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Technical Paper

Numerical Study on the Effects of Biodiesel Fuel on Combustion and Emission Characteristics in a Direct Injection Diesel Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-1259
The effects of the physical and chemical properties of biodiesel fuels on the combustion process and pollutants formation in Direct Injection (DI) engine are investigated numerically by using multi-dimensional CFD models. In the current study, methyl butanoate (MB) and n-heptane are used as the surrogates for the biodiesel fuel and the conventional diesel fuel. Detailed kinetic chemical mechanisms for MB and n-heptane are implemented to simulate the combustion process. It is shown that the differences in the chemical properties between the biodiesel fuel and the diesel fuel affect the whole combustion process more significantly than the differences in the physical properties. While the variations of both the chemical and the physical properties between the biodiesel and diesel fuel influence the soot formation at the equivalent level, the variations in the chemical properties play a crucial role in the NO emissions formation.
Technical Paper

Optimizing Valve Rotational Speed Using Taguchi Techniques

2010-04-12
2010-01-1096
As fuel economy regulations increase and customer preference shifts to smaller, higher power density engines it is more important to effectively cool certain areas of the cylinder head and valvetrain. In order to maximize valvetrain life and increase engine performance it is critical to maintain a near uniform valve seat temperature to enable proper sealing. As cylinder head bridges narrow, and the temperature increases, the water jacket may not be sufficient. An alternative method to ensuring equal temperature distribution across the valve is to promote low speed valve rotation. This will not only aid, cooling the valve seat, as well as cooling and cleaning the valves' seating surface. This paper describes the development and testing of a valve rotation study, utilizing the Taguchi approach in order to determine the most robust design. A test stand was utilized to examine the valve rotation in which the cam was driven directly using a DC motor.
Technical Paper

The Consequences of Average Curve Generation: Implications for Biomechanics Data

2010-11-03
2010-22-0001
One method of understanding the general mechanical response of a complex system such as a vehicle, a human surrogate, a bridge, a boat, a plane, etc., is to subject it to an input, such as an impact, and obtain the response time-histories. The responses can be accelerations, velocities, strains, etc. In general, when experiments of this type are run the responses are contaminated by sample-to-sample variation, test-to-test variability, random noise, instrumentation noise, and noise from unknown sources. One common method of addressing the noise in the system to obtain the underlying response is to run multiple tests on different samples that represent the same system and add them together obtaining an average. This functionally reduces the random noise. However, if the fundamental response of each sample is not the same, then it is not altogether clear what the average represents. It may not capture the underlying physics.
Technical Paper

Mathematical Modeling and Symbolic Sensitivity Analysis of Ni-MH Batteries

2011-04-12
2011-01-1371
Because of its widespread use in almost all the current electric and hybrid electric vehicles on the market, nickel metal hydride (Ni-MH) battery performance is very important for automotive researchers and manufacturers. The performance of a battery can be described as a direct consequence of various chemical and physical phenomena taking place inside the container. To help understand these complex phenomena, a mathematical model of a Ni-MH battery will be presented in this paper. A parametric importance analysis is performed on this model to assess the contribution of individual model parameters to the battery performance. In this paper the efficiency of the battery is chosen as the performance measure. Efficiency is defined by the ratio of the energy output from the battery and the energy input to the battery while charging. By evaluating the sensitivity of the efficiency with respect to various model parameters, the order of importance of those parameters is obtained.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of a Hybrid Energy Storage System for EV's

