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Technical Paper

Development of a Lab Reactor System for the Evaluation of Aftertreatment Catalysts for Stoichiometric Natural Gas Engines

2017-03-28
2017-01-0999
Natural gas powered vehicles are attractive in certain applications due to their lower emissions in general than conventional diesel engines and the low cost of natural gas. For stoichiometric natural gas engines, the aftertreatment system typically consists only of a three-way catalyst (TWC). However, increasingly stringent NOx and methane regulations challenge current TWC technologies. In this work, a catalyst reactor system with variable lean/rich switching capability was developed for evaluating TWCs for stoichiometric natural gas engines. The effect of varying frequency and duty-cycle during lean/rich gas switching experiments was measured with a hot-wire anemometer (HWA) due to its high sensitivity to gas thermal properties. A theoretical reactor gas dispersion model was then developed and validated with the HWA measurements. The model is capable of predicting the actual lean/rich gas exposure to the TWC under different testing conditions.
Technical Paper

Lab Study of Urea Deposit Formation and Chemical Transformation Process of Diesel Aftertreatment System

2017-03-28
2017-01-0915
Diesel exhaust fluid, DEF, (32.5 wt.% urea aqueous solution) is widely used as the NH3 source for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx in diesel aftertreatment systems. The transformation of sprayed liquid phase DEF droplets to gas phase NH3 is a complex physical and chemical process. Briefly, it experiences water vaporization, urea thermolysis/decomposition and hydrolysis. Depending on the DEF doser, decomposition reaction tube (DRT) design and operating conditions, incomplete decomposition of injected urea could lead to solid urea deposit formation in the diesel aftertreatment system. The formed deposits could lead to engine back pressure increase and DeNOx performance deterioration etc. The formed urea deposits could be further transformed to chemically more stable substances upon exposure to hot exhaust gas, therefore it is critical to understand this transformation process.
Technical Paper

NO2 Formation and Mitigation in an Advanced Diesel Aftertreatment System

2018-04-03
2018-01-0651
Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is known to pose a risk to human health and contributes to the formation of ground level ozone. In recognition of its human health implications, the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) set a Threshold Limit Value (TLV) of 0.2 ppmv NO2 in 2012. For mobile sources, NO2 is regulated as a component of NOx (NO + NO2). In addition, the European Commission has indicated it is considering separate Euro 6 light-duty diesel and Euro VI heavy-duty diesel NO2 emissions limits likely to mitigate the formation of ground level ozone in urban areas. In this study, we conduct component-level reactor-based experiments to understand the effects that various aftertreatment catalyst technologies including diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), diesel particulate filter (DPF), selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst and ammonia oxidation (AMOX) catalyst have on the formation and mitigation of NO2 emissions.
Technical Paper

Predictive Modeling of Impact of ANR Non-Uniformity on Transient SCR System DeNOx Performance

2015-04-14
2015-01-1055
Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is a promising technology for meeting the stringent requirements pertaining to NOx emissions. One of the most important requirements to achieve high DeNOx performance is to have a high uniformity of ammonia to NOx ratio (ANR) at the SCR catalyst inlet. Steady state 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models are frequently used for predicting ANR spatial distribution but are not feasible for running a transient cycle like Federal Test Procedure (FTP). On the other hand, 1D kinetic models run in real time and can predict transient SCR performance but do not typically capture the effect of non-axial non-uniformities. In this work, two 3D to 1D coupling methods have been developed to predict transient SCR system performance, taking the effect of ANR non-uniformity into account. First is a probability density function (PDF) based approach and the second is a geometrical sector based approach.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of a Predictive Model for DEF Injection and Urea Decomposition in Mobile SCR DeNOx Systems

2010-04-12
2010-01-0889
Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of oxides of nitrogen with ammonia gas is a key technology that is being favored to meet stringent NOx emission standards across the world. Typically, in this technology, a liquid mixture of urea and water - known as Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) - is injected into the hot exhaust gases leading to atomization and subsequent spray processes. The water content vaporizes, while the urea content undergoes thermolysis and forms ammonia and isocyanic acid, that can form additional ammonia through hydrolysis. Due to the increasing interest in SCR technology, it is desirable to have capabilities to model these processes with reasonable accuracy to both improve the understanding of processes important to the aftertreatment and to aid in system optimization. In the present study, a multi-dimensional model is developed to simulate DEF spray processes and the conversion of urea to ammonia. The model is then implemented into a commercial CFD code.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Emissions of Chemical Species from Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines and the Effects of Modern Aftertreatment Technology

