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Technical Paper

Integrated Cooling Systems for Passenger Vehicles

2001-03-05
2001-01-1248
Electric coolant pumps for IC engines are under development by a number of suppliers. They offer packaging and flexibility benefits to vehicle manufacturers. Their full potential will not be realised, however, unless an integrated approach is taken to the entire cooling system. The paper describes such a system comprising an advanced electric pump with the necessary flow controls and a supervisory strategy running on an automotive microprocessor. The hardware and control strategy are described together with the simulation developed to allow its calibration and validation before fitting in a B/C class European passenger car. Simulation results are presented which show the system to be controllable and responsive to deliver optimum fuel consumption, emissions and driver comfort.
Technical Paper

Performance Investigations of a Novel Rolling Traction CVT

2001-03-05
2001-01-0874
The Milner CVT is a patented [1] rolling traction transmission offering advantages of high power density and simplicity of construction and operation. A 90 mm diameter prototype variator is described which was sized for a maximum rated input power of 12 kW. Experimental data are presented demonstrating high efficiency and low shift forces. Resistance to overload torque is shown to be exceptional and preliminary durability trials indicate a highly viable concept for series production. Based upon the measured data, characteristics of larger variators are predicted and prospects for automotive applications discussed.
Technical Paper

Robust Control of Hydraulic Servos

1996-08-01
961795
Developing controllers for hydraulic servos is difficult due to the inherent uncertainty and nonlinear characteristics of the system. Systems are classed as uncertain when they are subject to unknown parameter variations or disturbances, or when there is incomplete knowledge of the system model, all of which are common in hydraulic servo systems. However, unlike conventional control techniques, the use of modern control methods means that system uncertainty can be considered at the controller design stage, and consequently robust controllers can be developed. In this paper the robust control of hydraulic servo systems is considered, and sources of uncertainty typical in hydraulic drives are discussed. The effect of ignoring these uncertainties is demonstrated by simulation experiments of a hydraulic servo, comparing conventional control techniques to the modern approach of H∞ optimal control. The implementation of modern controllers is also discussed.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Hydraulic Circuit Design and Control on the Efficiency of a Continuously Variable Transmission

1996-08-01
961797
As part of a larger programme of work on the integrated control of engine and transmissions a study has been made of the control aspects of the transmission with a detailed investigation of the hydraulic circuit. The requirements of the broader programme necessitated an electrical input for the transmission control and a test bed version was successfully modified with electro-hydraulic valves. Attention to detail in the design of the hydraulic circuit and the control of operating pressure can bring significant benefits to the transmission efficiency with consequent beneficial effects on fuel economy. This paper investigates several aspects of the components used and their effect on efficiency, in particular pump sizing. This investigation is illustrated with results from a computer simulation of the system. Possible improvements through a modified control strategy for the belt pressure are also proposed with steady state results obtained experimentally from the test bed transmission.
Technical Paper

Design and Component Matching of a Pressure Control Circuit

1996-08-01
961854
Problems inherent in pressure control circuits are manifest in many common applications such as those of cushion control, and bumpless transfer between displacement and pressure control. Often, solutions involve complex electrical feedback systems to achieve the required performance characteristics. However, in many cases, a thorough understanding of the plant and control circuit should enable fulfilment of these requirements using a simple and inexpensive open-loop system. In this case the plant is an automotive CVT (Continuously Variable Transmission) which has particular performance requirements. Constraints applied by the plant characteristics dictate that large flows be catered for with a low pressure increase and also that specific frequency response features are attained.
Technical Paper

Optimising Cooling System Performance Using Computer Simulation

1997-05-19
971802
This paper presents a lumped parameter method for whole circuit simulation of vehicle cooling systems using the Bathfp simulation environment. The dynamic performance of a 1.8 litre internal combustion engine cooling system is examined. The simulation is compared with experimental data from a test rig incorporating a non-running engine with external heat source and a good correspondence is achieved. The background to the modelling approach is described. It is shown that simulating cooling systems with Bathfp offers the designer the flexibility to assess component sensitivity and changes in system configuration which will aid the process of cooling system optimisation.
Technical Paper

Incorporating Nucleate Boiling in a Precision Cooling Strategy for Combustion Engines

1997-05-19
971791
Precision cooling has a number of advantages over the conventional cooling of combustion engines. It is primarily used to prevent component failures and is generally intended to create an even distribution of temperature within the cylinder head and block. This leads to lower thermal stresses and higher component durability. Precision cooling in the form of forced convection and nucleate boiling can be used to greater effect than that of traditional precision cooling concentrating on forced convection only. This paper describes the analytical and experimental precision cooling strategy that has been used to investigate nucleate and transition boiling. Analytical details of the models are described and preliminary experimental data is provided for comparison. The major finding indicates that the diameter of the internal cooling passage is one of the significant factors that influences the critical heat flux.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Suction Flow Ripple in Power Steering Pumps

