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Technical Paper

Optimizing Valve Rotational Speed Using Taguchi Techniques

2010-04-12
2010-01-1096
As fuel economy regulations increase and customer preference shifts to smaller, higher power density engines it is more important to effectively cool certain areas of the cylinder head and valvetrain. In order to maximize valvetrain life and increase engine performance it is critical to maintain a near uniform valve seat temperature to enable proper sealing. As cylinder head bridges narrow, and the temperature increases, the water jacket may not be sufficient. An alternative method to ensuring equal temperature distribution across the valve is to promote low speed valve rotation. This will not only aid, cooling the valve seat, as well as cooling and cleaning the valves' seating surface. This paper describes the development and testing of a valve rotation study, utilizing the Taguchi approach in order to determine the most robust design. A test stand was utilized to examine the valve rotation in which the cam was driven directly using a DC motor.
Technical Paper

The Consequences of Average Curve Generation: Implications for Biomechanics Data

2010-11-03
2010-22-0001
One method of understanding the general mechanical response of a complex system such as a vehicle, a human surrogate, a bridge, a boat, a plane, etc., is to subject it to an input, such as an impact, and obtain the response time-histories. The responses can be accelerations, velocities, strains, etc. In general, when experiments of this type are run the responses are contaminated by sample-to-sample variation, test-to-test variability, random noise, instrumentation noise, and noise from unknown sources. One common method of addressing the noise in the system to obtain the underlying response is to run multiple tests on different samples that represent the same system and add them together obtaining an average. This functionally reduces the random noise. However, if the fundamental response of each sample is not the same, then it is not altogether clear what the average represents. It may not capture the underlying physics.
Technical Paper

Noise Contribution Analysis at Suspension Interfaces Using Different Force Identification Techniques

2011-05-17
2011-01-1600
Road-tire induced vibrations are in many vehicles determining the interior noise levels in (semi-) constant speed driving. The understanding of the noise contributions of different connections of the suspension systems to the vehicle is essential in improvement of the isolation capabilities of the suspension- and body-structure. To identify these noise contributions, both the forces acting at the suspension-to-body connections points and the vibro-acoustic transfers from the connection points to the interior microphones are required. In this paper different approaches to identify the forces are compared for their applicability to road noise analysis. First step for the force identification is the full vehicle operational measurement in which target responses (interior noise) and indicator responses (accelerations or other) are measured.
Technical Paper

Design and Control of Transmission Systems using Physical Model Simulation

2010-04-12
2010-01-0898
Physical modeling has been used by the industry to improve development time and produce a quality product. In this paper, we will describe two methods used in system control to take advantage of the physical model. One method describes a complete transmission physical model with a full system control utilizing co-simulation techniques. Data will be presented, and comparison to vehicle data will be conducted and verified. The second method will illustrate how to utilize the physical model to improve system design and modification. In this method, vehicle data will be used as inputs to the model, the model output will be verified against vehicle output data. The two methods are excellent tools for the Design For Six Sigma process (DFSS design).
Technical Paper

A Practical Failure Limit for Sheared Edge Stretching of Automotive Body Panels

2010-04-12
2010-01-0986
Edge cracking is one of the major formability concerns in advanced high strength steel (AHSS) stamping. Although finite element analysis (FEA) together with the Forming Limit Diagram has been widely used, it has not effectively predicted edge cracking. Primary problems in developing a methodology to insure that parts are safe from edge cracking are the lack of an effective failure criterion and a simple and accurate measurement method that is not only usable in both die tryout and production but also can be verified by finite element analysis. The intent of this study is to develop a methodology to ensure that parts with internal cutouts, such as a body side panel can be produced without edge cracking. During tryout and production, edge cracking has traditionally been detected by visual examination, but this approach is not adequate for ensuring freedom from edge cracking.
Technical Paper

Digital Image Correlation System Application - Measuring Deformation and Load of Convertible Top Fabric

2010-04-12
2010-01-0954
Strain gages have been widely used for measuring strain or deformation. They are very reliable and accurate. However, for application on fabric material, strain gages have their limitations. In this paper, digital image correlation (DIC) is used to measure the deformation around the rear window on a convertible top. The test needed to be non destructive, the vehicle and convertible top could not be damaged. The deformation or strain measured on the fabric was used to estimate the force experienced at the interface between the glass and the fabric during an opening/closing application. A speckle pattern was created on the convertible fabric where deformation was to be measured with washable paint. The image of the measured area was first recorded. The convertible top was then latched down and the fabric was stretched. A second image was recorded again. Based on the two images, the deformation/strain between the two conditions was measured.
Technical Paper

Determination of Vehicle Resistance Curve in Engine Cooling System Design

2010-04-12
2010-01-0933
A process to create a vehicle resistance curve based on airflow predictions using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation technique is presented. 1-dimensional engine cooling system simulation tool KULI is used to compute the coefficients of vehicle resistance curve. A full factorial Design of Experiment (DOE) established the relationship between the coefficients and the sum of absolute difference between KULI and CFD predictions. The NLPQL optimization routine is used to accurately predict the coefficients so that sum of absolute difference between KULI and CFD predictions is minimized.
Technical Paper

Standardization Proposal for “Automotive-Grade AVRCP” with Respect to In-Car use of Bluetooth Devices.

