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Technical Paper

An Early TSTO Fully Reusable Vehicle Design Used to “Calibrate” Stage 1 Combined-Cycle Hypersonic Propulsion Systems

2000-10-10
2000-01-5602
Two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) conceptual-level vehicle designs were evolved by the Lockheed-California Company in the mid-1960s. The purpose was to provide a vehicle-systems-level basis for assessing the payload performance potential of a new class of Stage 1 propulsion systems: combined-cycle airbreathing/rocket engines. TSTO configurations were also established as conventional all-rocket and all-airbreathing engine comparison cases. These vehicle designs and their operating characteristics, along with their orbital payload-delivery capabilities, are presented for consideration by today's space transportation systems planning community.
Technical Paper

Effect of Gas Density and Temperature on Air Entrainment in a Transient Diesel Spray

1996-02-01
960862
The air entrainment in a transient diesel spray was studied using laser Doppler anemometry to provide information on the effect of gas density and temperature. The spray was injected vertically into a confined quiescent atmosphere and the entrained mass flow rate was evaluated by measuring the air velocity component normal to a cylindrical geometric surface surrounding the spray, and extending to about 200 nozzle diameters (50 mm). The experimental results, relative to a density range from 0.84 to 7.02 kg/m3 and a temperature range from 293 to 473 K, indicate that the non dimensional entrainment rate, averaged in time over the main injection period, depends on the distance from the nozzle and both gas density and temperature. A first analysis, based on the available data, allowed to quantify the dependence and provided a correlation with such variables.
Technical Paper

An On-Line Oil Viscosity Sensor

1997-02-24
970848
The timing of lubricating oil changes for passenger vehicles are based on set time or mileage intervals specified by their manufacturers. A few vehicle manufacturers use more sophisticated methods such as logging the engine speed and temperature and calculating the oil change intervals from this data. Neither technique tells the vehicle user anything about the true state of the oil. A novel form of viscosity sensor based on a vibrating piezoceramic element has been developed. Based on the output from such a device, a more accurate determination of the oil change interval can be made and abnormal conditions (such as the leakage of fuels into the lubricating oil) can be detected. This paper gives a brief description of the device itself and shows results from prototype samples.
Technical Paper

CRC Carbonyl Emissions Analysis Round Robin Program - Phase II

1997-05-01
971609
A second carbonyl round robin was conducted to enable participating laboratories doing routine analysis of carbonyls in vehicle exhaust emissions to assess their analytical capabilities. Three sets of solutions in acetonitrile containing varying number and amounts of standard DNPH-carbonyls were prepared. The parent carbonyls are known components of vehicle exhaust emissions. The samples were designed to challenge the capabilities of the participants to separate, identify and quantify all the components. The fourteen participating laboratories included automotive, contract, petroleum and regulatory organizations. All participants were able to separate and identify the C3 carbonyls; a few were not able to separate MEK from butyraldehyde and methacrolein from butyraldehyde; and many were not able to separate adequately the isomers of tolualdehyde. Inadequate separation and lack of appropriate standards resulted in a few misidentifications.
Technical Paper

DSRC Wireless LAN Site Implementation - Issues & Potential Applications for Commercial Vehicle Use

1998-11-16
982750
This paper shows the use of dedicated short range communications, DSRC, as a resource as implemented in a LAN environment. Customer wants and needs are reviewed in light of the requirements for trucking companies to reach 100% utilization of assets and to pursue the constant goal of lowering operating costs. The user perspective of applications are discussed with respect to lane based versus area based data collection. Multiple applications are satisfied from multiple departmental needs. Application design considerations are discussed for using this wireless communication.
Technical Paper

The Hydrocycle Rocket Free-Piston Instant-Conversion Adiabatic Engine and One-Range, Infinitely Variable Hydrostatic Transmission System

1996-02-01
960089
The ideal internal-combustion crankshaft engine would burn all the fuel near top center without detonation, then expand the whole charge until exhaust Both events are impossible with current piston engines. The Hydrocycle Rocket Piston Engine concept employs a free piston in the head of a two-stroke-cycle engine. Combustion between the crank piston and the free piston allows direct conversion of combustion fluid expansion to hydrostatic fluid flow and accumulator gas compression with perfect timing and minimum thermal and mechanical losses. An infinitely variable, radial hydrostatic motor gives the driver smooth, gas-cushioned acceleration and stepless performance. Maximum economy is attained since the driver is forced to run the engine at optimum minimum speed to match road load oadin all traffic conditions.
Technical Paper

