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Technical Paper

Fatigue Based Damage Analysis with Correlation to Customer Duty Cycle Using Design Reliability and Confidence

2010-04-12
2010-01-0200
This paper will define the process for correlating fatigue based customer duty cycle with laboratory bench test data. The process includes the development of the Median and Design Load-Life curve equations. The Median Load-Life curve is a best fit linear regression; whereas, the Design Load-Life curve incorporates component specific reliability and confidence targets. To account for the statistical distribution of fatigue life, due to sample size, the one-side lower-bound tolerance limit method ( Lieberman, 1958 ) will be utilized. This paper will include a correlation between the predicted design fatigue life and the actual product life.
Technical Paper

Monotonic and Fatigue Behavior of Magnesium Extrusion Alloy AM30: An International Benchmark Test in the “Magnesium Front End Research and Development Project”

2010-04-12
2010-01-0407
Magnesium alloys are the lightest structural metal and recently attention has been focused on using them for structural automotive components. Fatigue and durability studies are essential in the design of these load-bearing components. In 2006, a large multinational research effort, Magnesium Front End Research & Development (MFERD), was launched involving researchers from Canada, China and the US. The MFERD project is intended to investigate the applicability of Mg alloys as lightweight materials for automotive body structures. The participating institutions in fatigue and durability studies were the University of Waterloo and Ryerson University from Canada, Institute of Metal Research (IMR) from China, and Mississippi State University, Westmorland, General Motors Corporation, Ford Motor Company and Chrysler Group LLC from the United States.
Technical Paper

A New Method of d'Alembert's Principle Finite Element Based Fatigue Calculation with Input of Loads and Accelerations

2013-04-08
2013-01-1003
The common practice in finite element based fatigue calculation with multiple channels of road load is to perform a set of unit load static stress analysis and conduct stress time history construction later during fatigue calculation. The main advantage of this so-called quasi-static finite element based fatigue calculation is to avoid time-consuming dynamic stress analysis and also reduce static stress analysis from millions of real load cases to a few dozens unit-load cases. The main disadvantage of this quasi-static finite element based fatigue calculation is the absence of vibration-induced stresses in stress time history construction and fatigue analysis. A decade ago, a modal transient finite element based fatigue calculation was proposed to introduce vibration-induced stresses into finite element based fatigue calculation. The idea is to add vibration-induced modal stresses to load-induced instant stresses in stress time history construction and fatigue calculation.
Technical Paper

Techniques for Contact Considerations in Fatigue Life Estimations of Automotive Structures

2013-04-08
2013-01-1201
Contacts or interactions commonly exist between adjacent components in automotive structures, and most of the time they dominate stress status of the components. However, when the routine pseudo stress approach is employed in fatigue life estimations, simulating contacts present special challenges. This may result in coarse stress status and corresponding coarser fatigue life estimations at the contact locations. In this paper, concept, development and procedures of two techniques to consider contacts in fatigue life estimations of automotive structures are described in detail. One is still pseudo stress approach based, but employs additional 1-D connection elements to simulate contacts. The other is nonlinear stress approach based, but equivalent constantly repeating cyclic critical load cases are introduced and utilized. The contacts are simulated by interface setup provided in the software.
Technical Paper

Integrating Manufacturing Pre-Stress in FEA Based Road Load Fatigue Analysis

2013-04-08
2013-01-1204
Most manufacturing and assembly processes like stamping, clamping, interference fits introduce a pre-stress condition in components or assemblies. Very often these stresses are high enough and alter the mean stress state resulting in significant effect on fatigue life performance and thus cannot be ignored. If the pre-stress is compressive, it will increase the allowable stress range and improve fatigue life performance; on the other hand if these stresses are tensile, they will decrease the allowable stress range resulting in a degradation of fatigue life. At times it becomes critical to effectively introduce the pre-stress condition in order to accurately represent the stress state in an FEA based durability simulation. Accounting for the pre-stress state in FEA based constant amplitude loading fatigue life simulation is relatively straight forward, but when it comes to random variable amplitude multi-channel loads simulation, the problem becomes more complicated.
Technical Paper

Fuel Tank Strap Fatigue Sensitivity Study under Fuel Level Variation and Payload Variation

2014-04-01
2014-01-0921
Fuel Tank Straps very often get different durability fatigue test results from different types of durability testing such as shaker table vibration, road test simulator (RTS) vehicle testing and proving ground vehicle durability testing. One test produces good durability results and other may indicate some durability risk. A special study was conducted to address this inconsistency. It was found that fuel level in the tank plays a big role in fuel tank strap durability. Higher fuel levels in a tank produce higher loads in straps and lower fatigue life. This paper will use a CAE fuel tank strap model and acquired proving ground strap load data to study fuel level influence in fuel tank strap durability. The fuel level study includes a full tank of fuel, 3 quarters tank of fuel, a half tank of fuel and one quarter tank of fuel.
Technical Paper

