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Technical Paper

The University of Windsor - St. Clair College E85 Silverado

2001-03-05
2001-01-0680
The fuel called E-85 can be burned effectively in engines similar to the engines currently mass-produced for use with gasoline. Since the ethanol component of this fuel is produced from crops such as corn and sugar cane, the fuel is almost fully renewable. The different physical and chemical properties of E-85, however, do require certain modifications to the common gasoline engine. The Windsor - St. Clair team has focused their attention to modifications that will improve fuel efficiency and reduce tailpipe emissions. Other modifications were also performed to ensure that the vehicle would still operate with the same power and driveability as its gasoline counterpart.
Technical Paper

Laser Welding of Elastomers to Polypropylene

2003-03-03
2003-01-1134
The effects of varying laser-welding parameters were studied for the welding of the thermoplastic elastomer EPDM to glass filled polypropylene. Through-thickness scanning transmission welding (contour welding) was carried out with a diode laser with a wavelength of 940 nm using various power levels up to 150W and line speeds up to 2500 mm/minute. The observable weld attributes: weld strengths, weld widths, and failure modes, have been tabulated and discussed.
Technical Paper

Disassembly Modeling Used to Assess Automotive Recycling Opportunities

1997-02-24
970416
Currently, the recycling of automobiles can be considered to be a success story. However, it is hoped by the automakers that the current automotive recycling infrastructure can adapt to include more disassembly of plastics for recycling. The success of this option depends on the economics involved. Therefore, a method for evaluating the economics of disassembly for recycling is utilized to see how changes in recycling prices, disassembly costs, or design might affect the practices of dismantlers.
Technical Paper

Wear of D2 Tool Steel Dies during Trimming DP980-type Advanced High Strength Steel (AHSS) for Automotive Parts

2017-03-28
2017-01-1706
Automobile body panels made from advanced high strength steel (AHSS) provide high strength-to-mass ratio and thus AHSS are important for automotive light-weighting strategy. However, in order to increase their use, the significant wear damage that AHSS sheets cause to the trim dies should be reduced. The wear of dies has undesirable consequences including deterioration of trimmed parts' edges. In this research, die wear measurement techniques that consisted of white-light optical interferometry methods supported by large depth-of-field optical microscopy were developed. 1.4 mm-thick DP980-type AHSS sheets were trimmed using dies made from AISI D2 steel. A clearance of 10% of the thickness of the sheets was maintained between the upper and lower dies. The wear of the upper and lower dies was evaluated and material abrasion and chipping were identified as the main damage features at the trim edges.
Technical Paper

A Review of Human Physiological, Psychological & Human Biomechanical Factors on Perceived Thermal Comfort of Automotive Seats.

2017-03-28
2017-01-1388
Thermal comfort in automotive seating has been studied and discussed for a long time. The available research, because it is focused on the components, has not produced a model that provides insight into the human-seat system interaction. This work, which represents the beginning of an extensive research program, aims to establish the foundation for such a model. This paper will discuss the key physiological, psychological, and biomechanical factors related to perceptions of thermal comfort in automotive seats. The methodology to establish perceived thermal comfort requirements will also be presented and discussed.
Technical Paper

Modular Design and Methods to Optimize Seat Complete Assemblies

2017-03-28
2017-01-1309
Modularity in product architecture and its significance in product development have become an important product design topics in the last few decades. Several Product Modularity definitions and methodologies were developed by many researchers; however, most of the definitions and concepts have proliferated to the extent that it is difficult to apply one universal definition for modular product architecture and in product development. Automotive seat modular strategy and key factors for consideration towards modular seat design and assemblies are the main focus of this work. The primary objectives are focused on the most “natural segmentation” of the seat elements (i.e., cushions, backs, trims, plastics, head restraints, etc.) to enable the greatest ease of final assembly and greatest flexibility for scalable feature offerings around common assembly “hard-points.”
Technical Paper

Boosted Current Spark Strategy for Lean Burn Spark Ignition Engines

2018-04-03
2018-01-1133
Spark ignition systems with the capability of providing spark event with either higher current level or longer discharge duration has been developed in recent years to help IC engines towards clean combustion with higher efficiency under lean/diluted intake charge. In this research, a boosted current spark strategy was proposed to investigate the effect of spark discharge current level and discharge duration on the combustion process. Firstly, the discharge characteristics of a boosted current spark system were tested with a traditional spark plug under crossflow conditions, and results showed that the spark channel was more stable, and was stretched much longer when the discharge current was boosted. Then the boosted current strategy was used in a spark ignition engine operating under lean conditions. Boosted current was added to the spark channel with different timing, duration, and current levels.
Technical Paper

