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Technical Paper

Design and Control of Transmission Systems using Physical Model Simulation

2010-04-12
2010-01-0898
Physical modeling has been used by the industry to improve development time and produce a quality product. In this paper, we will describe two methods used in system control to take advantage of the physical model. One method describes a complete transmission physical model with a full system control utilizing co-simulation techniques. Data will be presented, and comparison to vehicle data will be conducted and verified. The second method will illustrate how to utilize the physical model to improve system design and modification. In this method, vehicle data will be used as inputs to the model, the model output will be verified against vehicle output data. The two methods are excellent tools for the Design For Six Sigma process (DFSS design).
Technical Paper

Determination of Vehicle Resistance Curve in Engine Cooling System Design

2010-04-12
2010-01-0933
A process to create a vehicle resistance curve based on airflow predictions using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation technique is presented. 1-dimensional engine cooling system simulation tool KULI is used to compute the coefficients of vehicle resistance curve. A full factorial Design of Experiment (DOE) established the relationship between the coefficients and the sum of absolute difference between KULI and CFD predictions. The NLPQL optimization routine is used to accurately predict the coefficients so that sum of absolute difference between KULI and CFD predictions is minimized.
Technical Paper

Design Improvements of Urea SCR Mixing for Medium-Duty Trucks

2013-04-08
2013-01-1074
To meet the 2010 diesel engine emission regulations, an aftertreatment system was developed to reduce HC, CO, NOx and soot. In NOx reduction, a baseline SCR module was designed to include urea injector, mixing decomposition tube and SCR catalysts. However, it was found that the baseline decomposition tube had unacceptable urea mixing performance and severe deposit issues largely because of poor hardware design. The purpose of this article is to describe necessary development work to improve the baseline system to achieve desired mixing targets. To this end, an emissions Flow Lab and computational fluid dynamics were used as the main tools to evaluate urea mixing solutions. Given the complicated urea spray transport and limited packaging space, intensive efforts were taken to develop pre-injector pipe geometry, post-injector cone geometry, single mixer design modifications, and dual mixer design options.
Technical Paper

Prediction of HVAC System Aero/Acoustic Noise Generation and Propagation using CFD

2013-04-08
2013-01-0856
With the advent of quieter powertrain and improved cabin acoustic sealing, there is an increased focus on noise generated in the HVAC unit and climate control ducting system. With improved insulation from exterior noise sources such as wind & road noise, HVAC noise is more perceptible by the occupants and is a key quality indicator for new generation vehicles. This has increased the use of simulations tools to predict HVAC noise during the virtual development phase of new vehicle programs. With packaging space being premium under the instrument panel, changes to address noise issues are expensive and often impractical. The current methodology includes the best practices in simulation accumulated from prior aero acoustics validation studies on fans, ducts, flaps and plenum volume discharge. The paper details the acoustic noise generation and propagation in the near field downstream of an automotive HVAC unit in conjunction with ducting system.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Vehicle Front End Design on AC Performance

2013-04-08
2013-01-0859
Vehicle front end air flow management affects many aspects of vehicle aero/thermal performances. The HVAC system capacity is greatly driven by the airflow and the air temperature received at the condenser. In this paper, front end design practices are investigated using computer simulation and full vehicle test to evaluate their effects on AC system performance. A full vehicle 3D CFD model is developed and used to predict the airflow and temperature in underhood and around the vehicle body, and specifically the conditions entering the condenser. The condenser inlet airflow and temperature profiles from 3D CFD model are then used as inputs for the 1D AC system model. The 1D AC system model, which includes condenser, compressor, evaporator and TXV (Thermal eXpansion Valve), is developed to observe the critical AC performance indicators such as panel out air temperature and compressor head pressure.
Technical Paper

Development of a Hybrid Powertrain Active Damping Control System via Sliding Mode Control Scheme

