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Technical Paper

Particulate Erosion of Automotive Catalyst Supports

2001-05-07
2001-01-1995
A concern has been expressed regarding the durability of the ceramic thin wall and ultra-thin wall substrates under severe thermal and mechanical conditions. Damage that might result from these conditions would most likely lead to a reduction in catalyst performance. One of the potential damage mechanisms for automotive catalysts is erosion resulting from the impingement of particles onto the front face of the catalyst system. A basic study of the particulate erosion phenomenon of cellular ceramic substrates was undertaken in order to determine, in a controlled setting, the substrate, particulate, and flow conditions that might bring this damage about. This report will discuss a room temperature study of the effects of particle size, particle density, gas flow rate, cellular part orientation, and cellular design parameters on the erosion of ceramic substrates.
Technical Paper

Performance of Different Cell Structure Converters A Total Systems Perspective

1998-10-19
982634
The objective of this effort was to develop an understanding of how different converter substrate cell structures impact tailpipe emissions and pressure drop from a total systems perspective. The cell structures studied were the following: The catalyst technologies utilized were a new technology palladium only catalyst in combination with a palladium/rhodium catalyst. A 4.0-liter, 1997 Jeep Cherokee with a modified calibration was chosen as the test platform for performing the FTP test. The experimental design focused on quantifying emissions performance as a function of converter volume for the different cell structures. The results from this study demonstrate that the 93 square cell/cm2 structure has superior performance versus the 62 square cell/cm2 structure and the 46 triangle cell/cm2 structure when the converter volumes were relatively small. However, as converter volume increases the emissions differences diminish.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of In-Line Adsorber Technology

1997-02-24
970267
To meet tightening emissions standards, alternate pollution abatement technologies are necessary, such as an In-Line Adsorber (ILA) system. The ILA has a first catalyst, an adsorber, and a second catalyst. A diverter directs exhaust gas through the adsorber to capture unconverted hydrocarbons until the first catalyst reaches light-off temperature. The ILA system was designed so that the second catalyst becomes active concurrent with the adsorber hydrocarbon desorption. The system was evaluated using the FTP test with two different secondary air strategies on 3.8 liter V6 and 4.0 liter V8 vehicles. The ILA system performance consistently reduced ∼50-60% of cold start hydrocarbon emissions. This study examined a simplified ILA system designed to operate with a commercial secondary air pump powered by the engine.
Technical Paper

Impact of Catalyst Support Design Parameters on FTP Emissions

1989-09-01
892041
This study investigated the performance of various designs of ceramic monolithic catalyst supports for automotive emissions control. A test was conducted to examine the relationship of monolith volume, precious metal loading, cell density, and monolith frontal area on FTP emissions. The conclusion is that higher volume and/or higher cell density monoliths will yield improved catalytic performance using equal or less total precious metal per converter.
Technical Paper

Impacts of B20 Biodiesel on Cordierite Diesel Particulate Filter Performance

2009-11-02
2009-01-2736
Engine laboratory tests were conducted to assess the impact of B20 biodiesel on the performance of cordierite diesel particulate filters (DPFs). Test fuels included 20% soy based methyl ester blended into ultra low sulfur diesel fuel, and two ULSD on-road market fuels. B20 has a higher cetane number, boiling point and oxygen content than typical on-road diesel fuels. A comparative study was performed using a model year 2007 medium duty diesel truck engine. The aftertreatment system included a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) followed by a cordierite wall flow DPF. A laboratory-grade supplemental fuel doser was used in the exhaust stream for precise regeneration of the DPF. Tests revealed that the fuel dosing rate was higher and DOC fuel conversion efficiency was poorer for the B20 fuel during low exhaust temperature regenerations. The slip of B20 fuel past the DOC was shown to produce significantly higher exotherms in the DPF during regeneration.
Technical Paper

Next Generation Cordierite Thin Wall DPF for Improved Pressure Drop and Lifetime Pressure Drop Solution