Ion Current Measurement of Diluted Combustion Using a Multi-Electrode Spark Plug

2018-04-03
2018-01-1134
Close-loop feedback combustion control is essential for improving the internal combustion engines to meet the rigorous fuel efficiency demands and emission legislations. A vital part is the combustion sensing technology that diagnoses in-cylinder combustion information promptly, such as using cylinder pressure sensor and ion current measurement. The promptness and fidelity of the diagnostic are particularly important to the potential success of using intra-cycle control for abnormal cycles such as super knocking and misfiring. Many research studies have demonstrated the use of ion-current sensing as feedback signal to control the spark ignition gasoline engines, with the spark gap shared for both ignition and ion-current detection. During the spark glow phase, the sparking current may affect the combustion ion current signal. Moreover, the electrode gap size is optimized for sparking rather than measurement of ion current.
Technical Paper

Metrics for Evaluating the Ride Handling Compromise

2010-04-12
2010-01-1139
Though the purpose of a vehicle's suspension is multi-faceted and complex, the fundamentals may be simply stated: the suspension exists to provide the occupants with a tolerable ride, while simultaneously ensuring that the tires maintain good contact with the ground. At the root of the familiar ride/handling compromise, is the problem that tuning efforts which improve either grip or handling are generally to the detriment of the other. This study seeks to set forth a clear means for examining the familiar ride/handing compromise, by first exploring the key ideas of these terms, and then by describing the development of content-rich metrics to permit a direct optimization strategy. For simplicity, the optimization problem was examined in a unilateral manner, where heave (vertical; z-axis) behaviour is examined in isolation, though the methods described herein may be extended to pitch and roll behaviour as well.
Technical Paper

Optimizing Valve Rotational Speed Using Taguchi Techniques

2010-04-12
2010-01-1096
As fuel economy regulations increase and customer preference shifts to smaller, higher power density engines it is more important to effectively cool certain areas of the cylinder head and valvetrain. In order to maximize valvetrain life and increase engine performance it is critical to maintain a near uniform valve seat temperature to enable proper sealing. As cylinder head bridges narrow, and the temperature increases, the water jacket may not be sufficient. An alternative method to ensuring equal temperature distribution across the valve is to promote low speed valve rotation. This will not only aid, cooling the valve seat, as well as cooling and cleaning the valves' seating surface. This paper describes the development and testing of a valve rotation study, utilizing the Taguchi approach in order to determine the most robust design. A test stand was utilized to examine the valve rotation in which the cam was driven directly using a DC motor.
Technical Paper

The Consequences of Average Curve Generation: Implications for Biomechanics Data

2010-11-03
2010-22-0001
One method of understanding the general mechanical response of a complex system such as a vehicle, a human surrogate, a bridge, a boat, a plane, etc., is to subject it to an input, such as an impact, and obtain the response time-histories. The responses can be accelerations, velocities, strains, etc. In general, when experiments of this type are run the responses are contaminated by sample-to-sample variation, test-to-test variability, random noise, instrumentation noise, and noise from unknown sources. One common method of addressing the noise in the system to obtain the underlying response is to run multiple tests on different samples that represent the same system and add them together obtaining an average. This functionally reduces the random noise. However, if the fundamental response of each sample is not the same, then it is not altogether clear what the average represents. It may not capture the underlying physics.
Technical Paper

In-vehicle Speech Intelligibility for the Hearing Impaired Using Speech Intelligibility Index

2011-05-17
2011-01-1681
Individuals with hearing impairments often report hearing difficulties within the driving environment. This is an ever growing issue given the increasing population of senior aged drivers. In this study, Speech Intelligibility Index (SII) is used to predict in-vehicle speech intelligibility of individuals having common hearing impairments. The effect of hearing threshold levels obtained from audiograms and the impact of vehicle background noise measured for various vehicle operating conditions, road surface types and talker and listener configurations are investigated. This is done by using measured and user-defined speech spectra as described by ANSI S3.5-1997 (Methods for Calculation of the Speech Intelligibility Index). The results demonstrate poor speech intelligibility for most situations considered and provide evidence for the need to improve automotive interior sound quality in terms of speech intelligibility for hearing impaired drivers including aged drivers.
Technical Paper

Engine Fault Detection Using Vibration Signal Reconstruction in the Crank-Angle Domain

2011-05-17
2011-01-1660
Advanced engine test methods incorporate several different sensing and signal processing techniques for identifying and locating manufacturing or assembly defects of an engine. A successful engine test method therefore, requires advanced signal processing techniques. This paper introduces a novel signal processing technique to successfully detect a faulty internal combustion engine in a quantitative manner. Accelerometers are mounted on the cylinder head and lug surfaces while vibration signals are recorded during engine operation. Using the engine's cam angular position, the vibration signals are transformed from the time domain to the crank-angle domain. At the heart of the transformation lies interpolation. In this paper, linear, cubic spline and sinc interpolation methods are demonstrated for reconstructing vibration signals in the crank-angle domain.
Technical Paper