A Mesoscopic-Stress Based Fatigue Limit Theory - A Revised Dang Van's Model

2014-04-01
2014-01-0902
Dang Van (Dang Van et al., 1982 and Dang Van, 1993) states that for an infinite lifetime (near fatigue limit), crack nucleation in slip bands may occur at the most unfavorable oriented grains, which are subject to plastic deformation even if the macroscopic stress is elastic. Since the residual stresses in these plastically deformed grains are induced by the restraining effect of the adjacent grains, it is assumed that the residual stresses are stabilized at a mesoscopic level. These stresses are currently approximated by the macroscopic hydrostatic stress defined by the normal stresses to the faces of an octahedral element oriented with the faces symmetric to the principal axis; mathematically they are equal to each other and they are the average of the principal stresses.
Technical Paper

Application of the Glinka's ESED Criterion in Optimization Design

2014-04-01
2014-01-0912
In order to take into account the local material non-linear elastic-plastic effects generated by notches, Glinka proposed the equivalent strain energy density (ESED) Criterion which has been widely accepted and used in fatigue theory and calculation for the last few decades. In this paper, Glinka's criterion is applied to structural optimization design for elastic-plastic correction to consider material non-linear elastic-plastic effects. The equivalent (fictitious) stress was derived from Glinka's Criterion equation for the commonly used Ramberg-Osgood and bi-linear stress and strain relationships. This equivalent stress can be used as the stress boundary constraint threshold in structural optimization design to control the elastic-plastic stress or strain in nonlinear optimization.
Journal Article

Estimation of One-Sided Lower Tolerance Limits for a Weibull Distribution Using the Monte Carlo Pivotal Simulation Technique

2013-04-08
2013-01-0329
This paper introduces a methodology to calculate confidence bounds for a normal and Weibull distribution using Monte Carlo pivotal statistics. As an example, a ready-to-use lookup table to calculate one-sided lower confidence bounds is established and demonstrated for normal and Weibull distributions. The concept of one-sided lower tolerance limits for a normal distribution was first introduced by G. J. Lieberman in 1958 (later modified by Link in 1985 and Wei in 2012), and has been widely used in the automotive industry because of the easy-to-use lookup tables. Monte Carlo simulation methods presented here are more accurate as they eliminate assumptions and approximations inherent in existing approaches by using random experiments. This developed methodology can be used to generate confidence bounds for any parametric distribution. The ready-to-use table for the one-sided lower tolerance limits for a Weibull distribution is presented.
Journal Article

Random Vibration Testing Development for Engine Mounted Products Considering Customer Usage

2013-04-08
2013-01-1007
In this paper, the development of random vibration testing schedules for durability design verification of engine mounted products is presented, based on the equivalent fatigue damage concept and the 95th-percentile customer engine usage data for 150,000 miles. Development of the 95th-percentile customer usage profile is first discussed. Following that, the field engine excitation and engine duty cycle definition is introduced. By using a simplified transfer function of a single degree-of-freedom (SDOF) system subjected to a base excitation, the response acceleration and stress PSDs are related to the input excitation in PSD, which is the equivalent fatigue damage concept. Also, the narrow-band fatigue damage spectrum (FDS) is calculated in terms of the input excitation PSD based on the Miner linear damage rule, the Rayleigh statistical distribution for stress amplitude, a material's S-N curve, and the Miles approximate solution.
Journal Article

Rainflow Counting Based Block Cycle Development for Fatigue Analysis using Nonlinear Stress Approach

2013-04-08
2013-01-1206
An accurate representation of proving ground loading is essential for nonlinear Finite Element analysis and component fatigue test. In this paper, a rainflow counting based multiple blocks loading development procedure is described. The procedure includes: (1) Rainflow counting analysis to obtain the relationship between load range and cumulative repeats and the statistical relationship between load range and mean load; (2) Formation of preliminary multiple loading blocks with specified load range, mean load, and the approximate cycle repeats, and construction of the preliminary multiple loading blocks; (3) Calibration and finalization of the repeats for preliminary multiple loading blocks according to the equivalent damage rule, meaning that the damage value due to the block loads is equivalent to that from a PG loading.
Journal Article

Fatigue Based Lightweight Optimization of a Pickup Cargo Box with Advanced High Strength Steels