2011-04-12
2011-01-1376
Electric energy storage is among the most significant hurdles to deployment of electric vehicles (EVs). Present storage methods struggle to provide the capacity and the service life demanded by automotive use. Hybrid energy storage systems (HESS) use a combination of storage types, for example, different types of batteries and ultracapacitors, to tailor the characteristics of the storage system to each application. In addition to sizing the system for the intended application, a suitable strategy for the integration of the energy storage system must be adopted. In the present application, a HESS has been designed for the electrification of a 2004 Chrysler Pacifica, through consideration of a combination of high capacity batteries, high power batteries, and capacitors. Hybrid storage systems using batteries alone, batteries and capacitors, and dual batteries have been considered.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of the Soot and NOx Formations in a Biodiesel-Fuelled Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-1385
The importance of using biodiesel as an alternative in diesel engines has been demonstrated previously. A reduction in the soot, CO and HC emissions and an increase in the NO emission burning biodiesel fuels were reported consistently in previous technical papers. However, a widely accepted NO formation mechanism for biodiesel-fueled engines is currently lacking. As a result, in past multi-dimensional simulation studies, the NO emission of biodiesel combustion was predicted unsatisfactorily. In this study, the interaction between the soot and NO formations is considered during the prediction of the soot and NO emissions in a biodiesel-fueled engine. Meanwhile, a three-step soot model and an eight NO model which includes both the thermal NO mechanism and prompt mechanism are implemented.
Technical Paper

Noise Contribution Analysis at Suspension Interfaces Using Different Force Identification Techniques

2011-05-17
2011-01-1600
Road-tire induced vibrations are in many vehicles determining the interior noise levels in (semi-) constant speed driving. The understanding of the noise contributions of different connections of the suspension systems to the vehicle is essential in improvement of the isolation capabilities of the suspension- and body-structure. To identify these noise contributions, both the forces acting at the suspension-to-body connections points and the vibro-acoustic transfers from the connection points to the interior microphones are required. In this paper different approaches to identify the forces are compared for their applicability to road noise analysis. First step for the force identification is the full vehicle operational measurement in which target responses (interior noise) and indicator responses (accelerations or other) are measured.
Technical Paper

Semi-Active Suspension Design for Enhancing Vehicle Ride, Road-Friendliness and Braking Performance

2011-04-12
2011-01-0989
This study proposes a novel semi-active hydro-pneumatic suspension design and investigates its performance potentials. The proposed new semi-active suspension design involves pneumatic interconnection between the front and rear suspension struts of the vehicle. The analytical formulations of suspension forces due to two suspension configurations, a passive unconnected and the proposed semi-active interconnected, are derived to analyze suspension properties. Based on a validated pitch-plane vehicle braking model, vehicle dynamic responses are conducted under a range of measured road roughness excitations and driving speeds, as well as braking inputs.
Technical Paper

Modeling of the Injection and Decomposition Processes of Urea-Water-Solution Spray in Automotive SCR Systems

2011-04-12
2011-01-1317
The current work aims to develop a reliable numerical model simulating the depletion and decomposition process of urea-water solution (UWS) droplets injected in a hot exhaust stream as experienced in an automotive urea-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system. The depleting process of individual UWS droplets in heated environment is simulated using a multicomponent vaporization model with separate depletion law for each component. While water depletion is modeled as a vaporization process, urea depletion from the UWS droplet is modeled using two different approaches. The first approach models urea depletion as a vaporization process with an experimentally determined saturation pressure. The second approach models urea depletion as a direct thermolysis process from molten urea to ammonia and isocyanic acid using various sets of kinetic parameters. Comparison with experimental data shows the superiority of modeling urea depletion as a vaporization process.
Technical Paper

Influence of Oil Compressibility of Fluidic Suspensions on Vehicle Roll Stability and Ride Dynamics

2010-10-05
2010-01-1893
This study investigates influence of compressible hydraulic fluid and suspension floating piston dynamics of fluidic suspensions on heavy vehicle roll stability and ride dynamics. Two fluidic suspension designs, including a single-gas-chamber strut and a novel twin-gas-chamber strut, are analyzed to develop the mathematical formulations of dynamic forces, upon considerations of hydraulic fluid compressibility and floating piston dynamics. Dynamic responses of the heavy vehicle with the different suspension configurations are then performed using a nonlinear roll plane vehicle model. The excitations arise from vehicle-road interactions as well as a steady steering maneuver. The results demonstrate that the compressibility characteristic of hydraulic fluid within a hydro-pneumatic suspension could affect the vehicle roll stability and ride dynamics, while the influence of suspension floating piston dynamics on vehicle dynamic responses is negligible.
Technical Paper

