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Technical Paper

An Application of Ant Colony Optimization to Energy Efficient Routing for Electric Vehicles

2013-04-08
2013-01-0337
With the increased market share of electric vehicles, the demand for energy-efficient routing algorithms specifically optimized for electric vehicles has increased. Traditional routing algorithms are focused on optimizing the shortest distance or the shortest time in finding a path from point A to point B. These traditional methods have been working well for fossil fueled vehicles. Electric vehicles, on the other hand, require different route optimization techniques. Negative edge costs, battery power limits, battery capacity limits, and vehicle parameters that are only available at query time, make the task of electric vehicle routing a challenging problem. In this paper, we present an ant colony based, energy-efficient routing algorithm that is optimized and designed for electric vehicles. Simulation results show improvements in the energy consumption of electric vehicles when applied to a start-to-destination routing problem.
Technical Paper

Integrated Virtual Approach for Optimization of Vehicle Sensitivity to Brake Torque Variation

2013-04-08
2013-01-0596
Brake judder is a brake induced vibration that a vehicle driver experiences in the steering wheel or floor panel at highway speeds during vehicle deceleration. The primary cause of this disturbance phenomenon is the brake torque variation (BTV). Virtual CAE tools from both kinematics and compliance standpoints have been applied in analyzing sensitivities of the vehicle systems to BTV. This paper presents a recently developed analytical approach that identifies parameters of steering and suspension systems for achieving optimal settings that desensitize the vehicle response to BTV. The analytical steps of this integrated approach started with creating a lumped mass noise-vibration-harshness (NVH) control model and a separate multi-body dynamics (MBD) suspension model. Then, both models were linked to run in a sequence through optimization software so the results from the MBD model were used as quasi-static inputs to the lumped mass NVH model.
Technical Paper

Studies on AC Suction Line Pressure Drop using 1D Modeling

2013-04-08
2013-01-1503
In an automotive air-conditioning (AC) system, the amount of work done by the compressor is also influenced by the suction line which meters the refrigerant flow. Optimizing the AC suction line routing has thus become an important challenge and the plumbing designers are required to come up with innovative packaging solutions. These solutions are required in the early design stages when prototypes are not yet appropriate. In such scenarios, one-dimensional (1D) simulations shall be employed to compute the pressure drop for faster and economical solution. In this paper, an approach of creating a modeling tool for suction line pressure drop prediction is discussed. Using DFSS approach L12 design iterations are created and simulations are carried out using 1D AMESim software. Prototypes are manufactured and tested on HVAC bench calorimeter. AC suction line pressure drop predicted using the 1D modeling co-related well with the test data and the error is less than 5%.
Technical Paper

CAE Simulation of Door Sag/Set Using Subsystem Level Approach

2013-04-08
2013-01-1199
The performance of door assembly is very significant for the vehicle design and door sag/set is one of the important attribute for design of door assembly. This paper provides an overview of conventional approach for door sag/set study based on door-hinge-BIW assembly (system level approach) and its limitation over new approach based on subassembly (subsystem level approach). The door sag/set simulation at system level is the most common approach adopted across auto industry. This approach evaluates only structural adequacy of door assembly system for sag load. To find key contributor for door sagging is always been time consuming task with conventional approach thus there is a delay in providing design enablers to meet the design target. New approach of door sag/set at “subsystem level” evaluates the structural stiffness contribution of individual subsystem. It support for setting up the target at subsystem level, which integrate and regulate the system level performance.
Technical Paper

Smart Meshing Template Process with CAD/CAE Link

2013-04-08
2013-01-0637
The benefits of utilizing virtual engineering include not only shortened product development time and reduced reliance on expensive physical testing, but also the opportunities for greater standardization to support higher product quality. This paper describes a project for building a smart meshing template with a CAD/CAE link. The objective of the project is to optimize the utilization of CAD software and CAE preprocessing software capabilities. The deliverable of the project is a cylinder head mesh template which meets all the cylinder head durability simulation meshing requirements, and which links to CAD/CAE software. Special surface areas identified are built into the cylinder head CAD model design. By using one of the features in CAD software, all the special surfaces can be automatically updated throughout the design process.
Technical Paper

A Design for Six Sigma Approach to Optimize a Front-Wheel-Drive Transmission for Improved Efficiency and Robustness

