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Technical Paper

Evaluation of Seat Back Strength and Seat Belt Effectiveness in Rear End Impacts

1987-11-01
872214
The issues of front seat energy absorption and seat belt effectiveness are investigated first through the review of prior experimental and analytical studies of rear impact dynamics. These prior studies indicate that the current energy absorption characteristic of seats is a safety benefit. Prior efforts to construct a rigidized seat indicate that such designs are likely to be impractical due to excessive weight and cost. Additionally, these studies indicate that seat belts provide an important safety function in rear impacts. Static tests of production seats were conducted, added to an existing data base, and analyzed to better understand the strength and energy absorbing characteristics of production seats. Crash test results from the New Car Assessment Program as well as earlier test programs were analyzed to describe the response of occupants and seats in rear impact and the protective function of seat belts in such collisions.
Technical Paper

A Case Comparison of Single-Image Photogrammetry Methods

1989-02-01
890737
Analytical reverse projection is introduced and is shown to offer an improvement in applicability and accuracy over other techniques of single-image photogrammetry, including plane-to-plane transformation and camera reverse-projection methods. A comparison of the methods is made on the basis of a single case of reconstructing missing tire tracks on a roadway intersection. Advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed. THIS PAPER REVIEWS non-graphical techniques used to make measurements of features imaged in a single photograph. Two formulations of the plane-to-plane transformation method are re viewed, the camera reverse-projection technique is presented, and a third technique, called the analytical reverse-projection method, is introduced. Following a review of the various methods, including an indication of their advantages and disadvantages, each method is applied to the problem of relocating a set of tire tracks in an intersection.
Technical Paper

Crush Energy in Accident Reconstruction

1986-02-24
860371
Vehicle accident reconstruction methods based on deformation energy are argued to be an increasingly valuable tool to the accident reconstructionist, provided reliable data, reasonable analysis techniques, and sound engineering judgement accompany their use. The evolution of the CRASH model of vehicle structural response and its corresponding stiffness coefficients are reviewed. It is concluded that the deformation energy for an accident vehicle can be estimated using the CRASH model provided that test data specific to the accident vehicle is utilized. Published stiffness coefficients for vehicle size categories are generally not appropriate. For the purpose of estimating vehicle deformation energy, a straight-forward methodology is presented which consists of applying the results of staged crash tests. The process of translating crush profiles to estimates of vehicle deformation energies and velocities is also discussed.
Technical Paper

Design, Development and Testing of a Load-Sensing Crash Dummy Face

1984-02-01
840397
This project covers one facet of a program to develop a mechanical model for characterizing the time history of local forces on the zygomatic, maxillary and mandible regions of the human face during a frontal collision. Two mechanical devices to measure the forces on crash dummies during testing were designed, constructed and tested. The devices employed cantilever beams equipped with strain gauges. Both devices were subjected to a series of drop tests onto various materials. Time histories were compared to those obtained from cadaver experiments. While the data obtained from this testing appears to be similar to the cadaver data, further improvements and modifications will make the model much more useful.
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