1998-09-14
982023
Noise emitted from the pump can be a major influence on the overall noise created by a power steering system. Dynamic simulation can aid the designer by showing the effect of the pump geometry and oil properties on noise before the prototype has been built. This paper discusses a simulation of suction port flow ripple in a power steering vane pump, which is validated against experimental data. Results show that the mean pressure in the delivery line affects the amplitude of suction port flow ripple. Internal leakage in the pump was found to have little effect on suction port flow ripple. The level of high-frequency flow ripple from the suction port was found to be comparable with or greater than that from the delivery port. The simulation is used to recommend the addition of relief grooves to reduce the high-frequency flow ripple.
Technical Paper

Design of a Feedback Controlled Thermostat for a Vehicle Cooling System

1996-08-01
961823
In traditional liquid cooled internal combustion engine systems, the coolant temperature is controlled by a thermostat which governs the coolant flow rate to the radiator. The thermostat is effectively a directional control valve in which the spool displacement is used to direct flow to the radiator. The coolant temperature is primarily a function of four parameters, namely radiator and thermostat characteristics, coolant flow rate and ambient temperature. By employing closed-loop feedback, the coolant temperature can be controlled according to environmental conditions. To achieve this goal the overall system must be correctly designed. That is the issue discussed in this paper. The increasing use of simulation for both circuit and component analysis in the automtive industry has come about due to the requirement for acceptable transient as well as steady state system performance.
Technical Paper

A Neural Network for Fault Recognition

1993-03-01
930861
In both the marine and power industries there are now a choice of off-the-shelf condition monitoring systems available that utilise artificial intelligence techniques to analyse engine performance data. These systems are proving to be a valuable aid in optimising performance and reducing down-time by assisting with maintenance planning. These systems rely on careful monitoring of an engine's performance, for instance engine speed, fuelling, boost pressure, turbine inlet pressure, turbocharger speed, and exhaust temperature. With this data, they utilise a variety of interpolation and pattern recognition algorithms to compare it with previously recorded data stored in lookup tables. This paper describes how a neural network approach can be used as a cheap alternative for the analysis of this data, greatly reducing the need for such large lookup tables and complex pattern recognition programs.
Technical Paper

Computational and Experimental Investigation of Airflow Through a Vehicle Intercooler Duct

1993-04-01
931097
The last decade has seen a rapid increase within industry of the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to assist in the design and development phase of product manufacture. There have recently evolved many new commercial CFD codes, both general and problem specific, but little validation data is available with which the engineer may assess the code's ability to simulate accurately a given flow problem. Much doubt prevails about current methods of turbulence modelling yet without comparison with experimental data few firm conclusions may be drawn. The work described in this paper is an investigation into the highly turbulent air flow through a vehicle intercooler duct. The general purpose CFD code STAR CD was used to obtain a computational prediction of the flow field. These results were correlated with experimental values of velocity and turbulence levels obtained using a single component laser Doppler anemometry system.
Technical Paper

A Hydraulic Tappet with Variable Timing Properties

1993-03-01
930823
A new hydraulic cam follower with variable valve timing (VVT) properties is described. Experimental results show that the point of closure of the valve may be delayed as a linear function of engine speed without external control. No other parameter of the valve event is modified by the device. An obvious application is the control of intake valve timing for engines with a wide speed range, where the point of valve closure could be scheduled with engine speed in order to maximise the trapped mass, hence improving the torque curve at low and high speeds. The device is considered for application to the Ford 2.5 litre DI diesel engine, where it may be used to retard inlet valve closure from close to bottom dead centre (BDC) at cranking speed to 50-60 deg after BDC at rated speed.
Technical Paper

A Comparison Between Alternative Methods for Gas Flow and Performance Prediction of Internal Combustion Engines

1992-09-01
921734
A comprehensive general purpose engine simulation model has been successfully developed. This paper reports on an investigation undertaken to compare the accuracy and computational efficiency of four alternative methods for modelling the gas flow and performance in internal combustion engines. The comparison is based on the filling-and-emptying method, the acoustic method, the Lax-Wendroff two-stage difference method and the Harten-Lax-Leer upstream method, using a unified treatment for the boundary conditions. The filling-and-emptying method is the quickest method among these four methods, giving performance predictions with reasonably good accuracy, and is suitable for simulating engines using not highly tuned gas exchange systems. Based on the linearized Euler equations, the acoustic method is capable of describing time-varying pressure distributions along a pipe.
Technical Paper

Development and Optimisation of an Adaptive Safety Monitor

2018-04-03
2018-01-0867
Fuel economy and emission challenges are pushing automotive OEMs to develop alternative hybrid-electric, and full-electric powertrains. This increases variation in potential powertrain architectures, exacerbating the already complex control software used to coordinate various propulsion devices within the vehicle. Safety of this control software must be ensured through high-integrity software monitoring functions that detect faults and ensure safe mitigating action is taken. With the complexity of the control software, this monitoring functionality has itself become complex, requiring extensive modification for each new powertrain architecture. Significant effort is required to develop, calibrate, and verify to ensure safety (as defined by ISO 26262). But this must also be robust against false fault-detection, thereby maximising vehicle availability to the customer.
Technical Paper

