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Technical Paper

Alternative to Hydrogen/Helium as Flame Ionization Detector Fuel

2013-04-08
2013-01-1045
Flame ionization detector (FID) analyzers used in emission testing to measure total hydrocarbon emissions have been operating for the last forty years on a fuel mixture of 40% H₂ and 60% helium. These mixtures were selected based on research studies reported in the literature indicating that this particular mixed fuel combination gave the best sensitivity and relative response of the different hydrocarbons present in vehicle exhaust with respect to propane, the calibration gas. During the past few years, it was announced that there is a worldwide shortage of helium which triggered the automotive industry to look for alternatives for helium to be used in FID fuels. Helium which is produced as a byproduct from natural gas fields is non-renewable, expensive, and extremely rare on the earth. Current supply cannot keep up with demand. There are only few natural gas fields producing helium and unless new natural gas fields are found, current helium amounts will continue to dwindle.
Technical Paper

EGR Systems Evaluation in Turbocharged Engines

2013-04-08
2013-01-0936
EGR systems are widely applied in modern turbocharged diesel engines to reduce engine-out emissions and will, or are being used to mitigate engine knock in SI engines for improved SI engine efficiency and power. In this paper, different EGR systems are detailed and evaluated theoretically based on the thermodynamics of a turbocharged system featuring an EGR sub-system. Turbine expansion ratio is utilized as a metric to estimate engine efficiency, i.e., pumping losses during the gas exchange process. Approaches such as compressor and turbine bypassing are evaluated as well. Based on above analysis, a new approach is put forward to expand the turbocharger work zone, particularly in the high efficiency regions by correctly utilizing EGR systems at all engine speed range: low-pressure loop EGR system at lower engine speed range and high-pressure loop EGR system at high engine speed range.
Technical Paper

Developing the AC17 Efficiency Test for Mobile Air Conditioners

2013-04-08
2013-01-0569
Chrysler, Ford, General Motors, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the California Air Resources Board (CARB) have collaborated over the past two years to develop an efficiency test for mobile air conditioner (MAC) systems. Because the effect of efficiency differences between different MAC systems and different technologies is relatively small compared to overall vehicle fuel consumption, quantifying these differences has been challenging. The objective of this program was to develop a single dynamic test procedure that is capable of discerning small efficiency differences, and is generally representative of mobile air conditioner usage in the United States. The test was designed to be conducted in existing test facilities, using existing equipment, and within a sufficiently short time to fit standard test facility scheduling. Representative ambient climate conditions for the U.S. were chosen, as well as other test parameters, and a solar load was included.
Technical Paper

Windage Tray Design Comparison Using Crankcase Breathing Simulation

2013-04-08
2013-01-0580
The conflicting requirements of better fuel economy, higher performance and lower emissions from an automobile engine have brought many new challenges that require development teams to look beyond conventional test and seek answers from simulations. One of the relatively unexplored areas of development where frictional losses haven't been completely understood is the flow in the crankcase. Here computational engineering can play a significant role in analyzing flow field in a hidden and complex region where otherwise testing has serious limitations. Flow simulation in the crankcase poses significant complexity and provides an opportunity to enhance the understanding of underlying physics by using multi-physics analyses tools available commercially. In this study, air space under the piston and above the oil level in oil pan is simulated. It is known that bay-to-bay breathing and windage holes account for considerable amount of power losses in the crankcase.
Technical Paper

An Application of Ant Colony Optimization to Energy Efficient Routing for Electric Vehicles

2013-04-08
2013-01-0337
With the increased market share of electric vehicles, the demand for energy-efficient routing algorithms specifically optimized for electric vehicles has increased. Traditional routing algorithms are focused on optimizing the shortest distance or the shortest time in finding a path from point A to point B. These traditional methods have been working well for fossil fueled vehicles. Electric vehicles, on the other hand, require different route optimization techniques. Negative edge costs, battery power limits, battery capacity limits, and vehicle parameters that are only available at query time, make the task of electric vehicle routing a challenging problem. In this paper, we present an ant colony based, energy-efficient routing algorithm that is optimized and designed for electric vehicles. Simulation results show improvements in the energy consumption of electric vehicles when applied to a start-to-destination routing problem.
Technical Paper