2016-04-05
2016-01-0940
Diesel particulate filters (DPF) have become a standard aftertreatment component for a majority of current on-road/non-road diesel engines used in the US and Europe. The upcoming Stage V emissions regulations in Europe will make DPFs a standard component for emissions reductions for non-road engines. The tightening in NOx emissions standard has resulted in the use of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for NOx reduction and as a result the general trend in engine technology as of today is towards a higher engine-out NOx/PM ratio enabling passive regeneration of the DPF. The novel filter concept discussed in this paper is optimized for low pressure drop, high filtration efficiency, and low thermal mass for optimized regeneration and fast heat-up, therefore reducing CO2 implications for the DPF operation.
Technical Paper

Acoustic Modeling for Three-Dimensional Lightweight Windshields

2018-04-03
2018-01-0141
In the auto industry, lightweight window designs are drawing more attention for improved gas mileage and reduced exhaust emission. Corning’s Gorilla® Glass used in laminate design enables more than 30% weight reduction compared to conventional soda-lime glass laminates. In addition, Gorilla® Glass hybrid laminates (which are a laminate construction of a thick soda-lime glass outer play, a middle polyvinyl butyral interlayer, and a thin Gorilla Glass inner ply) also show significantly improved toughness due to advanced ion-exchange technology that provides high-surface compression. However, the reduced mass also allows increased transmission of sound waves through the windshield into the vehicle cabin. A system-level measurement approach has always been employed to assess overall vehicle acoustic performance by measuring sound pressure levels (SPL) at the driver’s ears. The measured sound signals are usually a superimposition of a variety of noise sources and transmission paths.
Technical Paper

Diesel Emission Control in Review

2006-04-03
2006-01-0030
The paper summarizes the key developments in diesel emission control, generally for 2005. Regulatory targets for the next 10 years and projected advancements in engine technology are used to estimate future emission control needs. Recent NOx control developments on selective catalytic reduction (SCR), lean NOx traps (LNT) and lean NOx catalysts (LNC) are then summarized. Likewise, the paper covers important recent developments on diesel particulate filters (DPFs), summarizing regeneration strategies, new filter and catalyst materials, ash management, and PM measurement. Recent developments in diesel oxidation catalysts are also briefly summarized. Finally, the paper discusses examples of how it is all pulled together to meet the tightest future regulations.
Technical Paper

Driving Down On-Highway Particulate Emissions

2006-04-03
2006-01-0916
It has been reported that particulate emissions from diesel vehicles could be associated with damaging human health, global warming and a reduction in air quality. These particles cover a very large size range, typically 3 to 10 000 nm. Filters in the vehicle exhaust systems can substantially reduce particulate emissions but until very recently it was not possible to directly characterise actual on-road emissions from a vehicle. This paper presents the first study of the effect of filter systems on the particulate emissions of a heavy-duty diesel vehicle during real-world driving. The presence of sulfur in the fuel and in the engine lubricant can lead to significant emissions of sulfate particles < 30 nm in size (nanoparticles).
Technical Paper

Relative Benefits of Various Cell Density Ceramic Substrates in Different Regions of the FTP Cycle

2006-04-03
2006-01-1065
Continuous improvement in vehicle emissions is necessary to meet ever tightening regulations. These regulations are advancing in both passenger and light truck vehicle markets, currently at different rates. Divergent design requirements and target markets for these platforms create unique conditions for aftertreatment needs. To understand the performance of various products in these categories and the potential for optimization, we examine various ultrathin-wall products in the context of a close-coupled configuration in a SULEV vehicle. In addition, these comparisons are carried over to a larger platform to show the performance trends in the context of the sport utility vehicle category. This study considers converter performance in FTP tests, examining bag data, light-off behavior, pressure drop comparisons and front and rear converter contributions. Conclusions are drawn regarding the optimization of converter substrate selection for various target design criteria
Technical Paper