Design and Control of Transmission Systems using Physical Model Simulation

2010-04-12
2010-01-0898
Physical modeling has been used by the industry to improve development time and produce a quality product. In this paper, we will describe two methods used in system control to take advantage of the physical model. One method describes a complete transmission physical model with a full system control utilizing co-simulation techniques. Data will be presented, and comparison to vehicle data will be conducted and verified. The second method will illustrate how to utilize the physical model to improve system design and modification. In this method, vehicle data will be used as inputs to the model, the model output will be verified against vehicle output data. The two methods are excellent tools for the Design For Six Sigma process (DFSS design).
Technical Paper

Multi-phase Multi-dimensional Analysis of the Effect of Fuel Quality on PEM Fuel Cell Performance

2010-04-12
2010-01-0853
PEM fuel cell is a promising alternative green power source for vehicular application. However, its performance, cost and durability are sensitively impacted by its sensitivity to impurities in both fuel and air streams. In this study, a multi-phase multi-dimensional model with carbon monoxide in the anode side has been developed. The present model includes flow channel, gas diffusion layer, catalyst layer, and polymer electrolyte membrane, considering carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning and oxygen bleeding in the fuel stream. The model equations, based on the conservation laws for mass, momentum, energy, and species, considered in a steady state, are solved by using Fluent software. The results of the effects of CO concentration, a series of 3D simulation in anode catalyst layer, as well as oxygen bleeding, are presented, which indicate that CO has a severe influence on the performance of PEM fuel cell.
Technical Paper

A Practical Failure Limit for Sheared Edge Stretching of Automotive Body Panels

2010-04-12
2010-01-0986
Edge cracking is one of the major formability concerns in advanced high strength steel (AHSS) stamping. Although finite element analysis (FEA) together with the Forming Limit Diagram has been widely used, it has not effectively predicted edge cracking. Primary problems in developing a methodology to insure that parts are safe from edge cracking are the lack of an effective failure criterion and a simple and accurate measurement method that is not only usable in both die tryout and production but also can be verified by finite element analysis. The intent of this study is to develop a methodology to ensure that parts with internal cutouts, such as a body side panel can be produced without edge cracking. During tryout and production, edge cracking has traditionally been detected by visual examination, but this approach is not adequate for ensuring freedom from edge cracking.
Technical Paper

Digital Image Correlation System Application - Measuring Deformation and Load of Convertible Top Fabric

2010-04-12
2010-01-0954
Strain gages have been widely used for measuring strain or deformation. They are very reliable and accurate. However, for application on fabric material, strain gages have their limitations. In this paper, digital image correlation (DIC) is used to measure the deformation around the rear window on a convertible top. The test needed to be non destructive, the vehicle and convertible top could not be damaged. The deformation or strain measured on the fabric was used to estimate the force experienced at the interface between the glass and the fabric during an opening/closing application. A speckle pattern was created on the convertible fabric where deformation was to be measured with washable paint. The image of the measured area was first recorded. The convertible top was then latched down and the fabric was stretched. A second image was recorded again. Based on the two images, the deformation/strain between the two conditions was measured.
Technical Paper

Determination of Vehicle Resistance Curve in Engine Cooling System Design

2010-04-12
2010-01-0933
A process to create a vehicle resistance curve based on airflow predictions using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation technique is presented. 1-dimensional engine cooling system simulation tool KULI is used to compute the coefficients of vehicle resistance curve. A full factorial Design of Experiment (DOE) established the relationship between the coefficients and the sum of absolute difference between KULI and CFD predictions. The NLPQL optimization routine is used to accurately predict the coefficients so that sum of absolute difference between KULI and CFD predictions is minimized.
Technical Paper

Standardization Proposal for “Automotive-Grade AVRCP” with Respect to In-Car use of Bluetooth Devices.