Shape Recovery Simulation of Flexible Airdam

2013-04-08
2013-01-0166
Airdam is an aerodynamic component in automobile and is designed to reduce the drag and increase fuel efficiency. It is also an important styling component. The front airdam below the bumper is to direct the air flow away from the front tires and towards the underbody, where the drag coefficient becomes less. The flexible airdam is made of Santoprene™ - thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPV), which belongs to thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) family. When a vehicle is parked over a parking block, the flexible airdam will be under strain subjected to bending load from the parking block. If the airdam is kept under constant strain for a certain period, a set will occur and the force will decay over a period of time. Due to the force decay, the stress will reduce and this behavior is called as stress relaxation.
Technical Paper

Multi-Dimensional Modeling and Validation of Combustion in a High-Efficiency Dual-Fuel Light-Duty Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-1091
Using gasoline and diesel simultaneously in a dual-fuel combustion system has shown effective benefits in terms of both brake thermal efficiency and exhaust emissions. In this study, the dual-fuel approach is applied to a light-duty spark ignition (SI) gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine. Three combustion modes are proposed based on the engine load, diesel micro-pilot (DMP) combustion at high load, SI combustion at low load, and diesel assisted spark-ignition (DASI) combustion in the transition zone. Major focus is put on the DMP mode, where the diesel fuel acts as an enhancer for ignition and combustion of the mixture of gasoline, air, and recirculated exhaust gas. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used to simulate the dual-fuel combustion with the final goal of supporting the comprehensive optimization of the main engine parameters.
Technical Paper

Gasoline Combustion Modeling of Direct and Port-Fuel Injected Engines using a Reduced Chemical Mechanism

2013-04-08
2013-01-1098
A set of reduced chemical mechanisms was developed for use in multi-dimensional engine simulations of premixed gasoline combustion. The detailed Primary Reference Fuel (PRF) mechanism (1034 species, 4236 reactions) from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was employed as the starting mechanism. The detailed mechanism, referred to here as LLNL-PRF, was reduced using a technique known as Parallel Direct Relation Graph with Error Propagation and Sensitivity Analysis. This technique allows for efficient mechanism reduction by parallelizing the ignition delay calculations used in the reduction process. The reduction was performed for a temperature range of 800 to 1500 K and equivalence ratios of 0.5 to 1.5. The pressure range of interest was 0.75 bar to 40 bar, as dictated by the wide range in spark timing cylinder pressures for the various cases. In order to keep the mechanisms relatively small, two reductions were performed.
Technical Paper

Battery Development for Stop-Start Application in Brazilian Market

2013-04-08
2013-01-1526
There is a growing worldwide concern regarding the environmental aspects related to the performance of a corporation and its products, whether by consumer demand or government requirements. The constant pressure for innovations and improvements related to sustainable development are current issues in everyday life of any institution that seeks to consolidate a position of acceptance and competitiveness in the global market. The automotive industry is one of the markets more involved and challenged to the demand of the environmental requirements in regards the limits of pollutant emissions and consequently fuel consumption. The European and North America vehicles already have more electrical content inside (either related to safety and comfort or even needs related to weather), which results in significantly higher consumption levels than traditionally observed in Brazil's application.
Technical Paper

DC Charging and Standards for Plug-in Electric Vehicles

2013-04-08
2013-01-1475
This paper is the fourth in the series of documents designed to identify the progress on the SAE Plug-in Electric Vehicle (PEV) communication task force. - The initial paper (2010-01-0837) introduced utility communications (J2836/1™ & J2847/1) and how the SAE task force interfaced with other organizations. - The second paper (2011-01-0866) focused on the next steps of the utility requirements and added DC charging (J2836/2™ & J2847/2) along with initial effort for Reverse Power Flow (J2836/3™ & J2847/3). - The third paper (2012-01-1036) summarized the task force documents and interaction. It also included the continued testing of PowerLine Carrier (PLC) products for Utility and DC charging messages using Electric Power Research Institutes (EPRI) test plan and schedule that were used at EPRI and Argonne National Labs (ANL).
Technical Paper