Three-Way-Catalyst Modeling - A Comparison of 1D and 2D Simulations

2007-04-16
2007-01-1071
In this paper we present a comparison of two different approaches to model three-way catalyst. First, a numerical sample case simulating light-off is used to compare the 1D and the 2D models. The advantages of each code are discussed with respect to required input data, detail level of the output, comparability, and computation time. Thus, the 2D model reveals significant radial temperature gradients inside the monolith during light-off. In a second step, the 2D model is compared with experimental data. One set of data consists of an air/fuel ratio varying sweep at isothermal conditions. Another set was gained by emission measurements during a real driving MVEG tests with varying substrate cell density & inlet conditions. From these experiments the applicability of the model to numerical parameter studies is discussed.
Technical Paper

Performance Evaluations of Aluminum Titanate Diesel Particulate Filters

2007-04-16
2007-01-0656
Over the past decade, regulations for mobile source emissions have become more stringent thus, requiring advances in emissions systems to comply with the new standards. For the popular diesel powered passenger cars particularly in Europe, diesel particulate filters (DPFs) have been integrated to control particulate matter (PM) emissions. Corning Incorporated has developed a new proprietary aluminum titanate-based material for filter use in passenger car diesel applications. Aluminum titanate (hereafter referred to as AT) filters were launched commercially in the fall of 2005 and have been equipped on more than several hundred thousand European passenger vehicles. Due to their outstanding durability, filtration efficiency and pressure drop attributes, AT filters are an excellent fit for demanding applications in passenger cars. Extensive testing was conducted on engine to evaluate the survivability and long-term thermo-mechanical durability of AT filters.
Technical Paper

Erosion Mechanisms and Performance of Cellular Ceramic Substrates

2003-10-27
2003-01-3071
High emission performance standards and precious metals costs have pushed the catalytic substrate toward high cell density and thin wall, such as the 600/4, 600/3 and 900/2 products. Due to the inherently lower mechanical strength of these products, coupled with a shift from underbody to close-coupled placement, a concern was expressed that the severe thermal and mechanical conditions may cause structural damage to the substrate, which in turn could impact the catalyst performance. One source of reduced performance during use is the loss of catalyst due to erosion. A previous study1 indicated that the existence of particulate in an air-stream could cause substrate erosion. However, it was not clear if other factors could contribute to or accelerate the erosion process. In order to address this question, experiments were performed to examine the influence of high velocity flow, temperature, impingement angle, particulate characteristics, and coating effect on erosion.
Technical Paper

New Catalyzed Cordierite Diesel Particulate Filters for Heavy Duty Engine Applications

2003-10-27
2003-01-3166
A family of cordierite DPF filters were developed and studied for their efficacy for catalyzed soot filter applications. In addition to porosity and median pore size of DPF filters, breadth of pore size distribution, microstructure, and pore connectivity have a profound influence not only in filter performance (pressure drop, catalyst coatability, and filtration efficiency) but also on mechanical and physical properties. Through filter material composition development, optimum values for the %porosity, median pore diameter, and breadth of the pore size distribution for minimizing pressure drop have been identified, leading to the development of a new family of high-porosity cordierite diesel particulate filters that possess a unique combination of high filtration efficiency, high strength, and very low clean and soot-loaded pressure drop in both the catalyzed and non-catalyzed states. By controlling the microstructure, the impact of the catalyst on pressure drop has been minimized.
Technical Paper

Effect of Thermal Mass on Aging and Emissions Performance

2004-03-08
2004-01-1492
This paper seeks to accomplish two objectives. The first is to understand the emissions performance of the newest experimental substrates. The second is to verify or refute the hypothesis that a higher cell density part will age more severely in the same conditions than the lower cell density part. This paper will also seek to identify when during aging this occurs and the shape of the curve of performance loss for each cell density. Three configurations including thinwall and ultra-thinwall cell geometries were tested. The test consisted of five repeated iterations in partial aging and testing, up to 100 hours of aging. The steps were in uneven increments to gain the most knowledge about the aging curve. Testing was performed after each partial aging step on a chassis dynamometer ULEV vehicle using the 3 bag FTP protocol.
Technical Paper

Comparative Analysis of Different Heavy Duty Diesel Oxidation Catalysts Configurations