Diesel Fumigation Partial Premixing for Reducing Ignition Delay and Amplitude of Pressure Fluctuations

1998-02-23
980535
The results of an experimental study in a DI Diesel engine are presented which shows that partial premixing, using direct diesel fumigation of the inlet air, achieved a reduction in the ignition delay, the magnitude of high frequency rapid pressure fluctuations, the maximum rate of pressure rise and the amplitude of the rate of the high frequency pressure oscillations. Two methods of diesel fumigation were investigated. The difference between these two methods was the degree of premixing of diesel fuel with the inlet air. The first technique used a fine (5 micron) diesel spray onto a glow plug and the second technique used prevaporised diesel. A Perkins 4-236 engine was run both with and without fumigation at two different steady state speeds roughly covering both city and highway running conditions.
Technical Paper

Emissions from Marine Engines with Water Contact in the Exhaust Stream

1998-02-23
980681
Recreational marine engine operation effects water quality as well as air quality. Significant quantities of hydrocarbons are discharged into the rivers, lakes, and estuaries used as recreational boating waters. In order to investigate the impact of recreational marine engine operation on water quality, a MerCruiser 3.0LX four-cylinder four-stroke inboard engine and a Mercury 650 two-cylinder two-stroke outboard engine were tested using EPA required certification procedures. Both engines were tested with exhaust gas/cooling water mixing (scrubbing) in the exhaust stream using both freshwater and saltwater. Additionally, the inboard engine was tested without exhaust scrubbing. Gaseous emissions (HC, NOX, CO, and CO2) from the engines were continuously measured using a constant volume sampling system. Both exhaust gas and cooling water samples were collected and speciated for hydrocarbon species present.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Tests of Racing Seats and Simulation with Vedyac Code

1998-11-16
983059
Dynamic tests have been performed on carbon fiber racing seats following the FIA regulations. The tests have shown, in rear impact tests, a relatively strong rebound leading to large forward bending of neck, and, in side impact tests, very large lateral displacement of the head, the latter protruding dangerously towards hard portions of the car structure. Stiffening the seat back by steel struts results in reducing strongly both the motion and the acceleration of the head. Simulations of the dynamics of the tests have been done with multi-body models, including the Hybrid III dummy and seat deflection, by means of the program VEDYAC. It has been found that computer simulation can predict very accurately the result of a test, provided the numerical models have been carefully calibrated to match the dummy tolerance bands. Once they have been calibrated and validated with a number of tests, the computer models can be very useful to extend the test results to different test conditions.
Technical Paper

Toothed Couplings for Diesel Engines: An Example of Steel Substitution With Fiber Reinforced Plastics

1996-04-01
91A100
The replacement with plastic of an important component, formerly in steel, in the timing drive of a heavily duty diesel engine has been studied and realized. The substituted part is the toothed coupling connecting the injection pump to the timing drive. Torque that stresses the coupling has been measured with laboratory tests. The tooth stresses have been calculated with FEM analysis. Finally, fatigue tests have been carried out directly on the engine at different loadings. The test results are consistent with the predicted behavior of this component.
Technical Paper

The SAE Oil Labeling Assessment Program - 1990 Sample Set

1991-10-01
912434
The results of analyses on 300 samples of engine oil purchased in the retail market in 1990 are discussed. All samples were labeled with the API SF or SG Service Category, separately, or in combination with an API C category designation. Also, 17 oils previously found to be questionably labeled, from the 1989 set, were repurchased and analyzed. These results are included.
Technical Paper

The SAE Oil Labeling Assessment Program-Three-Year Cumulative Report

1990-10-01
902090
A brief overview of the history and scope of the SAE Oil Labeling Assessment Program is presented. Then, the results of analyses on 893 samples of engine oil purchased in the retail market over the first three years of the program, are discussed. All samples were labeled with the API SF or SG Service Category, separately, or in combination with an API “C” category designation. Additionally, 43 engine oil samples found to be questionably labeled, were repurchased and analyzed; these results are included.
Technical Paper

Overview of the Driver Performance Data Book

1987-02-23
870346
This paper presents an overview of the Driver Performance Data Book under preparation by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). It includes a brief discussion of the purpose of the Data Book, the restrictions placed on the development effort, and how it is expected that it will be used by Agency personnel and others. Sample pages from the document are reproduced to illustrate the basic format, and the Table of Contents of each section is presented to identify the major topics covered and indicate the number of pages devoted to each.
Technical Paper