Charge Motion Analysis to Guide Engine Port Development and Enhance Combustion Stability for High Cooled Exhaust Gas Recirculation

2013-04-08
2013-01-1313
CAE tools are increasingly important in the automotive design process. In part, CAE tools can be useful in reducing the number of physical prototypes required during a product development effort. CFD tools can assess and predict cylinder charge motion for proposed designs, thereby limiting the need for prototype work. Though detailed combustion simulation results could help guide product development, the time required for such simulations limits their usefulness in the context of a production program. However equally valuable information can be obtained from gas exchange analyses which require less computation time and are run only from Intake Valve opening (IVO) to spark timing. Chemical kinetics is not included in this type of analysis. Using this approach, large numbers of configurations can be evaluated in a short period of time. Every passing year automotive engineers are challenged to attain higher fuel economy targets.
Technical Paper

A Design for Six Sigma Approach to Optimize a Front-Wheel-Drive Transmission for Improved Efficiency and Robustness

2011-04-12
2011-01-0720
Environmental concerns and government regulations are factors that have led to an increased focus on fuel economy in the automotive industry. This paper identifies a method used to improve the efficiency of a front-wheel-drive (FWD) automatic transmission. In order to create improvements in large complex systems, it is key to have a large scope, to include as much of the system as possible. The approach taken in this work was to use Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) methodology. This was done to optimize as many of the front-wheel-drive transmission components as possible to increase robustness and efficiency. A focus of robustness, or consistency in torque transformation, is as important as the value of efficiency itself, because of the huge range of usage conditions. Therefore, it was necessary to find a solution of the best transmission component settings that would not depend on specific usage conditions such as temperatures, system pressures, or gear ratio.
Technical Paper

Communication Requirements for Plug-In Electric Vehicles

2011-04-12
2011-01-0866
This paper is the second in the series of documents designed to record the progress of a series of SAE documents - SAE J2836™, J2847, J2931, & J2953 - within the Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Communication Task Force. This follows the initial paper number 2010-01-0837, and continues with the test and modeling of the various PLC types for utility programs described in J2836/1™ & J2847/1. This also extends the communication to an off-board charger, described in J2836/2™ & J2847/2 and includes reverse energy flow described in J2836/3™ and J2847/3. The initial versions of J2836/1™ and J2847/1 were published early 2010. J2847/1 has now been re-opened to include updates from comments from the National Institute of Standards Technology (NIST) Smart Grid Interoperability Panel (SGIP), Smart Grid Architectural Committee (SGAC) and Cyber Security Working Group committee (SCWG).
Technical Paper

Assessment Metric Identification and Evaluation for Side Airbag (SAB) Development

2011-04-12
2011-01-0257
This paper discusses steps for identifying, evaluating and recommending a quantifiable design metric or metrics for Side Airbag (SAB) development. Three functionally related and desirable attributes of a SAB are assumed at the onset, namely, effective SAB coverage, load distribution and efficient energy management at a controlled force level. The third attribute however contradicts the “banana shaped” force-displacement response that characterizes the ineffective energy management reality of most production SAB. In this study, an estimated ATD to SAB interaction energy is used to size and recommend desired force-deformation characteristic of a robust energy management SAB. The study was conducted in the following three phases and corresponding objectives: Phase 1 is a SAB assessment metric identification and estimation, using a uniform block attached to a horizontal impact machine.
Technical Paper

Development of a Standard Spin Loss Test Procedure for 4WD Transfer Cases

2012-04-16
2012-01-0306
As vehicle fuel economy continues to grow in importance, the ability to accurately measure the level of parasitic losses on all driveline components is required. A standardized comparison procedure enables manufacturers and suppliers to measure component losses consistently, in addition to offering a reliable process to assess enablers for efficiency improvements. This paper reviews the development of a comprehensive test procedure to measure transfer case speed-dependent parasitic losses at key speed, load, and environmental conditions. This procedure was validated for repeatability considering variations in soak time, temperature measurement positions on the transfer case, and test operating conditions. Additional assessments of spin loss at low ambient temperatures, and the effect of component break-in on spin loss were also conducted.
Technical Paper