2010-04-12
2010-01-0689
With regard to the use of portable consumer electronic devices in an automobile, Bluetooth has become a widely accepted method for short range wireless communication between a vehicle and a portable device. One Bluetooth connectivity protocol for this use case is Audio/Visual Remote Control Profile (AVRCP). Currently, AVRCP specifies mandatory commands for both target devices (cellular phones and audio players), as well as for control devices like an audio head unit. However, there is no requirement that control devices and target devices implement the same commands, nor is there a requirement that supported commands utilize information that would be useful in improving the driver's experience (i.e. metadata). This paper will describe the impact of this reality from the perspective of the automotive consumer, and propose an “automotive grade” AVRCP that could provide a more consistent consumer experience in the automotive market.
Technical Paper

Autoignition Characteristics of Primary Reference Fuels and their Mixtures

2009-11-02
2009-01-2624
This study investigates the autoignition of Primary Reference Fuels (PRFs) using a detailed kinetic model. The chemical kinetics software CHEMKIN is used to facilitate solutions in a constant volume reactor and a variable volume reactor, with the latter representing an IC engine. Experimental shock tube and HCCI engine data from literature is compared with the present predictions in these two reactors. The model is then used to conduct a parametric study in the constant volume reactor of the effect of inlet pressure, inlet temperature, octane number, fuel/air equivalence ratio, and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on the autoignition of PRF/air mixtures. A number of interesting characteristics are demonstrated in the parametric study. In particular, it is observed that PRFs can exhibit single or two stage ignition depending on the inlet temperature. The total ignition delay, whether single or two stage, is correlated withn-C7H16/O2 ratio.
Technical Paper

Method to Efficiently Implement Automotive Application Algorithms Using Signal Processing Engine (SPE) of Copperhead Microcontroller

2008-04-14
2008-01-1222
This paper presents the studies on how to efficiently and easily implement ECU application algorithms using the Signal Processing Engine (SPE) of the Copperhead microcontroller. With the introduced development and testing concepts and methods, users can easily establish their own PC based SPE emulation system. All application unit testing and verification work for the fixed point implementation using SPE functions can be easily conducted in PC without relying on a costly real time test bench and expensive third party dedicated software. With this simple development environment, the code can be run in both embedded controllers and PCs with exact bit to bit numerical behavior. The paper also demonstrates many other benefits such as code statistics information retrieval, floating simulation mode, automated code verification, online and offline code sharing.
Technical Paper

Low Rhodium Catalyst Technology for Gasoline and FFV Applications

2009-04-20
2009-01-1070
An investigation into the design, development and evaluation of a “new” washcoat technology family that enables significant reductions in rhodium usage levels has been concluded. These findings were demonstrated on three vehicle applications utilizing different calibration A/F control strategies. Additional testing investigated optimal Rh placement on a two brick catalyst system and the impact on FTP and US-06 test cycles. This study concludes with an evaluation of full useful life aged catalysts tested on 6 and 8 cylinder applications that are shown to have met Bin 4 FFV and ULEVII emission standards.
Technical Paper

Application of Kinetics of Thermal Degradation for Time-Temperature Analysis of Automotive Components

2009-04-20
2009-01-1178
A fundamental problem in the development of automotive thermal protection strategies is the understanding of the effect of time and temperature on vehicle components life and their performance throughout the life of the vehicle. Due to restrictions on emissions and the stringent requirements for improved fuel economy, the use of polymers and synthetic materials has been widely adopted in automotive applications. It is therefore critical to develop a process to estimate life of engineering materials based on thermal testing and material physical properties. While a series of carefully selected vehicle tests can determine components temperatures during different testing conditions, a need still exists to determine the expected component life and performance throughout the life of the vehicle. Kinetic models have been widely used, in literature, to determine the aging of polymeric and composite materials over time.
Technical Paper

Development of an Engineering Analysis Tool for Time-Temperature Analysis of Automotive Components

2009-04-20
2009-01-1179
This paper describes the development of an engineering analysis tool that assesses the life of vehicle components, after exposure to heat. As a standard engineering practice, each component or part of a component has a “long term” and a “short term” temperature goal based on the part’s material physical properties. At higher temperatures, component’s physical properties degrade at a faster rate, and the component’s useful life can be significantly reduced. The extent of degradation depends upon the duration of exposure, the magnitude of the over-temperature and rate of thermal degradation. This tool utilizes actual vehicle test data from test cells or road testing, material physical properties, and expected vehicle duty cycle to determine the expected component life. When component temperature goals are exceeded, the software calculates the total duration of time above the goal temperature.
Technical Paper

