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Journal Article

CFD-Guided Heavy Duty Mixing-Controlled Combustion System Optimization with a Gasoline-Like Fuel

A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) guided combustion system optimization was conducted for a heavy-duty compression-ignition engine with a gasoline-like fuel that has an anti-knock index (AKI) of 58. The primary goal was to design an optimized combustion system utilizing the high volatility and low sooting tendency of the fuel for improved fuel efficiency with minimal hardware modifications to the engine. The CFD model predictions were first validated against experimental results generated using the stock engine hardware. A comprehensive design of experiments (DoE) study was performed at different operating conditions on a world-leading supercomputer, MIRA at Argonne National Laboratory, to accelerate the development of an optimized fuel-efficiency focused design while maintaining the engine-out NOx and soot emissions levels of the baseline production engine.
Technical Paper

Coupled Fluid-Solid Simulation for the Prediction of Gas-Exposed Surface Temperature Distribution in a SI Engine

The current trend of downsizing used in gasoline engines, while reducing fuel consumption and CO2 emissions, imposes severe thermal loads inside the combustion chamber. These critical thermodynamic conditions lead to the possible auto-ignition (AI) of fresh gases hot-spots around Top-Dead-Center (TDC). At this very moment where the surface to volume ratio is high, wall heat transfer influences the temperature field inside the combustion chamber. The use of a realistic wall temperature distribution becomes important in the case of a downsized engine where fresh gases hot spots found near high temperature walls can initiate auto-ignition. This paper presents a comprehensive numerical methodology for an accurately prediction of thermodynamic conditions inside the combustion chamber based on Conjugate Heat Transfer (CHT).
Journal Article

Numerical Investigation of Two-Phase Flow Evolution of In- and Near-Nozzle Regions of a Gasoline Direct Injection Engine During Needle Transients

This work involves modeling internal and near-nozzle flows of a gasoline direct injection (GDI) nozzle. The Engine Combustion Network (ECN) Spray G condition has been considered for these simulations using the nominal geometry of the Spray G injector. First, best practices for numerical simulation of the two-phase flow evolution inside and the near-nozzle regions of the Spray G injector are presented for the peak needle lift. The mass flow rate prediction for peak needle lift was in reasonable agreement with experimental data available in the ECN database. Liquid plume targeting angle and liquid penetration estimates showed promising agreement with experimental observations. The capability to assess the influence of different thermodynamic conditions on the two-phase flow nature was established by predicting non-flashing and flashing phenomena.
Technical Paper

Urea Deposit Predictions on a Practical Mid/Heavy Duty Vehicle After-Treatment System

Urea/SCR systems have been proven effective at reducing NOx over a wide range of operating conditions on mid/heavy duty diesel vehicles. However, design changes due to reduction in the size of modern compact Urea/SCR systems and lower exhaust temperature have increased the possibility of urea deposit formation. Urea deposits are formed when urea in films and droplets undergoes undesirable secondary reactions and generate by-products such as ammelide, biuret and cyanuric Acid (CYA). Ammelide and CYA are difficult to decompose which lead to the formation of solid deposits on the surface. This phenomenon degrades the performance of the after treatment system by decreasing overall mixing efficiency, lowering de-NOx efficiency and increasing pressure drop. Therefore, mitigating urea deposits is a primary design goal of modern diesel after-treatment systems.
Technical Paper

Accelerating Accurate Urea/SCR Film Temperature Simulations to Time-Scales Needed for Urea Deposit Predictions

Urea water solution-based Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) of NOx emissions from vehicular diesel engines is now widely used world-wide to meet strict health and environmental protection regulations. While urea-based SCR is proven effective, urea-derived deposits often form near injectors, on mixers and pipes, and on the SCR catalyst face. Further understanding of these deposit-formation processes is needed to design aftertreatment system hardware and control systems capable of avoiding severe urea-derived deposits. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is widely used in SCR aftertreatment design. Film formation, movement, solid wall cooling and deposit initiation/growth time-scales are in the range of minutes to hours, but traditional CFD simulations take too long to reach these time-scales. Here, we propose and demonstrate the frozen flow approach for pulsed sprays and conjugate heat transfer to reduce computation time while maintaining accuracy of key physics.

Gas Turbine Blade Cooling

Gas turbines play an extremely important role in fulfilling a variety of power needs and are mainly used for power generation and propulsion applications. The performance and efficiency of gas turbine engines are to a large extent dependent on turbine rotor inlet temperatures: typically, the hotter the better. In gas turbines, the combustion temperature and the fuel efficiency are limited by the heat transfer properties of the turbine blades. However, in pushing the limits of hot gas temperatures while preventing the melting of blade components in high-pressure turbines, the use of effective cooling technologies is critical. Increasing the turbine inlet temperature also increases heat transferred to the turbine blade, and it is possible that the operating temperature could reach far above permissible metal temperature. In such cases, insufficient cooling of turbine blades results in excessive thermal stress on the blades causing premature blade failure.