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Technical Paper

Kinematic FCW System Modeling and Application for FCW Warning Strategy Evaluation

2011-04-12
2011-01-0590
One method of reducing the number and/or severity of vehicle crashes is to warn the driver of a potential crash. The theory is that there will be driving conditions in which the drivers are unaware of a potential crash and a warning system will allow them to, in some manner, avoid the accident or reduce the severity. In an attempt to develop an analytical understanding of Forward Collision Warning systems (FCW) for frontal impacts a 2-d mathematical/kinematic model representing a set of pre-crash vehicle dynamic maneuvers has been built. Different driving scenarios are studied to explore the potential improvement of warning algorithms in terms of headway reduction and minimization of false alarm rates. The results agree with the field data. NHTSA's new NCAP active safety criteria are evaluated using the model. The result from the analysis indicates that the NHTSA criteria may drive higher false alarm rates. Opportunities of minimizing false positive rates are discussed.
Journal Article

Estimation of One-Sided Lower Tolerance Limits for a Weibull Distribution Using the Monte Carlo Pivotal Simulation Technique

2013-04-08
2013-01-0329
This paper introduces a methodology to calculate confidence bounds for a normal and Weibull distribution using Monte Carlo pivotal statistics. As an example, a ready-to-use lookup table to calculate one-sided lower confidence bounds is established and demonstrated for normal and Weibull distributions. The concept of one-sided lower tolerance limits for a normal distribution was first introduced by G. J. Lieberman in 1958 (later modified by Link in 1985 and Wei in 2012), and has been widely used in the automotive industry because of the easy-to-use lookup tables. Monte Carlo simulation methods presented here are more accurate as they eliminate assumptions and approximations inherent in existing approaches by using random experiments. This developed methodology can be used to generate confidence bounds for any parametric distribution. The ready-to-use table for the one-sided lower tolerance limits for a Weibull distribution is presented.
Technical Paper

An Application of Ant Colony Optimization to Energy Efficient Routing for Electric Vehicles

2013-04-08
2013-01-0337
With the increased market share of electric vehicles, the demand for energy-efficient routing algorithms specifically optimized for electric vehicles has increased. Traditional routing algorithms are focused on optimizing the shortest distance or the shortest time in finding a path from point A to point B. These traditional methods have been working well for fossil fueled vehicles. Electric vehicles, on the other hand, require different route optimization techniques. Negative edge costs, battery power limits, battery capacity limits, and vehicle parameters that are only available at query time, make the task of electric vehicle routing a challenging problem. In this paper, we present an ant colony based, energy-efficient routing algorithm that is optimized and designed for electric vehicles. Simulation results show improvements in the energy consumption of electric vehicles when applied to a start-to-destination routing problem.
Technical Paper

Development of a Hybrid Powertrain Active Damping Control System via Sliding Mode Control Scheme

2013-04-08
2013-01-0486
This paper presents the design of a hybrid powertrain damping control algorithm using the sliding mode control (SMC) scheme. Motor control-based active damping control strategy is used to ensure smooth drive line operation and provide the driver with seamless driving experience. In the case of active damping control, motor and engine speeds are measured to monitor the driveline state, and corrective motor torques are generated to dampen out drive line vibrations. Drive lines are prone to internal vibration (engine, clutches and motors) as well as external disturbances caused by road inputs. As such, fast-response actuator-based damping control systems are desirable in a hybrid powertrain application, where a torque converter is generally not used. The most significant aspect of an active damping control algorithm is the error calculation, based on proper states information, and torque determination based on the adaptive control gain applied to the nonlinear system.
Technical Paper

Application of Modeling Technology in a Turbocharged SI Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-1621
Improvements to 1D engine modeling accuracy and computational speed have led to greater reliance on this simulation technology during the engine development process. The benefits of modeling show up in many ways: increased simulation iterations for better optimization, reduction in prototype hardware iterations, reduction in program timing and overall cost. In this study a 1D GT-Power model of a turbocharged engine system was used to assist in the initial design phase and throughout the program. The model was developed using Chrysler Group LLC proprietary modeling features for predictive combustion and knock event prediction. In all stages of this project the model's accuracy was improved through regular correlation with dynamometer data. This paper mainly focuses on engine compression ratio selection, turbocharger selection, and cycle-to-cycle variation/cylinder-to-cylinder variation reduction through the combination of 1D GT-Power model optimization and dynamometer tests.
Journal Article

