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Technical Paper

Optimizing Valve Rotational Speed Using Taguchi Techniques

As fuel economy regulations increase and customer preference shifts to smaller, higher power density engines it is more important to effectively cool certain areas of the cylinder head and valvetrain. In order to maximize valvetrain life and increase engine performance it is critical to maintain a near uniform valve seat temperature to enable proper sealing. As cylinder head bridges narrow, and the temperature increases, the water jacket may not be sufficient. An alternative method to ensuring equal temperature distribution across the valve is to promote low speed valve rotation. This will not only aid, cooling the valve seat, as well as cooling and cleaning the valves' seating surface. This paper describes the development and testing of a valve rotation study, utilizing the Taguchi approach in order to determine the most robust design. A test stand was utilized to examine the valve rotation in which the cam was driven directly using a DC motor.
Technical Paper

Design Improvements of Urea SCR Mixing for Medium-Duty Trucks

To meet the 2010 diesel engine emission regulations, an aftertreatment system was developed to reduce HC, CO, NOx and soot. In NOx reduction, a baseline SCR module was designed to include urea injector, mixing decomposition tube and SCR catalysts. However, it was found that the baseline decomposition tube had unacceptable urea mixing performance and severe deposit issues largely because of poor hardware design. The purpose of this article is to describe necessary development work to improve the baseline system to achieve desired mixing targets. To this end, an emissions Flow Lab and computational fluid dynamics were used as the main tools to evaluate urea mixing solutions. Given the complicated urea spray transport and limited packaging space, intensive efforts were taken to develop pre-injector pipe geometry, post-injector cone geometry, single mixer design modifications, and dual mixer design options.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Catalytic Converter Location and Palladium Loading on Tailpipe Emissions

Meeting regulated tailpipe emission standards requires a full system approach by automotive engineers encompassing: engine design, combustion system metrics, exhaust heat management, aftertreatment design and exhaust system packaging. Engine and combustion system design targets define desired engine out exhaust constituents, exhaust gas temperatures and oil consumption rates. Protecting required catalytic converter volume in the engine bay for stricter tailpipe emission standards is becoming more difficult. Future fuel economy mandates are leading to vehicle downsizing which is affecting all aspects of vehicle component packaging. In this study, we set out to determine the potential palladium (Pd) cost penalty as a result of increased light-off time required as a catalyst is positioned further away from the engine. Two aged converter systems with different Pd loadings were considered, and EPA FTP-75 emission tested at six different catalyst positions.
Technical Paper

Cause and Effect of Reversible Deactivation of Diesel Oxidation Catalysts

To meet TierII/LEVII emissions standards, light duty diesel (LDD) vehicles require high conversion efficiencies from the Aftertreatment Systems (ATS) for the removal of both Hydrocarbon (HC) and Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) species. The most populous configuration for LDD ATS have the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst positioned on the vehicle behind the close coupled Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) and Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter (CDPF). This SCR position may require active heating measures which rely on the DOC/CDPF to provide heat through the combustion of HC and CO in the exhaust. Although DOCs are always impacted by their aging conditions, some aging conditions are shown to be both reversible and irreversible.
Journal Article

Rotating Clutch Temperature Model Development Using Rapid Prototype Controllers

Due to the multitude of external design constraints, such as increasing fuel economy standards, and the increasing number of global vehicle programs, developers of automotive transmission controls have to cope with increasing levels of powertrain system complexity. Achieving these requirements while improving system quality, reducing development cost and improving time to market is a very challenging task. To achieve this goal, a rapid prototype controller was used to develop a new transmission clutch temperature model. This model is used to detect clutch surface overheating, improve design and enhance shift quality.