2013-04-08
2013-01-0486
This paper presents the design of a hybrid powertrain damping control algorithm using the sliding mode control (SMC) scheme. Motor control-based active damping control strategy is used to ensure smooth drive line operation and provide the driver with seamless driving experience. In the case of active damping control, motor and engine speeds are measured to monitor the driveline state, and corrective motor torques are generated to dampen out drive line vibrations. Drive lines are prone to internal vibration (engine, clutches and motors) as well as external disturbances caused by road inputs. As such, fast-response actuator-based damping control systems are desirable in a hybrid powertrain application, where a torque converter is generally not used. The most significant aspect of an active damping control algorithm is the error calculation, based on proper states information, and torque determination based on the adaptive control gain applied to the nonlinear system.
Technical Paper

An Application of Ant Colony Optimization to Energy Efficient Routing for Electric Vehicles

2013-04-08
2013-01-0337
With the increased market share of electric vehicles, the demand for energy-efficient routing algorithms specifically optimized for electric vehicles has increased. Traditional routing algorithms are focused on optimizing the shortest distance or the shortest time in finding a path from point A to point B. These traditional methods have been working well for fossil fueled vehicles. Electric vehicles, on the other hand, require different route optimization techniques. Negative edge costs, battery power limits, battery capacity limits, and vehicle parameters that are only available at query time, make the task of electric vehicle routing a challenging problem. In this paper, we present an ant colony based, energy-efficient routing algorithm that is optimized and designed for electric vehicles. Simulation results show improvements in the energy consumption of electric vehicles when applied to a start-to-destination routing problem.
Technical Paper

Shape Recovery Simulation of Flexible Airdam

2013-04-08
2013-01-0166
Airdam is an aerodynamic component in automobile and is designed to reduce the drag and increase fuel efficiency. It is also an important styling component. The front airdam below the bumper is to direct the air flow away from the front tires and towards the underbody, where the drag coefficient becomes less. The flexible airdam is made of Santoprene™ - thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPV), which belongs to thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) family. When a vehicle is parked over a parking block, the flexible airdam will be under strain subjected to bending load from the parking block. If the airdam is kept under constant strain for a certain period, a set will occur and the force will decay over a period of time. Due to the force decay, the stress will reduce and this behavior is called as stress relaxation.
Technical Paper

Development of an Analytical Modeling Method and Testing Procedures to Aid in the Design of Cardan Joints for Front Steerable Beam Axles

2013-04-08
2013-01-0819
The Cardan joint of a steerable beam front axle is a complicated mechanical component. It is subjected to drive torque, speed fluctuations, and joint articulation due to powertrain inputs, steering, and suspension kinematics. This combination of high torque and speed fluctuations of the Cardan joint, due to high input drive torque and/or high steer angle maneuvers, can result in premature joint wear. Initially, some observations of premature wear were not well understood based on the existing laboratory and road test data. The present work summarizes a coordinated program of computer modeling, vehicle Rough Road data acquisition, and physical testing used to predict the joint dynamics and to develop advanced testing procedures. Results indicate analytical modeling can predict forces resulting from Cardan joint dynamics for high torque/high turn angle maneuvers, as represented by time history traces recorded in rough road data acquisition.
Technical Paper

A Practical Procedure to Predict AIS Inlet Noise Using CAE Simulation Tools

2013-04-08
2013-01-1004
The air induction system (AIS), which provides clean air to the engine for combustion, is very important for engine acoustics. A practical CAE procedure to predict AIS inlet noise is presented in this paper. GT-Power, a commercially available software program can be used to simulate the engine performance and predict air induction noise. The accuracy of GT-Power is dependent on many variables, such as: proper duct discretization size, proper number of flow splits to model the air box and the capturing of the correct resonator geometry for tuning frequency. Since GT-Power is based on a 1D assumption, several iterations need be performed to model the complex AIS components, such as, irregular shaped air box, resonator volume, porous ducts and perforated pipes. Because of this, the GT-Power AIS model needs to be correlated to test data using transmission loss data.
Technical Paper

