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Technical Paper

Design Improvements of Urea SCR Mixing for Medium-Duty Trucks

2013-04-08
2013-01-1074
To meet the 2010 diesel engine emission regulations, an aftertreatment system was developed to reduce HC, CO, NOx and soot. In NOx reduction, a baseline SCR module was designed to include urea injector, mixing decomposition tube and SCR catalysts. However, it was found that the baseline decomposition tube had unacceptable urea mixing performance and severe deposit issues largely because of poor hardware design. The purpose of this article is to describe necessary development work to improve the baseline system to achieve desired mixing targets. To this end, an emissions Flow Lab and computational fluid dynamics were used as the main tools to evaluate urea mixing solutions. Given the complicated urea spray transport and limited packaging space, intensive efforts were taken to develop pre-injector pipe geometry, post-injector cone geometry, single mixer design modifications, and dual mixer design options.
Technical Paper

Alternative to Hydrogen/Helium as Flame Ionization Detector Fuel

2013-04-08
2013-01-1045
Flame ionization detector (FID) analyzers used in emission testing to measure total hydrocarbon emissions have been operating for the last forty years on a fuel mixture of 40% H₂ and 60% helium. These mixtures were selected based on research studies reported in the literature indicating that this particular mixed fuel combination gave the best sensitivity and relative response of the different hydrocarbons present in vehicle exhaust with respect to propane, the calibration gas. During the past few years, it was announced that there is a worldwide shortage of helium which triggered the automotive industry to look for alternatives for helium to be used in FID fuels. Helium which is produced as a byproduct from natural gas fields is non-renewable, expensive, and extremely rare on the earth. Current supply cannot keep up with demand. There are only few natural gas fields producing helium and unless new natural gas fields are found, current helium amounts will continue to dwindle.
Technical Paper

Multi-Dimensional Modeling and Validation of Combustion in a High-Efficiency Dual-Fuel Light-Duty Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-1091
Using gasoline and diesel simultaneously in a dual-fuel combustion system has shown effective benefits in terms of both brake thermal efficiency and exhaust emissions. In this study, the dual-fuel approach is applied to a light-duty spark ignition (SI) gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine. Three combustion modes are proposed based on the engine load, diesel micro-pilot (DMP) combustion at high load, SI combustion at low load, and diesel assisted spark-ignition (DASI) combustion in the transition zone. Major focus is put on the DMP mode, where the diesel fuel acts as an enhancer for ignition and combustion of the mixture of gasoline, air, and recirculated exhaust gas. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used to simulate the dual-fuel combustion with the final goal of supporting the comprehensive optimization of the main engine parameters.
Technical Paper

Energy Efficient Routing for Electric Vehicles using Particle Swarm Optimization

2014-04-01
2014-01-1815
Growing concerns about the environment, energy dependency, and unstable fuel prices have increased the market share of electric vehicles. This has led to an increased demand for energy efficient routing algorithms that are optimized for electric vehicles. Traditional routing algorithms are focused on finding the shortest distance or the least time route between two points. These approaches have been working well for fossil fueled vehicles. Electric vehicles, on the other hand, require different route optimization techniques. Negative edge costs, battery power and capacity limits, as well as vehicle parameters that are only available at query time, make the task of electric vehicle routing a challenging problem. In this paper, we present a simulated solution to the energy efficient routing for electric vehicles using Particle Swarm Optimization. Simulation results show improvements in the energy consumption of the electric vehicle when applied to a start-to-destination routing problem.
Technical Paper

Cause and Effect of Reversible Deactivation of Diesel Oxidation Catalysts

2014-04-01
2014-01-1518
To meet TierII/LEVII emissions standards, light duty diesel (LDD) vehicles require high conversion efficiencies from the Aftertreatment Systems (ATS) for the removal of both Hydrocarbon (HC) and Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) species. The most populous configuration for LDD ATS have the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst positioned on the vehicle behind the close coupled Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) and Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter (CDPF). This SCR position may require active heating measures which rely on the DOC/CDPF to provide heat through the combustion of HC and CO in the exhaust. Although DOCs are always impacted by their aging conditions, some aging conditions are shown to be both reversible and irreversible.
Journal Article

Investigation of LEV-III Aftertreatment Designs

2011-04-12
2011-01-0301
Proposed LEV-III emission level will require improvements in NMOG, CO and NOx emissions as measured over FTP and US06 emission cycles. Incremental improvements in washcoat technologies, cold start calibration and catalyst system design are required to develop a cost effective solution set. New catalyst technologies demonstrated both lower HC and NOx emissions with 25% less platinum group metals (PGM). FTP and US06 emissions were measured on a 4-cylinder 2.4L application which compares a close-coupled converter and close-coupled + underfloor converter systems. A PGM placement study was performed with the close-coupled converter system employing these new catalyst technologies. Emissions results suggest that the placement of PGM is critical in minimizing emissions and PGM costs.
Journal Article

Estimation of Individual Cylinder Fuel Air Ratios from a Switching or Wide Range Oxygen Sensor for Engine Control and On-Board Diagnosis

2011-04-12
2011-01-0710
The fuel air ratio imbalance between individual cylinders can result in poor fuel economy and severe exhaust emissions. Individual cylinder fuel air ratio control is one of the important techniques used to improve fuel economy and reduce exhaust emission. California Air Resources Board (CARB) also has required automotive manufacturers to equip with on-board diagnosis system for cylinder fuel air ratio imbalance detection starting in 2011. However, one of the most challenging tasks for the individual cylinder fuel air ratio control and cylinder imbalance diagnosis is how to retrieve the cylinder fuel air ratio information effectively at low cost. This paper presents a novel and practical signal processing based fuel air ratio estimation method for individual cylinder fuel air ratio balance control and on-board fuel air ratio imbalance diagnosis.
Journal Article

Evaluation of Impact of Active Grille Shutter on Vehicle Thermal Management

2011-04-12
2011-01-1172
Due to increased demand for improved fuel economy and reduction in CO2 emissions, active grille shutter (AGS) has been considered as one option to increase fuel economy by reducing vehicle drag resistance. An AGS system will allow airflow through the grille when demand on cooling system or air conditioning system is high. Under conditions of light load and moderate ambient temperatures and humidity, the grille does not have to be fully open. A reduction in the effective grille size opening can be achieved by either partially or fully closing the grille through a stepped speed motor actuator. When the grille opening size is reduced, under-hood airflow will decrease. Therefore, the operating points for the grille shutter should take into account the effect of temperature rise for under-hood and underbody components and the performance of the cooling and climate control systems.
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