2011-04-12
2011-01-0720
Environmental concerns and government regulations are factors that have led to an increased focus on fuel economy in the automotive industry. This paper identifies a method used to improve the efficiency of a front-wheel-drive (FWD) automatic transmission. In order to create improvements in large complex systems, it is key to have a large scope, to include as much of the system as possible. The approach taken in this work was to use Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) methodology. This was done to optimize as many of the front-wheel-drive transmission components as possible to increase robustness and efficiency. A focus of robustness, or consistency in torque transformation, is as important as the value of efficiency itself, because of the huge range of usage conditions. Therefore, it was necessary to find a solution of the best transmission component settings that would not depend on specific usage conditions such as temperatures, system pressures, or gear ratio.
Technical Paper

Application of the Glinka's ESED Criterion in Optimization Design

2014-04-01
2014-01-0912
In order to take into account the local material non-linear elastic-plastic effects generated by notches, Glinka proposed the equivalent strain energy density (ESED) Criterion which has been widely accepted and used in fatigue theory and calculation for the last few decades. In this paper, Glinka's criterion is applied to structural optimization design for elastic-plastic correction to consider material non-linear elastic-plastic effects. The equivalent (fictitious) stress was derived from Glinka's Criterion equation for the commonly used Ramberg-Osgood and bi-linear stress and strain relationships. This equivalent stress can be used as the stress boundary constraint threshold in structural optimization design to control the elastic-plastic stress or strain in nonlinear optimization.
Technical Paper

Energy Efficient Routing for Electric Vehicles using Particle Swarm Optimization

2014-04-01
2014-01-1815
Growing concerns about the environment, energy dependency, and unstable fuel prices have increased the market share of electric vehicles. This has led to an increased demand for energy efficient routing algorithms that are optimized for electric vehicles. Traditional routing algorithms are focused on finding the shortest distance or the least time route between two points. These approaches have been working well for fossil fueled vehicles. Electric vehicles, on the other hand, require different route optimization techniques. Negative edge costs, battery power and capacity limits, as well as vehicle parameters that are only available at query time, make the task of electric vehicle routing a challenging problem. In this paper, we present a simulated solution to the energy efficient routing for electric vehicles using Particle Swarm Optimization. Simulation results show improvements in the energy consumption of the electric vehicle when applied to a start-to-destination routing problem.
Technical Paper

Optimization of HVAC Panel Aiming Studies using Parametric Modeling and Automated Simulation

2014-04-01
2014-01-0684
In an Automotive air conditioning system, the air flow distribution in the cabin from the HVAC (Heating, ventilation and air conditioning), ducts and outlets is evaluated by the velocity achieved at driver and passenger mannequin aim points. Multiple simulation iterations are being carried out before finalizing the design of HVAC panel duct and outlets until the target velocity is achieved. In this paper, a parametric modeling of the HVAC outlet is done which includes primary and secondary vane creation using CATIA. Java macro files are created for simulation runs in STAR CCM+. ISIGHT is used as an interface tool between CATIA and STARCCM+. The vane limits of outlet and the target velocity to be achieved at mannequin aim points are defined as the boundary conditions for the analysis. Based on the optimization technique and the number of iterations defined in ISIGHT, the vane angle model gets updated automatically in CATIA followed by the simulation runs in STARCCM+.
Technical Paper

Application of Modeling Technology in a Turbocharged SI Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-1621
Improvements to 1D engine modeling accuracy and computational speed have led to greater reliance on this simulation technology during the engine development process. The benefits of modeling show up in many ways: increased simulation iterations for better optimization, reduction in prototype hardware iterations, reduction in program timing and overall cost. In this study a 1D GT-Power model of a turbocharged engine system was used to assist in the initial design phase and throughout the program. The model was developed using Chrysler Group LLC proprietary modeling features for predictive combustion and knock event prediction. In all stages of this project the model's accuracy was improved through regular correlation with dynamometer data. This paper mainly focuses on engine compression ratio selection, turbocharger selection, and cycle-to-cycle variation/cylinder-to-cylinder variation reduction through the combination of 1D GT-Power model optimization and dynamometer tests.
Technical Paper

2013 SRT Viper Carbon Fiber X-Brace

2013-04-08
2013-01-1775
The 2013 SRT Viper Carbon Fiber X-Brace, styled by Chrysler's Product Design Office (PDO), is as much of a work of art as it is an engineered structural component. Presented in this paper is the design evolution, development and performance refinement of the composite X-Brace (shown in Figure 1). The single-piece, all Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) X-Brace, an important structural component of the body system, was developed from lightweight carbon fiber material to maximize weight reduction and meet performance targets. The development process was driven extensively by virtual engineering, which applied CAE analysis and results to drive the design and improve the design efficiency. Topology optimization and section optimization were used to generate the initial design's shape, form and profile, while respecting the package requirements of the engine compartment.
Technical Paper