Multi-Dimensional Modeling and Validation of Combustion in a High-Efficiency Dual-Fuel Light-Duty Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-1091
Using gasoline and diesel simultaneously in a dual-fuel combustion system has shown effective benefits in terms of both brake thermal efficiency and exhaust emissions. In this study, the dual-fuel approach is applied to a light-duty spark ignition (SI) gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine. Three combustion modes are proposed based on the engine load, diesel micro-pilot (DMP) combustion at high load, SI combustion at low load, and diesel assisted spark-ignition (DASI) combustion in the transition zone. Major focus is put on the DMP mode, where the diesel fuel acts as an enhancer for ignition and combustion of the mixture of gasoline, air, and recirculated exhaust gas. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used to simulate the dual-fuel combustion with the final goal of supporting the comprehensive optimization of the main engine parameters.
Technical Paper

Studies on AC Suction Line Pressure Drop using 1D Modeling

2013-04-08
2013-01-1503
In an automotive air-conditioning (AC) system, the amount of work done by the compressor is also influenced by the suction line which meters the refrigerant flow. Optimizing the AC suction line routing has thus become an important challenge and the plumbing designers are required to come up with innovative packaging solutions. These solutions are required in the early design stages when prototypes are not yet appropriate. In such scenarios, one-dimensional (1D) simulations shall be employed to compute the pressure drop for faster and economical solution. In this paper, an approach of creating a modeling tool for suction line pressure drop prediction is discussed. Using DFSS approach L12 design iterations are created and simulations are carried out using 1D AMESim software. Prototypes are manufactured and tested on HVAC bench calorimeter. AC suction line pressure drop predicted using the 1D modeling co-related well with the test data and the error is less than 5%.
Technical Paper

1D Modeling of AC Refrigerant Loop and Vehicle Cabin to Simulate Soak and Cool Down

2013-04-08
2013-01-1502
Simulation has become an integral part in the design and development of an automotive air-conditioning (AC) system. Simulation is widely used for both system level and component level analyses and are carried out with one-dimensional (1D) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tools. This paper describes a 1D approach to model refrigerant loop and vehicle cabin to simulate the soak and cool down analysis. Soak and cool down is one of the important tests that is carried out to test the performance of a heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) system of a vehicle. Ability to simulate this cool down cycle is thus very useful. 1D modeling is done for the two-phase flow through the refrigerant loop and air flow across the heat exchangers and cabin with the commercial software AMESim. The model is able to predict refrigerant pressure and temperature inside the loop at different points in the cycle.
Technical Paper

Integrating Manufacturing Pre-Stress in FEA Based Road Load Fatigue Analysis

2013-04-08
2013-01-1204
Most manufacturing and assembly processes like stamping, clamping, interference fits introduce a pre-stress condition in components or assemblies. Very often these stresses are high enough and alter the mean stress state resulting in significant effect on fatigue life performance and thus cannot be ignored. If the pre-stress is compressive, it will increase the allowable stress range and improve fatigue life performance; on the other hand if these stresses are tensile, they will decrease the allowable stress range resulting in a degradation of fatigue life. At times it becomes critical to effectively introduce the pre-stress condition in order to accurately represent the stress state in an FEA based durability simulation. Accounting for the pre-stress state in FEA based constant amplitude loading fatigue life simulation is relatively straight forward, but when it comes to random variable amplitude multi-channel loads simulation, the problem becomes more complicated.
Technical Paper

CAE Simulation of Door Sag/Set Using Subsystem Level Approach

2013-04-08
2013-01-1199
The performance of door assembly is very significant for the vehicle design and door sag/set is one of the important attribute for design of door assembly. This paper provides an overview of conventional approach for door sag/set study based on door-hinge-BIW assembly (system level approach) and its limitation over new approach based on subassembly (subsystem level approach). The door sag/set simulation at system level is the most common approach adopted across auto industry. This approach evaluates only structural adequacy of door assembly system for sag load. To find key contributor for door sagging is always been time consuming task with conventional approach thus there is a delay in providing design enablers to meet the design target. New approach of door sag/set at “subsystem level” evaluates the structural stiffness contribution of individual subsystem. It support for setting up the target at subsystem level, which integrate and regulate the system level performance.
Technical Paper