Factors Affecting Test Precision in Latest Vehicle Technologies

2018-04-03
2018-01-0640
Demonstrating the cost/benefits of technologies in the automotive sector is becoming very challenging because the benefits from technologies are sometimes of similar magnitude to testing precision. This paper aims to understand vehicle-borne imprecision and the effect of this on the quality of chassis dynamometer (CD) testing. Fuel consumption and NOx emissions precision is analyzed for two diesel vehicles with particulate filter and SCR systems. The two vehicles were tested on a high precision CD facility over the NEDC (New European Drive Cycle) and WLTC (World harmonized Light-duty Test Cycle) cycles. The CD base precision of testing was characterized between 0.6-3% depending on the cycle phase. A novel application of multi-variate statistical analysis was used to identify the factors that affected testing precision, allowing isolation of small differences that were not obvious when conducting cycle-averaged or cycle-phase-averaged analysis.
Technical Paper

Position Estimation and Autonomous Control of a Quad Vehicle

2016-09-14
2016-01-1878
The major contribution of this paper is the general description of a complete integrating procedure of autonomous vehicle system. Using Robot Operating System (ROS) as the framework, process from senor integration to path planning and path tracking were performed. Based on an off-road All-Terrain Vehicle, an Extended Kalman filter based autonomous control strategy was developed on the ROS. Both the position estimation and autonomous control were performed on the ROS platform. For the position estimation phase, sensory measurements from GPS, IMU and wheel odometry were acquired and processed on ROS. In accordance with the ROS architecture, separate packages were developed for each sensor to gather and publish corresponding measurements. Furthermore, Extended Kalman filtering was performed to fuse all sensory measurements to achieve an optimizing accuracy.
Technical Paper

Optimizing Valve Rotational Speed Using Taguchi Techniques

2010-04-12
2010-01-1096
As fuel economy regulations increase and customer preference shifts to smaller, higher power density engines it is more important to effectively cool certain areas of the cylinder head and valvetrain. In order to maximize valvetrain life and increase engine performance it is critical to maintain a near uniform valve seat temperature to enable proper sealing. As cylinder head bridges narrow, and the temperature increases, the water jacket may not be sufficient. An alternative method to ensuring equal temperature distribution across the valve is to promote low speed valve rotation. This will not only aid, cooling the valve seat, as well as cooling and cleaning the valves' seating surface. This paper describes the development and testing of a valve rotation study, utilizing the Taguchi approach in order to determine the most robust design. A test stand was utilized to examine the valve rotation in which the cam was driven directly using a DC motor.
Technical Paper

The Consequences of Average Curve Generation: Implications for Biomechanics Data

2010-11-03
2010-22-0001
One method of understanding the general mechanical response of a complex system such as a vehicle, a human surrogate, a bridge, a boat, a plane, etc., is to subject it to an input, such as an impact, and obtain the response time-histories. The responses can be accelerations, velocities, strains, etc. In general, when experiments of this type are run the responses are contaminated by sample-to-sample variation, test-to-test variability, random noise, instrumentation noise, and noise from unknown sources. One common method of addressing the noise in the system to obtain the underlying response is to run multiple tests on different samples that represent the same system and add them together obtaining an average. This functionally reduces the random noise. However, if the fundamental response of each sample is not the same, then it is not altogether clear what the average represents. It may not capture the underlying physics.
Technical Paper

A new method to simulate the octane appetite of any spark ignition engine.

2011-08-30
2011-01-1873
The octane appetite of an SI engine can be expressed in terms of an Octane Index: OI = (1−K) RON + K MON where K is a constant for a given operating condition and depends only on the pressure and temperature variation in the engine (it is not a property of the fuel). Experimental measurements of K values can be costly and time consuming. This paper reports the development of a new K-value simulation method that can be applied to any spark ignition engine given basic engine data. Good agreement between simulation and experimental results suggests the method is reliable and can be applied to a wide range of engines.
Technical Paper

Noise Contribution Analysis at Suspension Interfaces Using Different Force Identification Techniques

2011-05-17
2011-01-1600
Road-tire induced vibrations are in many vehicles determining the interior noise levels in (semi-) constant speed driving. The understanding of the noise contributions of different connections of the suspension systems to the vehicle is essential in improvement of the isolation capabilities of the suspension- and body-structure. To identify these noise contributions, both the forces acting at the suspension-to-body connections points and the vibro-acoustic transfers from the connection points to the interior microphones are required. In this paper different approaches to identify the forces are compared for their applicability to road noise analysis. First step for the force identification is the full vehicle operational measurement in which target responses (interior noise) and indicator responses (accelerations or other) are measured.
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