Combined Variation Modeling of Structural and Tuning Components for Vehicle Performance Assessment

2013-04-08
2013-01-0944
During the vehicle development process, dimensional variation simulation modeling has been applied extensively to estimate the effects of build variation on the final product. Traditional variation simulation methods analyze the tolerance inputs of structural components, but do not account for any compliance effects due to stiffness variation in tuning components, such as bushings, springs, isolators, etc., since both product and process variation are simulated based on rigid-body assumptions. Vehicle performance objectives such as ride and handling (R&H) often involve these compliance metrics. The objective of this paper is to present a method to concurrently simulate the tolerance from the structural parts as well as the variability of compliance from the tuning components through an integration package. The combination of these two highly influential effects will allow for a more accurate prediction and assessment of vehicle performance.
Technical Paper

A Practical Procedure to Predict AIS Inlet Noise Using CAE Simulation Tools

2013-04-08
2013-01-1004
The air induction system (AIS), which provides clean air to the engine for combustion, is very important for engine acoustics. A practical CAE procedure to predict AIS inlet noise is presented in this paper. GT-Power, a commercially available software program can be used to simulate the engine performance and predict air induction noise. The accuracy of GT-Power is dependent on many variables, such as: proper duct discretization size, proper number of flow splits to model the air box and the capturing of the correct resonator geometry for tuning frequency. Since GT-Power is based on a 1D assumption, several iterations need be performed to model the complex AIS components, such as, irregular shaped air box, resonator volume, porous ducts and perforated pipes. Because of this, the GT-Power AIS model needs to be correlated to test data using transmission loss data.
Journal Article

Determination of Weld Nugget Size Using an Inverse Engineering Technique

2013-04-08
2013-01-1374
In today's light-weight vehicles, the strength of spot welds plays an important role in overall product integrity, reliability and customer satisfaction. Naturally, there is a need for a quick and reliable technique to inspect the quality of the welds. In the past, the primary quality control tests for detecting weld defects are the destructive chisel test and peel test [1]. The non-destructive evaluation (NDE) method currently used in industry is based on ultrasonic inspection [2, 3, 4]. The technique is not always successful in evaluating the nugget size, nor is it effective in detecting the so-called “cold” or “stick” welds. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a precise and reliable noncontact NDE method for spot welds. There have been numerous studies in predicting the weld nugget size by considering the spot-weld process [5, 6].
Technical Paper

1D Modeling of AC Refrigerant Loop and Vehicle Cabin to Simulate Soak and Cool Down

2013-04-08
2013-01-1502
Simulation has become an integral part in the design and development of an automotive air-conditioning (AC) system. Simulation is widely used for both system level and component level analyses and are carried out with one-dimensional (1D) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tools. This paper describes a 1D approach to model refrigerant loop and vehicle cabin to simulate the soak and cool down analysis. Soak and cool down is one of the important tests that is carried out to test the performance of a heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) system of a vehicle. Ability to simulate this cool down cycle is thus very useful. 1D modeling is done for the two-phase flow through the refrigerant loop and air flow across the heat exchangers and cabin with the commercial software AMESim. The model is able to predict refrigerant pressure and temperature inside the loop at different points in the cycle.
Technical Paper

Studies on AC Suction Line Pressure Drop using 1D Modeling

2013-04-08
2013-01-1503
In an automotive air-conditioning (AC) system, the amount of work done by the compressor is also influenced by the suction line which meters the refrigerant flow. Optimizing the AC suction line routing has thus become an important challenge and the plumbing designers are required to come up with innovative packaging solutions. These solutions are required in the early design stages when prototypes are not yet appropriate. In such scenarios, one-dimensional (1D) simulations shall be employed to compute the pressure drop for faster and economical solution. In this paper, an approach of creating a modeling tool for suction line pressure drop prediction is discussed. Using DFSS approach L12 design iterations are created and simulations are carried out using 1D AMESim software. Prototypes are manufactured and tested on HVAC bench calorimeter. AC suction line pressure drop predicted using the 1D modeling co-related well with the test data and the error is less than 5%.
Journal Article