Smart Meshing Template Process with CAD/CAE Link

2013-04-08
2013-01-0637
The benefits of utilizing virtual engineering include not only shortened product development time and reduced reliance on expensive physical testing, but also the opportunities for greater standardization to support higher product quality. This paper describes a project for building a smart meshing template with a CAD/CAE link. The objective of the project is to optimize the utilization of CAD software and CAE preprocessing software capabilities. The deliverable of the project is a cylinder head mesh template which meets all the cylinder head durability simulation meshing requirements, and which links to CAD/CAE software. Special surface areas identified are built into the cylinder head CAD model design. By using one of the features in CAD software, all the special surfaces can be automatically updated throughout the design process.
Technical Paper

Kinematic FCW System Modeling and Application for FCW Warning Strategy Evaluation

2011-04-12
2011-01-0590
One method of reducing the number and/or severity of vehicle crashes is to warn the driver of a potential crash. The theory is that there will be driving conditions in which the drivers are unaware of a potential crash and a warning system will allow them to, in some manner, avoid the accident or reduce the severity. In an attempt to develop an analytical understanding of Forward Collision Warning systems (FCW) for frontal impacts a 2-d mathematical/kinematic model representing a set of pre-crash vehicle dynamic maneuvers has been built. Different driving scenarios are studied to explore the potential improvement of warning algorithms in terms of headway reduction and minimization of false alarm rates. The results agree with the field data. NHTSA's new NCAP active safety criteria are evaluated using the model. The result from the analysis indicates that the NHTSA criteria may drive higher false alarm rates. Opportunities of minimizing false positive rates are discussed.
Technical Paper

CFD Analysis of Various Automotive Bodies in Linear Static Pressure Gradients

2012-04-16
2012-01-0298
Establishing data adjustments that will give an interference free result for bluff bodies in automotive wind tunnels has been pursued for at least the last 45 years. Recently, the Two-Measurement correction method that yields a wake distortion adjustment for open jet wind tunnels has shown promise of being able to adjust for many of the effects of non-ideal static pressure gradients on bluff automotive bodies. Utilization of this adjustment has shown that a consistent drag results when the vehicle is subjected to the various gradients generated in open jet wind tunnels. What has been lacking is whether this consistent result is independent of the other tunnel interference effects. The studies presented here are intended to fill that gap on the performance of the two-measurement technique. The subject CFD studies are designed to eliminate all wind tunnel interference effects except for the variation of the (linear) static pressure gradient.
Technical Paper

Further CFD Studies for Detailed Tires using Aerodynamics Simulation with Rolling Road Conditions

2010-04-12
2010-01-0756
In an environment of tougher engineering constraints to deliver tomorrow's aerodynamic vehicles, evaluation of aerodynamics early in the design process using digital prototypes and simulation tools has become more crucial for meeting cost and performance targets. Engineering needs have increased the demands on simulation software to provide robust solutions under a range of operating conditions and with detailed geometry representation. In this paper the application of simulation tools to wheel design in on-road operating conditions is explored. Typically, wheel and wheel cover design is investigated using physical tests very late in the development process, and requires costly testing of many sets of wheels in an on-road testing environment (either coast-down testing or a moving-ground wind-tunnel).
Technical Paper

Vehicle Body Panel Thermal Buckling Resistance Analysis

2014-04-01
2014-01-0926
This paper discusses CAE simulation methods to predict the thermal induced buckling issues when vehicle body panels are subjected to the elevated temperature in e-coat oven. Both linear buckling analysis and implicit quasi-static analysis are discussed and studied using a quarter cylinder shell as an example. The linear buckling analysis could produce quick but non-conservative buckling temperature. With considering nonlinearity, implicit quasi-static analysis could predict a relative conservative critical temperature. In addition, the permanent deformations could be obtained to judge if the panel remains visible dent due to the buckling. Finally these two approaches have been compared to thermal bucking behavior of a panel on a vehicle going through thermal cycle of e-coat oven with the excellent agreement on its initial design and issue fix design. In conclusion, the linear buckling analysis could be used for quick thermal buckling evaluation and comparison on a series of proposals.
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