Hydraulic Balancing to Improve Reliability of Military Hydraulic Components

1988-09-01
881297
The late and expected improvements in balancing design of hydraulics components to be sure to use real and relatively thick films to enhance the transmission gear of forces and torques with a very low level of friction forces and pratically without heating and wear. The RAFFO process allows high performances, low sensitivity to pollution and small machining cost.
Technical Paper

Filtration of Coolants for Heavy Duty Engines

1988-09-01
881270
Coolant filters have been used for over 30 years by heavy duty engine builders but little has been published in the technical literature documenting their performance. In heavy duty cooling systems a supplemental additive package is periodically added to the system (usually at the oil drain) to prevent the coolant from becoming corrosive and to stop the build-up of deposits which cut down on heat transfer. Not only is the coolant filter the most convenient and reliable method to deliver the supplemental additive to the cooling system, it removes debris from the coolant which can cause deposits and wear, aggrevate corrosion, and even plug heat exchangers. Additionally, the used coolant filter serves as a diagnostic trouble shooting tool. The results of extensive lab and field evaluations are reported documenting the benefits of coolant filtration.
Technical Paper

The Super Loader

1988-05-01
880971
This paper deals with a conceptual aircraft cargo loader “that can do everything” commonly referred to as The Super Loader. The Super Loader is intended for use at air terminals to transport loads such as palletized cargo, containers, wheeled vehicles, shelters, and airdrop platforms from the storage docks to the military and civil aircraft, and vice versa. The loader may be described as a self-propelled, air transportable (in a C-141, C-17, C-5) 60,000 lb lifting capacity, adjustable height vehicle that will load/off load all transport aircraft from a C-130 whose cargo deck is only 3 feet, 3 inches high to a B-747 whose main deck upper limit is about 18 feet high. The Super Loader must also service the lower lobes of wide-bodies and main decks of narrow-bodied aircraft like the DC-8 and B-707. In brief, this loader will be required to interface with both civil and military cargo systems, present and future.
Technical Paper

Considerations in Designing a Recovery Steam Generator for Incineration Plants

1992-08-03
929266
The design of recovery steam generators for incineration plants encounters certain specific problems, related to the nature of the exhausted gases, which, if not properly faced, can strongly condition the conduction of the whole system. Two problems, namely, demand for particular attention: the corrosion at high temperature and the formation of organochlorine compounds, in presence of ashes and/or deposits for definite temperature intervals. These phenomena can be controlled and minimized, whenever possible, by limiting to the greatest extent the regions where the temperatures of the metallic walls and of the ashes and/or deposits are within the critical interval.
Technical Paper

Effect of Spray-Wall Interaction on Air Entrainment in a Transient Diesel Spray

1993-03-01
930920
The influence of spray-wall interaction on air entrainment in an unsteady non-evaporating diesel spray was studied using laser Doppler anemometry. The spray was injected into confined quiescent air at ambient pressure and temperature and made to impact on a flat wall. The air velocity component normal to a cylindrical surface surrounding the spray was measured during the entire injection period, allowing to evaluate the time history of the entrained air mass flow rate. The influence of wall distance and spray impingement angle on air entrainment characteristics has been investigated and the results indicate that the presence of a wall increases the entrained mass flow rate in the region close to the surface, during the main injection period. Normal impingement appears to produce stronger effects than oblique incidence at 30 and 45 deg. A qualitative explanation of the results is also proposed, based on the drop-gas momentum exchange mechanism.
Technical Paper

Effect of Ground Proximity on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of the STOL Aircraft

1987-12-01
872308
The aerodynamics of the STOL aircraft can experience significant changes in proximity to the ground. A review of the existing data base and methodologies has been made and the results of that review are presented in this paper. The existing data show that in ground proximity the STOL aircraft will generally experience a reduction in the lift component regardless of the lifting configuration. Those configurations with integrated power and lift systems will have an additional effect of ground induced aerodynamic changes. This paper will discuss the existing data base and the deficiencies of that data base.
Technical Paper

Crash Performance of Rtm Composites for Automotive Applications

1996-04-01
91A120
This paper describes the experimental activity carried out at Aerospace Engineering Department of Politecnico di Milano about energy absorption capability of glass-epoxy RTM specimens, representative of automotive crash front structure sub-components. After the analysis of some automotive crashworthiness aspects, especially relevant to the structural adoption of composite materials, the specimen used and the technological route to produce them are described. Then experimental arrangements, test procedure and measurement technique, relevant to static and crash test are presented. Finally test results, reported in the form of numerical values, diagrams and high-velocity films are shown and critically commented.
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