Transmission Torque Converter Arc Spring Damper Dynamic Characteristics for Driveline Torsional Vibration Evaluation

2013-04-08
2013-01-1483
Torsional vibration dampers are used in automatic and manual transmissions to provide passenger comfort and reduce damage to transmission & driveline components from engine torsionals. This paper will introduce a systematic method to model a torque converter (TC) arc spring damper system using Simdrive software. Arc spring design parameters, dynamometer (dyno) setup, and complete powertrain/driveline system modeling and simulation are presented. Through arc spring dynamometer setup subsystem modeling, the static and dynamic stiffness and hysteresis under different engine loads and engine speeds can be obtained. The arc spring subsystem model can be embedded into a complete powertrain/driveline model from engine to wheels. Such a model can be used to perform the torsional analysis and get the torsional response at any location within the powertrain/driveline system. The new methodology enables evaluation of the TC damper design changes to meet the requirements.
Technical Paper

Design Improvements of Urea SCR Mixing for Medium-Duty Trucks

2013-04-08
2013-01-1074
To meet the 2010 diesel engine emission regulations, an aftertreatment system was developed to reduce HC, CO, NOx and soot. In NOx reduction, a baseline SCR module was designed to include urea injector, mixing decomposition tube and SCR catalysts. However, it was found that the baseline decomposition tube had unacceptable urea mixing performance and severe deposit issues largely because of poor hardware design. The purpose of this article is to describe necessary development work to improve the baseline system to achieve desired mixing targets. To this end, an emissions Flow Lab and computational fluid dynamics were used as the main tools to evaluate urea mixing solutions. Given the complicated urea spray transport and limited packaging space, intensive efforts were taken to develop pre-injector pipe geometry, post-injector cone geometry, single mixer design modifications, and dual mixer design options.
Technical Paper

Multi-Dimensional Modeling and Validation of Combustion in a High-Efficiency Dual-Fuel Light-Duty Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-1091
Using gasoline and diesel simultaneously in a dual-fuel combustion system has shown effective benefits in terms of both brake thermal efficiency and exhaust emissions. In this study, the dual-fuel approach is applied to a light-duty spark ignition (SI) gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine. Three combustion modes are proposed based on the engine load, diesel micro-pilot (DMP) combustion at high load, SI combustion at low load, and diesel assisted spark-ignition (DASI) combustion in the transition zone. Major focus is put on the DMP mode, where the diesel fuel acts as an enhancer for ignition and combustion of the mixture of gasoline, air, and recirculated exhaust gas. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used to simulate the dual-fuel combustion with the final goal of supporting the comprehensive optimization of the main engine parameters.
Technical Paper

Optimization of HVAC Panel Aiming Studies using Parametric Modeling and Automated Simulation

2014-04-01
2014-01-0684
In an Automotive air conditioning system, the air flow distribution in the cabin from the HVAC (Heating, ventilation and air conditioning), ducts and outlets is evaluated by the velocity achieved at driver and passenger mannequin aim points. Multiple simulation iterations are being carried out before finalizing the design of HVAC panel duct and outlets until the target velocity is achieved. In this paper, a parametric modeling of the HVAC outlet is done which includes primary and secondary vane creation using CATIA. Java macro files are created for simulation runs in STAR CCM+. ISIGHT is used as an interface tool between CATIA and STARCCM+. The vane limits of outlet and the target velocity to be achieved at mannequin aim points are defined as the boundary conditions for the analysis. Based on the optimization technique and the number of iterations defined in ISIGHT, the vane angle model gets updated automatically in CATIA followed by the simulation runs in STARCCM+.
Journal Article

Development of Transient Thermal Models Based on Theoretical Analysis and Vehicle Test Data