Simplified Approach of Chassis Frame Optimization for Durability Performance

2014-04-01
2014-01-0399
In recent trend, there is a huge demand for lightweight chassis frame, which improves fuel efficiency and reduces cost of the vehicle. Stiffness based optimization process is simple and straightforward while durability (life) based optimizations are relatively complex, time consuming due to a two-step (Stress then life) virtual engineering process and complicated loading history. However, durability performances are critical in chassis design, so a process of optimization with simplified approach has been developed. This study talks about the process of chassis frame weight optimization without affecting current durability performance where complex durability load cases are converted to equivalent static loadcases and life targets are cascaded down to simple stress target. Sheet metal gauges and lightening holes are the parameters for optimization studies. The optimization design space is constrained to chassis unique parts.
Technical Paper

Assessing the Likelihood of Binding in Distorted Stepped Radius Cylinder Bores

2014-04-01
2014-01-0395
Interference assessments of a stepped-radius power-train component moving within a deformed stepped bore often arise during engine and transmission development activities. For example, when loads are applied to an engine block, the block distorts. This distortion may cause a cam or crankshaft to bind or wear prematurely in its journals as the part rotates within them. Within an automatic transmission valve body, care must be taken to ensure valve body distortion under oil pressure, assembly, and thermal load does not cause spool valves to stick as they translate within the valve body. In both examples, the mechanical scenario to be assessed involves a uniform or stepped radius cylindrical part maintaining a designated clearance through a correspondingly shaped but distorted bore. These distortions can occur in cross-sections (“out-of-round”) or along the bore (in an “s” or “banana” shaped distortions).
Journal Article

Optimization of a Porous Ducted Air Induction System Using Taguchi's Parameter Design Method

2014-04-01
2014-01-0887
Taguchi method is a technology to prevent quality problems at early stages of product development and product design. Parameter design method is an important part in Taguchi method which selects the best control factor level combination for the optimization of the robustness of product function against noise factors. The air induction system (AIS) provides clean air to the engine for combustion. The noise radiated from the inlet of the AIS can be of significant importance in reducing vehicle interior noise and tuning the interior sound quality. The porous duct has been introduced into the AIS to reduce the snorkel noise. It helps with both the system layout and isolation by reducing transmitted vibration. A CAE simulation procedure has been developed and validated to predict the snorkel noise of the porous ducted AIS. In this paper, Taguchi's parameter design method was utilized to optimize a porous duct design in an AIS to achieve the best snorkel noise performance.
Journal Article

Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) for Optimization of Automotive Heat Exchanger and Underhood Air Temperature

2014-04-01
2014-01-0729
In this paper a design methodology for automotive heat exchangers has been applied which brings robustness into the design process and helps to optimize the design goals: as to maintain an optimal coolant temperature and to limit the vehicle underhood air temperature within a tolerable limit. The most influential design factors for the heat exchangers which affect the goals have been identified with that process. The paper summarizes the optimization steps necessary to meet the optimal functional goals for the vehicle as mentioned above. Taguchi's [1] Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) methods have been employed to conduct this analysis in a robust way.
Journal Article

Fatigue Based Lightweight Optimization of a Pickup Cargo Box with Advanced High Strength Steels

2014-04-01
2014-01-0913
Advanced high strength steels (AHSS) offer a good balance of strength, durability, crash energy absorption and formability. Applications of AHSS for lightweight designs of automotive structures are accelerating in recent years to meet the tough new CAFE standard for vehicle fuel economy by 2025. At the same time, the new generation pickup cargo box is to be designed for a dramatic increase in payload. Upgrading the box material from conventional mild steels to AHSS is necessary to meet the conflicting requirements of vehicle light weighting and higher payload. In this paper, typical AHSS grades such as DP590 and DP780 were applied to selected components of the pickup cargo box for weight reduction while meeting the design targets for fatigue, strength and local stiffness.
Journal Article

Reducing Radiated Structural Noise from AIS Surfaces using Several FEM Optimization Methods

2013-04-08
2013-01-0997
Two finite element optimization techniques are presented for minimizing automotive engine air induction structural radiated noise and mass. Air induction systems are generally made of thin wall plastic which is exposed to high levels of pulsating engine noise. Weak air induction system walls vibrate excessively creating noise that can be heard by the driver. The conventional approach is to add ribs (many times through trial and error) which increase part weight or by adding “kiss-offs,” which restrict air flow. The finite element optimization methods considered here are shape optimization and topometry optimization. Genesis, a fully integrated finite element analysis and optimization package by Vanderplaats Research & Development, was used to perform finite element optimization. Choice of optimization method is primarily dependent on several factors which are appearance, part interference and flow restriction requirements.
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