Vehicle-to-Vehicle Frontal Impacts: 2D Numerical Study

2008-04-14
2008-01-0506
A 2D model for vehicle-to-vehicle impact analysis that was presented in an earlier paper [1], has been used to study several two-vehicle frontal impacts with different incidence angles, frontal overlap offsets, and mass ratios. The impacts have been evaluated in terms of energy and momentum change in the bullet vehicle and the target vehicle. Based on comparisons between pre- and post-impact longitudinal, lateral, and angular components of kinetic energy, and linear and angular momenta, the impacts experienced by the target vehicle and the bullet vehicle have been classified as collinear or oblique. These results have been used to propose a definition of frontal impact based on vehicle kinematics during a crash.
Technical Paper

Adaptive nth Order Lookup Table used in Transmission Double Swap Shift Control

2008-04-14
2008-01-0538
The new Chrysler six-speed transaxle makes use of an underdrive assembly to extend a four-speed automatic transmission to six-speed. It is achieved by introducing double-swap shifts. During double-swap shift, learning the initial clutch torque capacity of the underdrive assembly's subsystem has a direct impact on the shift quality. A new method is proposed to compute and learn the initial clutch torque capacity of the releasing element. In this paper, we will outline a new mathematical method to compute and learn the accurate starting point of the clutch torque capacity for double swap shift control. The performance of the shift is demonstrated and the importance of the adaptation to shift quality is highlighted. An nth order lookup table is presented; this table contains n rows and m columns. Every row defines a relationship between the dependent variable such as actuator duty cycle and one independent variable such as transmission oil temperature, input torque or battery voltage.
Technical Paper

Transient One-Dimensional Thermal Analysis of Automotive Components for Determination of Thermal Protection Requirements

2008-04-14
2008-01-0733
During initial phases of vehicle development process, it is usually required to understand the temperature profile for all components. It is usually more effective and less costly if the thermal issues are determined and addressed before actual vehicles are built. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis tools are typically used for thermal management of the vehicle environment. However, for transient thermal analysis problems, running a full CFD requires solving the mass, momentum, and energy equations. This typically requires a lengthy computation time and extensive computer resources. The problem becomes more challenging when trying to conduct CFD analysis for several design iterations and for different duty cycles that may be of a transient nature. Therefore, the application of one-dimensional analysis early in the development phase can help point out the areas of prime concern.
Technical Paper

A Correlation Study between the Full Scale Wind Tunnels of Chrysler, Ford, and General Motors

2008-04-14
2008-01-1205
A correlation of aerodynamic wind tunnels was initiated between Chrysler, Ford and General Motors under the umbrella of the United States Council for Automotive Research (USCAR). The wind tunnels used in this correlation were the open jet tunnel at Chrysler's Aero Acoustic Wind Tunnel (AAWT), the open jet tunnel at the Jacobs Drivability Test Facility (DTF) that Ford uses, and the closed jet tunnel at General Motors Aerodynamics Laboratory (GMAL). Initially, existing non-competitive aerodynamic data was compared to determine the feasibility of facility correlation. Once feasibility was established, a series of standardized tests with six vehicles were conducted at the three wind tunnels. The size and body styles of the six vehicles were selected to cover the spectrum of production vehicles produced by the three companies. All vehicles were tested at EPA loading conditions. Despite the significant differences between the three facilities, the correlation results were very good.
Technical Paper

Using Triaxial Angular Rate Sensor and Accelerometer to Determine Spatial Orientation and Position in Impact Tests

2009-04-20
2009-01-0055
A data processing algorithm is presented for determining the spatial orientation and position of a rigid body in impact tests based on an instrumentation scheme consisting of a triaxial angular rate sensor and a trialaxial linear accelerometer. The algorithm adopts the unit quaternion as the main parameterized representation of the spatial orientation, and calculates its time history by solving an ordinary differential equation with the angular rate sensor reading as the input. Two supplemental representations, the Euler angles and the direction cosine matrix, are also used in this work, which provide an intuitive description of the orientation, and convenience in transforming the linear accelerometer output in the instrumentation frame to the global frame. The algorithm has been implemented as a computer program, and a set of example impact tests are included to demonstrate its application.
Technical Paper

A Method for Obtaining Optimum Fuel Economy Performance using Transient Combustion Measurements

2009-04-20
2009-01-0243
An experiment was conducted testing a powertrain package consisting of a four cylinder four valve engine coupled to a four speed automatic transmission in a dynamometer test cell. Cylinder pressure transducers, an encoder, and other instrumentation were used to measure transient combustion events. The transient cycle chosen for testing was a Cold 80 of the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) that produces a standardized fuel economy value. After analyzing the combustion events, a determination was made between the spark advance delivered and a revised spark advance for optimum combustion efficiency. Based upon the relationship between spark advance and fuel consumption, a prediction for the improved fuel consumption was made. The testing was then repeated to evaluate the revised spark advance and the fuel economy benefits in comparison to the predicted values.
Technical Paper

Finite Element Analyses and Correlations on Oil Canning of a Door Outer Panel

2009-04-20
2009-01-0818
In this paper the nature and analytical methodologies for sheet metal panel oil canning are introduced. Lab tests, numerical predictions using finite element analysis and their correlations on oil canning of a door outer panel are described. Different modeling approaches in finite element analysis are discussed, and a simplified approach of loading by using a coupling element is recommended.
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