2009-04-20
2009-01-1084
A comparative analysis was made on the emissions from a 2004 and a 2007 heavy-duty diesel engine to determine how new engine and emissions technologies have affected the chemical compounds found in the exhaust gases. Representative samples were collected from a source dilution sampling system and analyzed for both criteria and unregulated gaseous and particulate emissions. Results have shown that the 2007 regulations compliant engine and emissions technology not only reduced the specifically regulated exhaust pollutants, but also significantly reduced the majority of unregulated chemical species. It is believed that these reductions were achieved through the use of engine optimization, aftertreatment system integration, and ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Effect of Hydrothermal Aging on the Catalytic Performance and Morphology of a Vanadia SCR Catalyst

2013-04-08
2013-01-1079
Titania supported vanadia catalysts have been widely used for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitrogen oxides (NOx) in diesel exhaust aftertreatment systems. Vanadia SCR (V-SCR) catalysts are preferred for many applications because they have demonstrated advantages of catalytic activity for NOx removal and tolerance to sulfur poisoning. The primary shortcoming of V-SCR catalysts is their thermal durability. Degradation in NOx conversion is also related to aging conditions such as at high temperatures. In this study, the impact that short duration hydrothermal aging has on a state-of-the-art V-SCR catalyst was investigated by aging for 2 hr intervals with progressively increased temperatures from 525 to 700°C. The catalytic performance of this V-SCR catalyst upon aging was evaluated by three different reactions of NH₃ SCR, NH₃ oxidation, and NO oxidation under simulated diesel exhaust conditions from 170 to 500°C.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Black Carbon Measurements to Solid Particle Number Measurements Made over Steady State and Transient Cycles

2015-04-14
2015-01-1074
Diesel engines have been identified as contributing to more than half of the transport sectors black carbon (BC) emissions in the US. This large contribution to atmospheric BC concentrations has raised concern about source specific emission rates, including off-highway engines. The European Union has recently implemented more stringent particulate regulations in the form of particle number via the Particle Measurement Programme (PMP) methodology. The PMP method counts the non-volatile fraction of particulate matter (PM) above 23 nm and below 2.5 μm via a condensation particle counter. This study evaluates a surrogate black carbon method which uses the PMP particle count method with a correlation factor to the BC fraction. The transient capable Magee Scientific Aethalometer (AE-33) 880 nm wavelength channel was used to determine the BC fraction.
Technical Paper

Effect of Reductive Regeneration Conditions on Reactivity and Stability of a Pd-Based Oxidation Catalyst for Lean-Burn Natural Gas Applications

2016-04-05
2016-01-1005
Regulations on methane emissions from lean-burn natural gas (NG) and lean-burn dual fuel (natural gas and diesel) engines are becoming more stringent due to methane’s strong greenhouse effect. Palladium-based oxidation catalysts are typically used for methane reduction due to their relative high reactivity under lean conditions. However, the catalytic activity of these catalysts is inhibited by the water vapor in exhaust and decreases over time from exposure to trace amounts of sulfur. The reduction of deactivated catalysts in a net rich environment is known to be able to regenerate the catalyst. In this work, a multicycle methane light-off & extinction test protocol was first developed to probe the catalyst reactivity and stability under simulated exhaust conditions. Then, the effect of two different regeneration gas compositions, denoted as regen-A and regen-B, was evaluated on a degreened catalyst and a catalyst previously tested on a natural gas engine.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Diesel Exhaust Fluid Dosing on Tailpipe Particle Number Emissions

2016-04-05
2016-01-0995
Introduction of modern diesel aftertreatment, primarily selective catalytic reduction (SCR) designed to reduced NOx, has increased the presence of urea decomposition byproducts, mainly ammonia, in the aftertreatment system. This increase in ammonia has been shown to lead to particle formation in the aftertreatment system. In this study, a state of the art diesel exhaust fluid (DEF)-SCR system was investigated in order to determine the influence of DEF dosing on solid particle count. Post diesel particulate filter (DPF) particle count (> 23 nm) is shown to increase by over 400% during the World Harmonized Transient Cycle (WHTC) due to DEF dosing. This increase in tailpipe particle count warranted a detailed parametric study of DEF dosing parameters effect on tailpipe particle count. Global ammonia to NOx ratio, DEF droplet residence time, and SCR catalyst inlet temperature were found to be significant factors in post-DPF DEF based particle formation.
Technical Paper

Emissions of Organic Species from a Nonroad Vanadium-Based SCR Aftertreatment System