2014-04-01
2014-01-0726
In this paper, thermal models are developed based on experimental test data, and the physics of thermal systems. If experimental data is available, the data can be fitted to mathematical models that represent the system response to changes in its input parameters. Therefore, empirical models which are based on test data are developed. The concept of time constant is presented and applied to development of transient models. Mathematical models for component temperature changes during transient vehicle driving conditions are also presented. Mathematical models for climate control system warm up and cool-down are also discussed. The results show the significance of adopting this concept in analysis of vehicle test data, and in development of analytical models. The developed models can be applied to simulate the system or component response to variety of changes in input parameters. As a result, significant testing and simulation time can be saved during the vehicle development process.
Journal Article

Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) for Optimization of Automotive Heat Exchanger and Underhood Air Temperature

2014-04-01
2014-01-0729
In this paper a design methodology for automotive heat exchangers has been applied which brings robustness into the design process and helps to optimize the design goals: as to maintain an optimal coolant temperature and to limit the vehicle underhood air temperature within a tolerable limit. The most influential design factors for the heat exchangers which affect the goals have been identified with that process. The paper summarizes the optimization steps necessary to meet the optimal functional goals for the vehicle as mentioned above. Taguchi's [1] Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) methods have been employed to conduct this analysis in a robust way.
Journal Article

Thermal Map of an IC Engine via Conjugate Heat Transfer: Validation and Test Data Correlation

2014-04-01
2014-01-1180
Accurate numerical prediction of an engine thermal map at a wide range of engine operating conditions can help tune engine performance parameters at an early development stage. This study documents the correlation of an engine thermal simulation using the conjugate heat transfer (CHT) methodology with thermocouple data from an engine operating in a dynamometer and a vehicle drive cell. Three different operating conditions are matched with the simulation data. Temperatures predicted by simulation at specific sections, both at the intake and the exhaust sides of the engine are compared with the measured temperatures in the same location on the operating engine.
Journal Article

Optimization of a Porous Ducted Air Induction System Using Taguchi's Parameter Design Method

2014-04-01
2014-01-0887
Taguchi method is a technology to prevent quality problems at early stages of product development and product design. Parameter design method is an important part in Taguchi method which selects the best control factor level combination for the optimization of the robustness of product function against noise factors. The air induction system (AIS) provides clean air to the engine for combustion. The noise radiated from the inlet of the AIS can be of significant importance in reducing vehicle interior noise and tuning the interior sound quality. The porous duct has been introduced into the AIS to reduce the snorkel noise. It helps with both the system layout and isolation by reducing transmitted vibration. A CAE simulation procedure has been developed and validated to predict the snorkel noise of the porous ducted AIS. In this paper, Taguchi's parameter design method was utilized to optimize a porous duct design in an AIS to achieve the best snorkel noise performance.
Technical Paper

Non-Linear Modeling of Bushings and Cab Mounts for Calculation of Durability Loads

2014-04-01
2014-01-0880
Cab mounts and suspension bushings are crucial for ride and handling characteristics and must be durable under highly variable loading. Such elastomeric bushings exhibit non-linear behavior, depending on excitation frequency, amplitude and the level of preload. To calculate realistic loads for durability analysis of cars and trucks multi-body simulation (MBS) software is used, but standard bushing models for MBS neglect the amplitude dependent characteristics of elastomers and therefore lead to a trade-off in simulation accuracy. On the other hand, some non-linear model approaches lack an easy to use parameter identification process or need too much input data from experiments. Others exhibit severe drawbacks in computing time, accuracy or even numerical stability under realistic transient or superimposed sinusoidal excitation.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Body Panel Thermal Buckling Resistance Analysis

2014-04-01
2014-01-0926
This paper discusses CAE simulation methods to predict the thermal induced buckling issues when vehicle body panels are subjected to the elevated temperature in e-coat oven. Both linear buckling analysis and implicit quasi-static analysis are discussed and studied using a quarter cylinder shell as an example. The linear buckling analysis could produce quick but non-conservative buckling temperature. With considering nonlinearity, implicit quasi-static analysis could predict a relative conservative critical temperature. In addition, the permanent deformations could be obtained to judge if the panel remains visible dent due to the buckling. Finally these two approaches have been compared to thermal bucking behavior of a panel on a vehicle going through thermal cycle of e-coat oven with the excellent agreement on its initial design and issue fix design. In conclusion, the linear buckling analysis could be used for quick thermal buckling evaluation and comparison on a series of proposals.
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