Empirical Study of Energy in Diesel Combustion Emissions with EGR Application

2011-08-30
2011-01-1817
Modern diesel engines were known for producing ultra-low levels of hydrogen and hydrocarbons. However, as emission control techniques such as exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) are implemented to meet stringent NOx standards, the resulting increase in partial-combustion products can be significant in quantity both as pollutants and sources of lost engine efficiency. In this work, a modern common-rail diesel engine was configured to investigate the EGR threshold for elevated carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and hydrogen emissions at fixed loads and fixed heat-release phasing. It is noted that increase in hydrocarbons, in particular light hydrocarbons (such as methane, ethylene, and acetylene) was concurrent with ultra-low NOx emissions. Hydrogen gas can be emitted in significant quantities with the application of very high EGR. Under ultra-low NOx production conditions for medium and high load conditions, the light hydrocarbon species can account for the majority of hydrocarbon emissions.
Technical Paper

Noise Contribution Analysis at Suspension Interfaces Using Different Force Identification Techniques

2011-05-17
2011-01-1600
Road-tire induced vibrations are in many vehicles determining the interior noise levels in (semi-) constant speed driving. The understanding of the noise contributions of different connections of the suspension systems to the vehicle is essential in improvement of the isolation capabilities of the suspension- and body-structure. To identify these noise contributions, both the forces acting at the suspension-to-body connections points and the vibro-acoustic transfers from the connection points to the interior microphones are required. In this paper different approaches to identify the forces are compared for their applicability to road noise analysis. First step for the force identification is the full vehicle operational measurement in which target responses (interior noise) and indicator responses (accelerations or other) are measured.
Technical Paper

Power Management Methodologies for Fuel Cell-Battery Hybrid Vehicles

2010-04-12
2010-01-0849
The implementation of fuel cell-battery hybrid vehicles requires a supervisory control strategy that manages the power distribution between the fuel cell and the energy storage device (i.e., battery). Several advanced control methods have already been developed and published in literature. However, most control methods have been developed for different vehicle types and using different mathematical models. The performance of these power management methods have not been directly compared for the same application. This study aims at obtaining direct analytical comparisons, which will provide useful insight in selecting a power management method for fuel cell-battery hybrid vehicles.
Technical Paper

Active Suspension Handling Simulation using Cosimulation

2010-12-01
2010-01-1582
In this study the capabilities of a semi-active suspension and an active roll suspension are evaluated for comparison with a passive suspension. The vehicle used is a utility truck modeled as a multi-body system in ADAMS/Car while the ECU (electronic control unit) is built in Matlab/Simulink. Cosimulation is used in linking the vehicle model with the controller by exchanging the input and output values of each sub-system with one another. For the simulation models considered, results indicate that for a fish-hook cornering maneuver the semi-active suspension is limited in increasing vehicle performance while the active roll suspension significantly improves it. Further analysis is needed to confirm these findings.
Technical Paper

Design and Control of Transmission Systems using Physical Model Simulation

2010-04-12
2010-01-0898
Physical modeling has been used by the industry to improve development time and produce a quality product. In this paper, we will describe two methods used in system control to take advantage of the physical model. One method describes a complete transmission physical model with a full system control utilizing co-simulation techniques. Data will be presented, and comparison to vehicle data will be conducted and verified. The second method will illustrate how to utilize the physical model to improve system design and modification. In this method, vehicle data will be used as inputs to the model, the model output will be verified against vehicle output data. The two methods are excellent tools for the Design For Six Sigma process (DFSS design).
Technical Paper

A Practical Failure Limit for Sheared Edge Stretching of Automotive Body Panels

2010-04-12
2010-01-0986
Edge cracking is one of the major formability concerns in advanced high strength steel (AHSS) stamping. Although finite element analysis (FEA) together with the Forming Limit Diagram has been widely used, it has not effectively predicted edge cracking. Primary problems in developing a methodology to insure that parts are safe from edge cracking are the lack of an effective failure criterion and a simple and accurate measurement method that is not only usable in both die tryout and production but also can be verified by finite element analysis. The intent of this study is to develop a methodology to ensure that parts with internal cutouts, such as a body side panel can be produced without edge cracking. During tryout and production, edge cracking has traditionally been detected by visual examination, but this approach is not adequate for ensuring freedom from edge cracking.
Technical Paper

Digital Image Correlation System Application - Measuring Deformation and Load of Convertible Top Fabric

2010-04-12
2010-01-0954
Strain gages have been widely used for measuring strain or deformation. They are very reliable and accurate. However, for application on fabric material, strain gages have their limitations. In this paper, digital image correlation (DIC) is used to measure the deformation around the rear window on a convertible top. The test needed to be non destructive, the vehicle and convertible top could not be damaged. The deformation or strain measured on the fabric was used to estimate the force experienced at the interface between the glass and the fabric during an opening/closing application. A speckle pattern was created on the convertible fabric where deformation was to be measured with washable paint. The image of the measured area was first recorded. The convertible top was then latched down and the fabric was stretched. A second image was recorded again. Based on the two images, the deformation/strain between the two conditions was measured.
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