2010-04-12
2010-01-0689
With regard to the use of portable consumer electronic devices in an automobile, Bluetooth has become a widely accepted method for short range wireless communication between a vehicle and a portable device. One Bluetooth connectivity protocol for this use case is Audio/Visual Remote Control Profile (AVRCP). Currently, AVRCP specifies mandatory commands for both target devices (cellular phones and audio players), as well as for control devices like an audio head unit. However, there is no requirement that control devices and target devices implement the same commands, nor is there a requirement that supported commands utilize information that would be useful in improving the driver's experience (i.e. metadata). This paper will describe the impact of this reality from the perspective of the automotive consumer, and propose an “automotive grade” AVRCP that could provide a more consistent consumer experience in the automotive market.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Based Damage Analysis with Correlation to Customer Duty Cycle Using Design Reliability and Confidence

2010-04-12
2010-01-0200
This paper will define the process for correlating fatigue based customer duty cycle with laboratory bench test data. The process includes the development of the Median and Design Load-Life curve equations. The Median Load-Life curve is a best fit linear regression; whereas, the Design Load-Life curve incorporates component specific reliability and confidence targets. To account for the statistical distribution of fatigue life, due to sample size, the one-side lower-bound tolerance limit method ( Lieberman, 1958 ) will be utilized. This paper will include a correlation between the predicted design fatigue life and the actual product life.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of the Hybrid III 10-year-Old Dummy Chest Response in the Sled Test Environment

2010-04-12
2010-01-0137
Ten sled tests were conducted with a Hybrid III 10-year-old dummy under a 3-point belt only restraint condition to evaluate its performance. The results of the Hybrid III 10-year-old in these tests indicate that there are artifactural noise spikes observable in the transducer responses. A number of metal-to-metal contacts in the shoulder area were identified as one of the sources for the chest acceleration spikes. Noise spikes were also observed in the response from multiple body regions; however, the source of the spikes could not be determined. Compared to the other Hybrid III dummies, non-characteristic dummy chest deflection responses were also observed. This limited analysis indicates that the Hybrid III 10-year-old dummy requires additional development work to eliminate the metal-to-metal contacts in the shoulder area and to understand and correct the other sources of the noise spikes. More investigation is needed to determine if the chest deflection response is appropriate.
Technical Paper

Monotonic and Fatigue Behavior of Magnesium Extrusion Alloy AM30: An International Benchmark Test in the “Magnesium Front End Research and Development Project”

2010-04-12
2010-01-0407
Magnesium alloys are the lightest structural metal and recently attention has been focused on using them for structural automotive components. Fatigue and durability studies are essential in the design of these load-bearing components. In 2006, a large multinational research effort, Magnesium Front End Research & Development (MFERD), was launched involving researchers from Canada, China and the US. The MFERD project is intended to investigate the applicability of Mg alloys as lightweight materials for automotive body structures. The participating institutions in fatigue and durability studies were the University of Waterloo and Ryerson University from Canada, Institute of Metal Research (IMR) from China, and Mississippi State University, Westmorland, General Motors Corporation, Ford Motor Company and Chrysler Group LLC from the United States.
Technical Paper

Effect of Nugget Size on Tensile and Fatigue Strength of Spot Welded AZ31 Magnesium Alloy

2010-04-12
2010-01-0411
Interest in magnesium, as the lightest engineering metal, has increased in the automotive industry as a result of requirements for lighter and cleaner vehicles. Resistance spot welding (RSW) is already the predominant mode of fabrication in this industry, and the fatigue of spot welded magnesium sheet must be studied. In this study, the tensile and fatigue strength of resistance spot welded AZ31 Mg alloy was studied. Three sets of tensile shear spot welded specimens were prepared with different welding parameters to achieve different nugget sizes. Metallographic examination revealed grain size changes from the base material (BM) to heat affected zone (HAZ) to the fusion zone (FZ). Monotonic tensile and fatigue tests were conducted and the effect of nugget size on tensile shear and fatigue strength was discussed.
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