2015-09-29
2015-01-2904
U.S. and European nonroad diesel emissions regulations have led to the implementation of various exhaust aftertreatment solutions. One approved configuration, a vanadium-based selective catalytic reduction catalyst followed by an ammonia oxidation catalyst (V-SCR + AMOX), does not require the use of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) or diesel particulate filter (DPF). While certification testing has shown the V-SCR + AMOX system to be capable of meeting the nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, and particulate matter requirements, open questions remain regarding the efficacy of this aftertreatment for volatile and nonvolatile organic emissions removal, especially since the removal of this class of compounds is generally attributed to both the DOC and DPF.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Criteria and Organic Matter Emissions from a Nonroad Diesel Engine Equipped with a Selective Catalytic Reduction System

2014-10-13
2014-01-2911
More stringent emission requirements for nonroad diesel engines both in the U.S. and Europe have spurred the development of engines and exhaust aftertreatment technologies. In this study, one such system consisting of a diesel oxidation catalyst, zeolite-based selective catalytic reduction catalyst, and an ammonia oxidation catalyst was evaluated using both nonroad transient and steady-state cycles in order to understand the emission characteristics of this configuration. Criteria pollutants were analyzed and particular attention was given to organic compound and NO2 emissions since both of these could be significantly affected by the absence of a diesel particulate filter that typically helps reduce semi-volatile and particle-phase organics and consumes NO2 via passive soot oxidation. Results are then presented on a detailed speciation of organic emissions including alkanes, cycloalkanes, aromatics, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their derivatives, and hopanes and steranes.
Journal Article

Comparison of Measurement Strategies for Light Absorbing Aerosols from Modern Diesel Engines

2014-04-01
2014-01-1570
Light absorbing components of aerosols, often called black carbon (BC), are emitted from combustion sources and are believed to play a considerable role in direct atmospheric radiative forcing by a number of climate scientists. In addition, it has been shown that BC is associated with adverse health effects in a number of epidemiological studies. Although the optical properties (both absorbing and scattering) of combustion aerosols are needed in order to accurately assess the impact of emissions on radiative forcing, many models use radiative properties of diesel particulate matter that were determined over two decades ago. In response to concerns of the human health impacts of particulate matter (PM), regulatory bodies around the world have significantly tightened PM emission limits for diesel engines. These requirements have resulted in considerable changes in engine technology requiring updated BC measurements from modern engines equipped with aftertreatment systems.
Journal Article

Impact of Hydrocarbons on the Dual (Oxidation and SCR) Functions of Ammonia Oxidation Catalysts

2014-04-01
2014-01-1536
Ammonia oxidation (AMOX) catalysts are critical parts of most diesel aftertreatment systems around the world. These catalysts are positioned downstream of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts and remove unreacted NH3 that passes through the SCR catalyst. In many configurations, the AMOX catalyst is situated after a diesel oxidation catalyst and catalyzed diesel particulate filter that oxidize CO and hydrocarbons. However, in Euro V and proposed Tier 4 final aftertreatment architectures there is no upstream oxidation catalyst. In this study, the impact of hydrocarbons is evaluated on two different types of AMOX catalysts. One has dual washcoat layers-SCR washcoat on top of PGM washcoat-and the other has only a PGM washcoat layer. Results are presented for NH3 and hydrocarbon oxidation, NOx and N2O selectivity, and hydrocarbon storage. The AMOX findings are rationalized in terms of their impact on the individual oxidation and SCR functions.
Journal Article

Development of Flow Uniformity Indices for Performance Evaluation of Aftertreatment Systems

2011-04-12
2011-01-1239
With the on- and off-road diesel engine emission regulations getting more stringent across the world, diesel aftertreatment systems are expected to deliver outstanding performance and reliability. These objectives should be met by fulfilling tight packaging constraints and incurring only modest material and testing costs. A major strategy for meeting these often conflicting requirements is the effective use of simulation tools such as computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in system design and performance evaluation. Prerequisites for using this CFD analysis-led-design approach, however, are knowledge of the confidence level of the predictions and knowledge of the appropriate transfer functions that establish the relationships between the measured performance parameters and model predictions. The primary aim of the present work is to develop statistically and physically relevant measures that assess the uniformity of flow in aftertreatment systems.
Journal Article

Methods for Quantifying the Release of Vanadium from Engine Exhaust Aftertreatment Catalysts

