Journal Article

Transmission Torque Converter Arc Spring Damper Dynamic Characteristics for Driveline Torsional Vibration Evaluation

Torsional vibration dampers are used in automatic and manual transmissions to provide passenger comfort and reduce damage to transmission & driveline components from engine torsionals. This paper will introduce a systematic method to model a torque converter (TC) arc spring damper system using Simdrive software. Arc spring design parameters, dynamometer (dyno) setup, and complete powertrain/driveline system modeling and simulation are presented. Through arc spring dynamometer setup subsystem modeling, the static and dynamic stiffness and hysteresis under different engine loads and engine speeds can be obtained. The arc spring subsystem model can be embedded into a complete powertrain/driveline model from engine to wheels. Such a model can be used to perform the torsional analysis and get the torsional response at any location within the powertrain/driveline system. The new methodology enables evaluation of the TC damper design changes to meet the requirements.
Technical Paper

Calibrating an Adaptive Pivoting Vane Pump to Deliver a Stepped Pressure Profile

This paper presents a process for the selection of spring rate and pre-load for an adaptively controlled pivoting vane oil pump. The pivoting vane pump has two modes: high and low speed. A spring within the pump is installed to induce a torque that causes an adaptive displacement mechanism within the pump to move toward maximum oil chamber size. In low speed mode, two feedback regions are pressurized that produce torques that counter the spring generated torque. Together, both regions being pressurized by main oil gallery pressure tend to reduce pump displacement more at lower speeds than if only a single chamber is pressurized. At higher speeds, a solenoid switch turns off pressure to one of the feedback pressure chambers, thereby reducing feedback torque that counters spring torque. This enables higher pressure calibrations in this speed mode. In this paper, we identify a process for choosing the spring rate and pre-load that calibrates the adaptive displacement mechanism.