Impact of Ethanol Fuels on Regulated Tailpipe Emissions

2012-04-16
2012-01-0872
Flexible fuel vehicle production has been steadily increasing in the US over the past fifteen years. Ethanol is considered a renewable fuel additive to gasoline which helps the US efforts in minimizing the dependency on foreign oil. As a result, it is becoming very hard to find pure gasoline which does not contain some ethanol content at the pump in the US. The fuel currently available at the pump contains close to 10% ethanol. The fuel and evaporative systems components and materials on newer flexible fuel vehicles are being designed to be tolerant of the 10% ethanol content. There is a strong desire from ethanol producers to increase the ethanol content up to a 20% level. This is still being debated by the Environmental Protection Agency and a final decision has not been made yet but will be announced by the upcoming Tier 3 Notice of Public Rule Making (NPRM) in December of 2011.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Catalytic Converter Location and Palladium Loading on Tailpipe Emissions

2012-04-16
2012-01-1247
Meeting regulated tailpipe emission standards requires a full system approach by automotive engineers encompassing: engine design, combustion system metrics, exhaust heat management, aftertreatment design and exhaust system packaging. Engine and combustion system design targets define desired engine out exhaust constituents, exhaust gas temperatures and oil consumption rates. Protecting required catalytic converter volume in the engine bay for stricter tailpipe emission standards is becoming more difficult. Future fuel economy mandates are leading to vehicle downsizing which is affecting all aspects of vehicle component packaging. In this study, we set out to determine the potential palladium (Pd) cost penalty as a result of increased light-off time required as a catalyst is positioned further away from the engine. Two aged converter systems with different Pd loadings were considered, and EPA FTP-75 emission tested at six different catalyst positions.
Technical Paper

Energy Efficient Routing for Electric Vehicles using Particle Swarm Optimization

2014-04-01
2014-01-1815
Growing concerns about the environment, energy dependency, and unstable fuel prices have increased the market share of electric vehicles. This has led to an increased demand for energy efficient routing algorithms that are optimized for electric vehicles. Traditional routing algorithms are focused on finding the shortest distance or the least time route between two points. These approaches have been working well for fossil fueled vehicles. Electric vehicles, on the other hand, require different route optimization techniques. Negative edge costs, battery power and capacity limits, as well as vehicle parameters that are only available at query time, make the task of electric vehicle routing a challenging problem. In this paper, we present a simulated solution to the energy efficient routing for electric vehicles using Particle Swarm Optimization. Simulation results show improvements in the energy consumption of the electric vehicle when applied to a start-to-destination routing problem.
Technical Paper

Application of Modeling Technology in a Turbocharged SI Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-1621
Improvements to 1D engine modeling accuracy and computational speed have led to greater reliance on this simulation technology during the engine development process. The benefits of modeling show up in many ways: increased simulation iterations for better optimization, reduction in prototype hardware iterations, reduction in program timing and overall cost. In this study a 1D GT-Power model of a turbocharged engine system was used to assist in the initial design phase and throughout the program. The model was developed using Chrysler Group LLC proprietary modeling features for predictive combustion and knock event prediction. In all stages of this project the model's accuracy was improved through regular correlation with dynamometer data. This paper mainly focuses on engine compression ratio selection, turbocharger selection, and cycle-to-cycle variation/cylinder-to-cylinder variation reduction through the combination of 1D GT-Power model optimization and dynamometer tests.
Technical Paper

The New Powertrain Virtual Analysis Process in Engine Design and Development

2013-04-08
2013-01-1720
Due to new federal regulations and higher environmental awareness, the market demands for high fuel economy and low exhaust emission engines are increasing. At the same time customer demands for engine performance, NVH and reliability are also increasing. It is a challenge for engineers to design an engine to meet all requirements with less development time. Currently, the new engine development time has been trimmed in order to introduce more products to the market. Utilizing CAE technology and processes in an engine development cycle can enable engineers to satisfy all requirements in a timely and cost-effectively way. This paper describes a new Powertrain Virtual Analysis Process which has been successfully implemented into Chrysler PTCP (Powertrain Creation Process) and effectively utilized to shorten and improve the product development process. This new virtual analysis process guides the product development from concept through the production validation phases.
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