2012-04-16
2012-01-0887
Titanium dioxide supported vanadium oxide catalysts have been successfully utilized for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitrogen oxides emitted from both stationary and mobile sources. Because of their cost and performance advantages in certain applications, vanadium-based SCR catalysts are now also being considered for integration into some U.S. Tier IV off-highway aftertreatment systems. However, concern exists that toxic vanadium compounds, such as vanadium pentoxide, could be released from these catalysts as a result of mechanical attrition or high temperature volatility. An experimental study has been conducted to compare various techniques for measuring the release of particle and vapor-phase vanadium from SCR catalysts. Previous research has utilized a powder reactor-based method to measure the vapor-phase release of vanadium, but there are inherent limitations to this technique.
Journal Article

Conversion of Short-Chain Alkanes by Vanadium-Based and Cu/Zeolite SCR Catalysts

2016-04-05
2016-01-0913
The oxidation of short-chain alkanes, such as methane, ethane, and propane, from the exhaust of lean-burn natural gas and lean-burn dual-fuel (natural gas and diesel) engines poses a unique challenge to the exhaust aftertreatment community. Emissions of these species are currently regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as either methane (Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards) or non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC). However, the complete catalytic oxidation of short-chain alkanes is challenging due to their thermodynamic stability. The present study focuses on the oxidation of short-chain alkanes by vanadium-based and Cu/zeolite selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts, generally utilized to control NOx emissions from lean-burn engines. Results reveal that these catalysts are active for short-chain alkane oxidation, albeit, at conversions lower than those generally reported in the literature for Pd-based catalysts, typically used for short-chain alkane conversion.
Journal Article

Impact of Hydrothermal Aging on the Formation and Decomposition of Ammonium Nitrate on a Cu/zeolite SCR Catalyst

2017-03-28
2017-01-0946
Low-temperature (T ≤ 200°C) NOx conversion is receiving increasing research attention due to continued potential reductions in regulated NOx emissions from diesel engines. At these temperatures, ammonium salts (e.g., ammonium nitrate, ammonium (bi)sulfate, etc.) can form as a result of interactions between NH3 and NOx or SOx, respectively. The formation of these salts can reduce the availability of NH3 for NOx conversion, block active catalyst sites, and result in the formation of N2O, a regulated Greenhouse Gas (GHG). In this study, we investigate the effect of hydrothermal aging on the formation and decomposition of ammonium nitrate on a state-of-the-art Cu/zeolite selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst. Reactor-based constant-temperature ammonium nitrate formation, temperature programmed oxidation (TPO), and NO titration experiments are used to characterize the effect of hydrothermal aging from 600 to 950°C.
Journal Article

Understanding System- and Component-Level N2O Emissions from a Vanadium-Based Nonroad Diesel Aftertreatment System

2017-03-28
2017-01-0987
Nitrous oxide (N2O), with a global warming potential (GWP) of 297 and an average atmospheric residence time of over 100 years, is an important greenhouse gas (GHG). In recognition of this, N2O emissions from on-highway medium- and heavy-duty diesel engines were recently regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and National Highway Traffic Safety Administration’s (NHTSA) GHG Emission Standards. Unlike NO and NO2, collectively referred to as NOx, N2O is not a major byproduct of diesel combustion. However, N2O can be formed as a result of unselective catalytic reactions in diesel aftertreatment systems, and the mitigation of this unintended N2O formation is a topic of active research. In this study, a nonroad Tier 4 Final/Stage IV engine was equipped with a vanadium-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) aftertreatment system. Experiments were conducted over nonroad steady and both cold and hot transient cycles (NRSC and NRTC, respectively).
Journal Article

Desulfation of Pd-based Oxidation Catalysts for Lean-burn Natural Gas and Dual-fuel Applications

2015-04-14
2015-01-0991
Lean-burn natural gas (NG) engines are used world-wide for both stationary power generation and mobile applications ranging from passenger cars to Class 8 line-haul trucks. With the recent introduction of hydraulic fracturing gas extraction technology and increasing availability of natural gas, these engines are receiving more attention. However, the reduction of unburned hydrocarbon emissions from lean-burn NG and dual-fuel (diesel and natural gas) engines is particularly challenging due to the stability of the predominant short-chain alkane species released (e.g., methane, ethane, and propane). Supported Pd-based oxidation catalysts are generally considered the most active materials for the complete oxidation of low molecular weight alkanes at temperatures typical of lean-burn NG exhaust. However, these catalysts rapidly degrade under realistic exhaust conditions with high water vapor concentrations and traces of sulfur.
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