2014-04-01
2014-01-0913
Advanced high strength steels (AHSS) offer a good balance of strength, durability, crash energy absorption and formability. Applications of AHSS for lightweight designs of automotive structures are accelerating in recent years to meet the tough new CAFE standard for vehicle fuel economy by 2025. At the same time, the new generation pickup cargo box is to be designed for a dramatic increase in payload. Upgrading the box material from conventional mild steels to AHSS is necessary to meet the conflicting requirements of vehicle light weighting and higher payload. In this paper, typical AHSS grades such as DP590 and DP780 were applied to selected components of the pickup cargo box for weight reduction while meeting the design targets for fatigue, strength and local stiffness.
Journal Article

Fatigue Life Prediction of an Automobile Cradle Mount

2013-04-08
2013-01-1009
Elastomers have large reversible elastic deformation, good damping and high energy absorption capabilities. Due to these characteristics along with low cost of manufacturing, elastomeric components are widely used in many industries and applications, including in automobiles. These components are typically subjected to complex multiaxial and variable amplitude cyclic loads during their service life. Therefore, fatigue failure and life prediction are important issues in the design and analyses of these components. Availability of an effective CAE technique to evaluate fatigue damage and to predict fatigue life under complex loading conditions is a valuable tool for such analysis. This paper discusses a general CAE analytical technique for durability analysis and life prediction of elastomeric components. The methodology is then illustrated and verified by using experimental fatigue test results from an automobile cradle mount.
Journal Article

Online Driveline Fatigue Data Acquisition Method

2013-04-08
2013-01-1270
Two on-line algorithms have been developed to acquire driveline component loads in terms of revolutions at torque and rainflow cycle counting matrix. These algorithms have been implemented in real-time on a standard engine controller unit and have been optimized for fast run-time and low memory requirements. The revolutions at torque algorithm is intended to count the number of driveshaft revolutions in each torque level for each gear and store the number of counts in the engine controller memory. The rainflow cycle counting algorithm is intended to count driveshaft torque cycles and to store the number of counts in a two dimensional “from-to” matrix format in the engine controller memory. The revolutions at torque histogram data and the rainflow cycle counting matrix are then downloaded from the vehicle using the data collection device. Download occurs when the vehicle is serviced at a dealership.
Journal Article

Fatigue Life Predictions under General Multiaxial Loading Based on Simple Material Properties

2011-04-12
2011-01-0487
A procedure for fatigue life estimation of components and structures under variable amplitude multiaxial loadings based on simple and commonly available material properties is presented. Different aspects of the analysis consisting of load cycle counting method, plasticity model, fatigue damage parameter, and cumulative damage rule are presented. The only needed material properties for the proposed procedure are hardness and monotonic and axial cyclic deformation properties (HB, K, n, K′ and n′). Rainflow cycle counting method is used for identifying number of cycles. Non-proportional cyclic hardening is estimated from monotonic and axial cyclic deformation behaviors. A critical plane approach is used to quantify fatigue damage under variable amplitude multiaxial loading, where only material hardness is used to estimate the fatigue curve, and where the needed deformation response is estimated based on Tanaka's non-proportionality parameter.
Journal Article

Assessing Dirlik's Fatigue Damage Estimation Method for Automotive Applications

2012-04-16
2012-01-0757
Fatigue analysis in the time domain using the rainflow cycle counting algorithm is considered the most accurate method for estimating damage. Dirlik's method has been found to be very accurate for damage estimation in the frequency domain. Previous studies have demonstrated the usefulness of Dirlik's method for ocean engineering and wind turbines but few have shown how well Dirlik performs in automotive applications. This study compares Dirlik's method with the rainflow cycle counting and with other frequency domain methods. The study analyzes measured data for an automotive component subjected to five test track load conditions. In addition, fourteen of Dirlik's original spectra and seven additional spectra which combine sine and random spectra are studied. It was found that Dirlik's method predicts more damage than the rainflow cycle counting method when applied to the original data used in creating the method.
Journal Article

A Fatigue Life Estimation Technique for Body Mount Joints

2012-04-16
2012-01-0733
A body mount joint is a typical clamped joint that is under severe loading conditions, due to its structural function services as a gateway of load path between body and frame of an automotive vehicle. Stresses/strains on durability concerned components at the joint cannot be captured accurately by using the pseudo stress analysis approach because of the complexity of stress state generated by the pre-stress from clamp load, contacts between the components and nonlinear material properties. In this paper, development of a technique for fatigue life estimation of the joint is described in detail.
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