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Technical Paper

The Consequences of Average Curve Generation: Implications for Biomechanics Data

One method of understanding the general mechanical response of a complex system such as a vehicle, a human surrogate, a bridge, a boat, a plane, etc., is to subject it to an input, such as an impact, and obtain the response time-histories. The responses can be accelerations, velocities, strains, etc. In general, when experiments of this type are run the responses are contaminated by sample-to-sample variation, test-to-test variability, random noise, instrumentation noise, and noise from unknown sources. One common method of addressing the noise in the system to obtain the underlying response is to run multiple tests on different samples that represent the same system and add them together obtaining an average. This functionally reduces the random noise. However, if the fundamental response of each sample is not the same, then it is not altogether clear what the average represents. It may not capture the underlying physics.
Technical Paper

Noise Contribution Analysis at Suspension Interfaces Using Different Force Identification Techniques

Road-tire induced vibrations are in many vehicles determining the interior noise levels in (semi-) constant speed driving. The understanding of the noise contributions of different connections of the suspension systems to the vehicle is essential in improvement of the isolation capabilities of the suspension- and body-structure. To identify these noise contributions, both the forces acting at the suspension-to-body connections points and the vibro-acoustic transfers from the connection points to the interior microphones are required. In this paper different approaches to identify the forces are compared for their applicability to road noise analysis. First step for the force identification is the full vehicle operational measurement in which target responses (interior noise) and indicator responses (accelerations or other) are measured.
Technical Paper

Prediction of HVAC System Aero/Acoustic Noise Generation and Propagation using CFD

With the advent of quieter powertrain and improved cabin acoustic sealing, there is an increased focus on noise generated in the HVAC unit and climate control ducting system. With improved insulation from exterior noise sources such as wind & road noise, HVAC noise is more perceptible by the occupants and is a key quality indicator for new generation vehicles. This has increased the use of simulations tools to predict HVAC noise during the virtual development phase of new vehicle programs. With packaging space being premium under the instrument panel, changes to address noise issues are expensive and often impractical. The current methodology includes the best practices in simulation accumulated from prior aero acoustics validation studies on fans, ducts, flaps and plenum volume discharge. The paper details the acoustic noise generation and propagation in the near field downstream of an automotive HVAC unit in conjunction with ducting system.
Technical Paper

A Practical Procedure to Predict AIS Inlet Noise Using CAE Simulation Tools

The air induction system (AIS), which provides clean air to the engine for combustion, is very important for engine acoustics. A practical CAE procedure to predict AIS inlet noise is presented in this paper. GT-Power, a commercially available software program can be used to simulate the engine performance and predict air induction noise. The accuracy of GT-Power is dependent on many variables, such as: proper duct discretization size, proper number of flow splits to model the air box and the capturing of the correct resonator geometry for tuning frequency. Since GT-Power is based on a 1D assumption, several iterations need be performed to model the complex AIS components, such as, irregular shaped air box, resonator volume, porous ducts and perforated pipes. Because of this, the GT-Power AIS model needs to be correlated to test data using transmission loss data.
Technical Paper

Tonal Metrics in the Presence of Masking Noise and Correlation to Subjective Assessment

As the demand for Sound Quality improvements in vehicles continues to grow, robust analysis methods must be established to clearly represent end-user perception. For vehicle sounds which are tonal by nature, such as transmission or axle whine, the common practice of many vehicle manufacturers and suppliers is to subjectively rate the performance of a given part for acceptance on a scale of one to ten. The polar opposite of this is to measure data and use the peak of the fundamental or harmonic orders as an objective assessment. Both of these quantifications are problematic in that the former is purely subjective and the latter does not account for the presence of masking noise which has a profound impact on a driver's assessment of such noises. This paper presents the methodology and results of a study in which tonal noises in the presence of various level of masking noise were presented to a group of jurors in a controlled environment.
Journal Article

Modeling and Analysis of Powertrain NVH with Focus on Growl Noise

Superior NVH performance is a key focus in the development of new powertrains. In recent years, computer simulations have gained an increasing role in the design, development, and optimization of powertrain NVH at component and system levels. This paper presents the results of a study carried out on a 4-cylinder in-line spark-ignition engine with focus on growl noise. Growl is a low frequency noise (300-700 Hz) which is primarily perceived at moderate engine speeds (2000-3000 rpm) and light to moderate throttle tip-ins. For this purpose, a coupled and fully flexible multi-body dynamics model of the powertrain was developed. Structural components were reduced using component mode synthesis and used to determine dynamics loads at various engine speeds and loading conditions. A comparative NVH assessment of various crankshaft designs, engine configurations, and in- cylinder gas pressures was carried out.
Journal Article

Optimization of a Porous Ducted Air Induction System Using Taguchi's Parameter Design Method

Taguchi method is a technology to prevent quality problems at early stages of product development and product design. Parameter design method is an important part in Taguchi method which selects the best control factor level combination for the optimization of the robustness of product function against noise factors. The air induction system (AIS) provides clean air to the engine for combustion. The noise radiated from the inlet of the AIS can be of significant importance in reducing vehicle interior noise and tuning the interior sound quality. The porous duct has been introduced into the AIS to reduce the snorkel noise. It helps with both the system layout and isolation by reducing transmitted vibration. A CAE simulation procedure has been developed and validated to predict the snorkel noise of the porous ducted AIS. In this paper, Taguchi's parameter design method was utilized to optimize a porous duct design in an AIS to achieve the best snorkel noise performance.