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Technical Paper

Low Cost Hybrid Motorcycle Optimisation Model

The application of hybridization technology is now widely regarded as a significant step forward to reduce fuel consumption and hence CO₂ emissions for ground vehicles. Many programs and much research has been done on these technologies in the automotive market, however little work has been done in the very cost sensitive market sector of the small motorcycle. This paper introduces and discusses the application of a low-cost hybrid technology to small motorcycles and scooters, and reviews some of the initial trade-offs through the use of a new hybrid simulation model developed at Cranfield University. The study being presented assessed the existing Energy Storage Systems (ESS) in the market. This list was reduced, omitting options which posed a clear safety or cost risk, or solutions which would disproportionally increased the Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW). Also omitted were storage options which could not be production ready in the near term, 3 - 5 years.
Technical Paper

Modelling of Distributed-Propulsion Low-Speed HALE UAVs Burning Liquid Hydrogen

The present work focuses on developing an integrated airframe, distributed propulsion, and power management methodology for liquid-hydrogen-fuelled HALE UAVs. Differently from previous studies, the aim is to assess how the synergies between the aforementioned sub-systems affect the integrated system power requirement, production, and distribution. A design space exploration study was carried out to assess the influence of distributing motor-driven fans on three different airframes, namely a tube-and-wing, a triple-fuselage, and a blended-wing-body. For the considered range of take-off masses from 5,000 to 15,000 kg, the 200 kW payload power requirement under examination was found to re-shape the endurance trends. In fact, the drop in specific fuel consumption due to the engine design point change alters the trends from nearly flat to a 25% maximum endurance increase when moving towards heavier take-off masses.
Technical Paper

Trajectory Optimization of Airliners to Minimize Environmental Impact

With the rapid growth in passenger transportation through aviation projected to continue into the future, it is incumbent on aerospace engineers to seek ways to reduce the negative impact of airliner operation on the environment. Key metrics to address include noise, fuel consumption, Carbon Dioxide and Nitrous Oxide emissions, and contrail formation. The research presented in this paper generates new aircraft trajectories to reduce these metrics, and compares them with typical scheduled airline operated flights. Results and analysis of test cases on trajectory optimization are presented using an in-house aircraft trajectory optimization framework created under the European Clean Sky Joint Technology Initiative, Systems for Green Operation Integrated Technology Demonstrator. The software tool comprises an optimizer core and relatively high fidelity models of the aircraft's flight path performance, air traffic control constraints, propulsion and other systems.
Technical Paper

Launch and Driveability Performance Enhancement for a Parallel Hybrid with a Torque Controlled IVT

A mild hybrid powertrain with crankshaft mounted integrated motor generator (IMG) and torque controlled infinitely variable transmission (IVT) has shown clear potential for fuel economy (FE) enhancement. It also makes significant driveability and performance improvements possible which are a condition for customer satisfaction and subsequent marketability. The hybrid powertrain supervisory control strategy presented here uses the energy recovered during braking events for power assist, hence improving FE and driveability compromises. This is achieved by operating the engine at its best brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) point during steady state conditions without deteriorating the transient response as a result of the comparatively fast IMG torque response. This paper demonstrates the launch manoeuvre and general driveability improvements achieved in simulation with validated models.
Technical Paper

Regenerative Braking Strategies for A Parallel Hybrid Powertrain with Torque Controlled IVT

Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) are considered as the most cost effective solution, in the short term perspective, for the achievement of improved fuel economy (FE) and reduced emissions. This paper focuses on regenerative braking in a mild hybrid powertrain with infinitely variable transmission (IVT) and specifically on how its control strategy can be formulated and optimized. The study is conducted using a previously validated fully dynamic powertrain model. An initial investigation of the dynamic vehicle behaviour under braking conditions serves as the basis for the development of a control strategy for best braking performance and maximum energy recovery, the implementation of which requires a fully active and integrated brake control system. Limitations and constraints due to driveline configuration and driveability issues are considered and their effect evaluated. Simulation results show that fuel consumption reductions of 12% are achievable along a standard drive cycle.
Technical Paper

Development of a Broad Delta Airframe and Propulsion Concepts for Reducing Aircraft Noise around Airports

This paper describes the impact of noise on the civil aircraft design process. The challenge to design ‘silent’ aircraft is the development of efficient airframe-engine technologies, for which integration is essential to produce an optimum aircraft, otherwise penalties such as higher fuel consumption, and, or noise are a concern. A description of work completed by Cranfield University will cover design methodologies used for a Broad delta airframe concept, with reference to future studies into alternate concepts. Engine cycle designs for ultra-high bypass ratio, constant volume combustor, and recuperated propulsion cycles are described, with a discussion of integration challenges within the airframe.
Journal Article

A Global Optimal Energy Management System for Hybrid Electric off-road Vehicles

Energy management strategies greatly influence the power performance and fuel economy of series hybrid electric tracked bulldozers. In this paper, we present a procedure for the design of a power management strategy by defining a cost function, in this case, the minimization of the vehicle’s fuel consumption over a driving cycle. To explore the fuel-saving potential of a series hybrid electric tracked bulldozer, a dynamic programming (DP) algorithm is utilized to determine the optimal control actions for a series hybrid powertrain, and this can be the benchmark for the assessment of other control strategies. The results from comparing the DP strategy and the rule-based control strategy indicate that this procedure results in approximately a 7% improvement in fuel economy.