2004-03-08
2004-01-1419
Diesel Oxidation Catalyst in conjunction with large frontal area substrates is a key element in HDV Diesel emission control systems. This paper describes and reviews tests on a set of various Diesel Oxidation Catalyst configurations (for example cell densities), all with the same catalyst coating. The Diesel Oxidation Catalyst specimens were subjected to the European Stationary Cycle (ESC), the European Transient Cycle (ETC), and the US heavy duty Federal Test Procedure (US FTP). The focus was to study relative emissions, pressure drop, and light-off performance. All tests were conducted using the same Detroit Diesel Series 60 engine operating on ultra low sulfur diesel fuel. In addition to this, the exhaust was regulated so that the backpressure on the engine, upstream of the catalyst was also the same for all catalysts.
Technical Paper

Diesel SCR NOx Reduction and Performance on Washcoated SCR Catalysts

2004-03-08
2004-01-1293
This paper describes a study of ternary V2O5/WO3/TiO2 SCR catalysts coated on standard Celcor® and new highly porous cordierite substrates. At temperatures below 275°C, where NOx conversion is kinetically limited, high catalyst loadings are required to achieve high conversion efficiencies. In principle there are two ways to achieve high catalyst loadings: 1. On standard Celcor® substrates the washcoat thickness can be increased. 2. With new highly porous substrates a high amount of washcoat can be deposited in the walls. Various catalyst loadings varying from 120g/l to 540 g/l were washcoated on both standard Celcor® and new high porosity cordierite substrates with standard coating techniques. Simulated laboratory testing of these samples showed that high catalyst loadings improved both low temperature conversion efficiency and high temperature ammonia storage capacity and consequently increased the overall conversion efficiency.
Technical Paper

Diesel Emission Control Technology 2003 in Review

2004-03-08
2004-01-0070
This paper will review the field of diesel emission control with the intent of highlighting representative studies that illustrate the state-of-the-art. First, the author reviews general technology approaches for heavy and light duty applications. Given the emerging significance of ultrafines to health, and to emission control technologies, an overview of the significant developments in ultrafine particulate science is provided, followed by an assessment of filter technology. Regarding NOx control, SCR (selective catalytic reduction) and LNT (lean NOx traps) progress is described. Finally, system integration examples are provided. In general, progress is impressive and studies demonstrate that high-efficiency systems are within reach in all highway vehicle sectors. Engines are making impressive gains, and will increase the options for emission control.
Technical Paper

A CFD Study of Diesel Substrate Channels with Differing Wall Geometries

2004-03-08
2004-01-0152
This paper describes efforts to use computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to provide some general insights on how wall-based protuberances affect the flow and thermal fields in substrates exposed to typical diesel engine exhaust conditions. The channel geometries examined included both square and round bumps as well as an extreme tortuous path design. Three different 2d CFD laminar-flow analyses were performed: (1) a transient fluid analysis to identify the existence of any vortex shedding in the vicinity of the bumps, (2) a steady-state fluid analysis to examine the velocity and pressure fields as well as momentum transport characteristics, and (3) a thermal analysis to examine the heat transport characteristics. The model predicts no vortex shedding behind the bumps for the conditions and geometries examined, confirming the validity of a steady state approach and eliminating this possible transport mechanism.
Technical Paper

Diesel Particulate Filter Operational Characterization

2004-03-08
2004-01-0958
Wall-flow filter technology has been used for many years to remove particulate emissions from a select number of diesel engine exhaust systems. Significant implementation of diesel particulate filters will require the definition of regeneration strategies that permit the filters to be regularly and durably purged of accumulated non-volatile particulates. This paper will examine the laboratory-bench characterization of filter responses to the wide variety of input conditions to which they may be exposed in practice. The lab-bench filter characterization will be done as a function of generic independent variables such as flow rate, inlet temperature, oxygen content and soot loading. The testing will be conducted on uncatalyzed filters for this preliminary study. The characterization approach will examine such dependent variables as completeness of regeneration and maximum exotherm temperatures.
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